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CLASSlP 'iCATfDN CH ANGED 

BY AUTf^^feWtTt y^X:. G, AT3C 
BY J, M, DeBEVOISE. 1ST LT. 



OATC 



-_^PEENEMUNDE EAST 
Through the eyes ef 
500 
detained at Garniishv 







This is a Preprint of approximately 

one- third of the complete story 

of Feene-Bunde 



TM.a printing being accomplished 
vd.th the best copy available 







PEENEMÜNDE MANAGEMENT 
Represented ty Lt, Gen« Dornberger 



I 



Index of Photographs of Models • , 

of the Wasnfirbau, Versuctjsans talt 

•"■■Kochelsee G.m.b^H.*'— ^ ^; » ' J'^^^■:^ v ^!^ , 

Photograph 1,^ From left to right 

(1) First provisional model for A5 for testing 
stability in a travelling truck. 

(2) A-$ model for oscillation measurements around 
▼arious cross axes to ascertain the stability. 

(3) -A-S model for three component measurements, 

(4) A-5 model with braking flaps for three component 
measurements at high Mach Nos. (Ma = 2.5 — 4.4) 

(5) M- model for thk-ee component measurements at Mach 
No 1.2 

vu; A4 model for oscilld-cion measurements at wish 2. 

(7) A4 model for three component measurements at high 
Mach Nos. 

(8) A4 model without stabilizing unit for three component 
measurements at Mach Noi. 1 Z 

(9) A4 model without stabilizing unit for three component 
measurements at medium Mach Nos (Ma ■ 1.6 — 2.5) 

(10) A4 model without stabilizing unit for three component 
measurements at high Mach Nos. 

Photograph 2« From left to right. 

(1) A4b - Trapezium wings shape 4 with biconvex profiles. 

(2) Trapezium wings Shape 4 with parallel wings and sharpened 
front and back edges. (A4b) 

(3) A4b - Trapezium wings Shape 5 

(4) A4b - Stepped up wings Shape 6 

(5) A4b - Stepped up wings Shape 8 

(6) A4b - Model with triangular wings shape 14. 
Photograph ^„ From left to ri^rht. 

(1) A4 Glider with swppt back wings for Ma v 1,2 



M - aUd«r with «wtpt back wings for in9dl\n Itoch lb. 

3) M • GXidor with s«opt back wings Mb 

4) U - Glidejp idLth doubl« wings. 

5) M - Glider with combination of wii^s and high tall imlt. 

6) M - Glider with stepped up wii^s. 

7} M * Glider with stepped up wings with larger span* 

phoV>inrqp>^ 4 

1) Äe same model« as in photograph 3 with aspect below 60° 
Photograph ^ Wasserfall" models from left to right 

1. Th@ first shape ^ y= 4-5° in which /y ^ means the twisting of the wings 
(F^\5geXliS'®tii) against the tail unit (Leitwerkkrauz) about the longitudinal 

%"Kis of til« model. 

2. Model with ring for wings. 

3. Final shape C y> r 0° 

4.. Model with f ±a®d back wing unit A «f = ^5° 

5. Model for oscillation and zero moments measurements to test stability and 
efficieaoy of the tail unit. 

6« Model f or Maoh No. 1.2 

7. Model with split tail unit. 

8, Oscillating half model. 
Photograph 6. From left to right. 

1. Peenemund® fin stabilized model (PPG) cartridge case base projectile fcp 
K5. 

2. Peenenuade fin stabilized model 
Oai'tridge projectile model 

3) Peeneraunde fin stabilized model 

Final oartridgo base projectile model with guide ring, 

A) Peenenunde fin stabilized model 

Test of a combined guide and support ring 

5) Peenemunde fin stabilized projectile 
Final form for cluster jiro.le etiles. 



6. 3 ?l«c«« p«r oartridg« ease base. 

7. 5 " ■ " • • 

9. 12 " " •' ^: " " 

10.33 H « « » ■ 

11.16 » " in the tube model 
Photograph 7 T^om left to rij^ht 

1) For Paw 1000 with 8 axis parallel f?.ns 

2) " " »» •• •♦ A fixed shortened fins 
10.5 / 3) " * " " split tail unit (fins) 
7.5 cm it) » »» " " 6 /\ fix9d fins 
shells. 5) 

6 Mine shells designed by Baake with long tail unit 

7) « " " II If »t shortened » " ) differently put 

8) » H n II M It H n It ) together. 

9) PPG tail unit with 2 fins 

10) n w » ••3 fins for cartridge case base 

11) »» MM » 4. »I 

12) " " >» »♦ iV • arranged at 5*^ 

13) »» " " " iV /\arranged fins 
lA.) " H II »»6 /\ II It 

15) " " " "6 fins arranged at 5° '' 

16) Rochling model with folding spring steel tail unit 
Photograph ßj '^ 

1) Jet model stern with jet rudders. 

2) A4, pressure distribution half model 

3) "Wasserfall»» pressur- distribution h»lf model 

U) Mb Half model for the measuremer-ta "charnier moments. 

5) Model of "Wasserfaii" stern v th 8 airfare; t rudders (one rudder 
attaohed) 



Photoff-aph 9, 

1) A4 model with adjustable rudders to control roll moments for 
measurements in the high speed wind tunnel of the DVL at Adlershof» 

2) A5 " Pressure distribution model for measurelnents in the wind tiiJiei 
of the TH Aachen. 

3) A4. #et model for measuring pressure .distribution to determine the 
driving influence on drag and stability. 

4.) A4 rocking model to determine the resonance between oscillating 

frequoncir*^. (about the transverse axis) and the rotations frequircies 
in a vertical measuring strip, 

5) A4, - Jet raodel without tail unit to determine the spreading out of t'e 
jet as a .notion of the air density, 

6) 2 A4, nose models for oscillation measurements to examine their 
'^ß stability when flying singly 'after being released from the 

projectiles. 

Ph otograph lOm 

1} 15 oa shell model for throwing on the roll moments balance. 

2) Pressure di'itribution cone with 60° opening angle 

3) M » »11 ^20 « •» 

4) » w II * ^0° ^ »• 

5) » It It II 20° ^ »• 

b) Plmmst for total and static pressure measurements. 

7) Con« o» the fore® measurement holder 

8) Cons for pressure distribution measurements. 

9) 5 different profiles for oscillation measurements to determins 

the preßsure pc^ c 

10) jRirust ilffuscr »^o 1 with interchangeable nozzles. 

n) Projeotils with tteuä?t diffuser. 

12) Tail f^ju from the A4 without air rudders 




tfA 



Photograph 11. From left to right. 

1) DOV - rooket for "Weifer»» 

2) Puppet model for mortars 

3) Model for a forward staged anti-tank weapon 

4) Modal of the flying bomb SC 50 (Fins with "Sicken" 

5) Armor piercing shell model 

6) ♦» " w " 

7) Tiger armor piercir^ shell morlel 

8) 28 cm shell model with axis parallel ribs 

9) 15 cm shell model 

10) Modol of a standard shell for the K5 on the same scale as the PPG 

(Phot. 6, 3) 

11) 8.8/7.2 cm T Flak Shell (Bochiim Verei) 

12) 8.8/7.0 cm " " \ ** (Stock) 

13) 8.8/7,0 cm " " (Rheinmetall-Borsig) 



"''^ I L I. 





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77 



Zusammenstellung der Abbildungen 

über bisherige Untersuchungsergebnisse 
aus dem Bericht Archiv Nr 190' 

Die aerodynamische Entwicklur^g 
der Femrakete A 9 (A4^b) 

Sachbearbeiter- Dr Lehne rf 



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Archiv Nr. 

171 g.KdoB 



vusfertic^ing 



Dl« aerodynamische Sntv/icklung der Flakraket« 
„iVasserfall**. 



Der Bericht umfaßt 57 Seiten. 



Wa9S«rbau-V er buc hsanstalt G . n. ."b « H . 
Müncheri 2 Bx:^« Postschließfach 6C 



München, den 1>. März 19^5. 



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i^A/FL .irchiv iNr. 171 g.Kdos 



Inhaltt 

'I) Die .■ufgabenctellun;^ 

2) Die Gestalturi : Aes Gl-.;i '.körpers und des Leitwccka 

3) Die j'^iitwicklunr; des Ti ■.^-.verks 

4) Die s'e:-ens,eitif;;e La^^e vor. Trig- and i.tjif.verk 

5) i>ie Luftruderentwicklun:: 

6) Die i'eßniethoden und Meßeri';ebr.ii:se 

a) Dreikomponenteninessun :en 

b) -Schwins'^in :s:iessun!jen 
c ) i^ullmone nt e nr.e k su n ■ -e n 

d) Druckverteilunf:sueGSun,:;er 

e) Drall- and -icharnieriiomGnteniaessun'-en 

7) Der Einfluß des Ütrahls auf die aerodynamischen 
Ei,-t;enschaf ten 

V>) Die Temneratur der Oberfläche beim Flu -e mit 'Jberschall 
9) Literatujrverzeiclmis; Definitionen und r^ezeiclinungen 



Die Durchführung der zahlreichen I'Ünzeluntersuchunt^en und 
Messun-^p^' la^-- in den Händen dor im Literaturvorzeichnis au - 
geführter oAchbearbeiber unter der beituu;- des Verfassers, 
Herr Dr. ./e^-er^er hat sich besonders bei" der Durchsicht des 
Äianuskripts und der Zusaiimenstellung der «.bbildungen ver- 
dient gemacht. 



23 



V.Y.-./FL 



Archiv Nr. 171 c.Kdos 



.as .^nfanc 19^5 an unser damalij.^es aerodynaiaisches Institut 
in Karlshagen die FordeminG nach einer aerodynamisch einwand- 
freien Form fir cine Fl^ikrakete Gestellt wurde, standen wir 
vor einer vufgabe, zu deren Lösunp; neue aerodynamische V/ege 
beschritten und damit umfangreiche Windkanalmessungen durch- 
geführt werden mußten. Der taktische Zweck erforderte ein Ge- 
rät, das bei eineia Durchmesser von etwa 90 cm 9 Kaliber lang 
sein, mit der Geschwindigkeit >;'ull starten, die dreifache 
.Schallreschwindir:keit und 20 km Höhe erreichen, vom Boden aus 
bis auf 50 k:T T-ntfernung steuerbar oder mit einem Zielsuch"-e- 
rat aus -er Istet sein und dabei gewisse kleinste Kurven be- 
schreiben sollte, um dem feindlichen Flue^zeug nachzufliegen 
und ihin selbst bei ..lusweichbewegu: ~en zn folgen. Ein Aggregat, 
das diese i^edin;-unsen alle erfüllt, muli teils Geschoß teils 
Flu— ,.-r. ■ r,r, in. Ein ?lugzeut^ aber, '=^s lit Uhornchall-eschwin- 
aigkeit fliegt, gab es noch nicht. 

Hei der aerodynaiaischen Entwicklung dies^- r Flakrakete konnten 
wir uns lediglich auf unsere Erfahrux.;..: 0- :tzen, ^ie .vir boi 
der Knt^^ickluns des aggregates A 4 gesani-nelt }i-it.ten. Denn A 4 
ist das erste und bisher einzige Raketengeschoß, das den wei- 
sen Geschwindigkeitsbereich mit aer -arf angsgeschwindigkeit 
V - ü m/sec bis zur Endgeschwindi^^keit v ^ 15OO ra/sec durch- 
fliegt und die Schallgeschwindigkeit einwandfrei passiert. 
..uch öteuerungsseitig lagen hier schon .^rf Ehrungen vor. 
Es wurde deshalb - auch um keine Zeit zu verlieren - für die 
Flakrakete Wasserfall die GruMfoxm aes .. ^, n.ie äußere Gestalt 
des Leitwerks und dessen Anordnung weitgehend übernommen. Steu- 
ereinrichtungen in Form von Luftrudern mußten erst entwickelt 
werden. Gewisse Erfahrungen darin - allerdings nur im Windka- 
nal - lagen an einem Gleitermodell vor. das als .Weiterentwick- 
lung des A 4-Geräte8 im Projekt bereits bearbeitet worden war. 
Die Forderung engen Kurvenfluges auch bei den sehr großen. Ge- 
schwindigkeiten setzte die Anbringung von Tragflächen voraus, 
mit denen die benötigten Auftriebskräfte erzielt werden solll 
ten. Zu den vier Leitwerksflächen, die in zwei zueinander senk- 
rechten Ebenen angeordnet sind, wurde - von der üblichen Flug- 
zeugform abweichend - ein symmetrisches Kreuzflügel tragwerk 



•V« 



24 



^A./FL Archiv Nr. I71 g.Kdos 

"aa Kö3?per angebracht, um ein schnelles Einschwenken der Rakete 
in €LLle notwendigen Plugriohtungen zu ermöglichen. Der letzte 
Q«dank« führte vorübergehend zur Untersuchung eines den Grund- 
körp©r kontentrisch umgebenden ringförmigen Tragflügels, der 
d«B allseitigen, leichten Abkippen der Rakete am besten Rechnung 
getra^n hätte» Der hohe Widerstand jedoch schloß die Verwendung 
schon nach den ersten Windkanalmessungen aus. 

Die Flakrakete sollte auf Grund statischer Untersuchungen bis 
21» Last vi© Ifachen 12 bei einem Leergewicht von a/ 1,5 to bela- 
stat werden, das ja nicht unwesentlich höher sein mußte, als das 
des au bekä»pf enden Plugzeugs. Die Lastvielfachen der einzelnen 
Typen sind In folgender Tabelle angegeben: 

^yp Lastvielfaches 

Jagdflugzeuge - Sturzbomber 6-8 

Zerstörer 5-7 

Gleitbomber 3-5 

Horizontalbomber und 2 - ^ 
Transportflugzeuge 

Ifi ergab sieh somit für die aerodynamische Formgestsiltung, daß 
ein Auftrlebsvert von 18000 kg erreicht werden mußte. Aus den 
bev^oimeten Flugbahnen mit zunächst angenommenen aerodynamischen 
Bttlwevten« einem Schub von 8 to, einer Brennzeit von 45 sec xmd 
•latr Flugselt von 90 sec ging hervor, welche maximalen Stau- 
asCUske erreicht werden, die von der Flughöhe, von der Art des 
Solmsses •» ob senkrecht oder schräg - abhängig sind. Abb. 1 
Sitlfft daü Behofibahnbild mit den gemessenen aerodynamischen Bei- 
w«rten^ Der Verlauf der Auftriebsbeiwerte von Körper und Leitwerk 
Über dem Anstellwinkel und der Maohschen Zahl aus der A 4-He8stLng 
WM? 1»ekaniit» Damit wären sehr große Anstellwinkel mit untrag- 
b«r«B Widerstand und ungünstiger C<uerkraftsverteilung für die 
«aiMerfallrake^ notwendig gewesen* Es ergab sich schließlich 
die forderuag für ünterschall 15°» für Uberschall 8° Anstell- 
wiiücel« Bs äandelte sich also darum, Tragflügelflächen zu ent- 
wiekelBf die das fehlende 0^ aufbrachten, wobei für das gesamte 
^nP^ffflit eise hlareichtnd gute Polare, d.h. beim notwendigen Auf- 
trieb 9triager Luftwideretand erreicht würde. 

Hjpd «eitere aerodynamlsehs Bedingung bestand darin, den Druck- 
Woste% de« aeeaat-*Aggregat®s möglichst in allen Oeschwindigkeits- 



2S 



WVA/FL Archiv Nr. I7I g.Kdoe 

Bereichen konstant zu halten, da damit die Anforderungen an 
die bteuermaachine gering gehalten werden kennten. Jeder ro- 
tations symmetrise he, langgestreckte Körper ohne angebaute 
Fli^f^^n besitzt eine Druckpunktswanderung zwischen Unter- und 
Überschall, Auch Körper, die am Heck mit Leitwerk ausgerüstet 
sind, wie das A 4-, zeigen diese Druckpunktswanderung, s. Abb.6 
unten, die verhältnismäßig großen Spielraum in den Steuer- 
krä^ten erfordert. Da das auszusteuernde aerodynamische Mq- 
Ei^fc sich aus Normalkraft des iiggregates und Luftkrafthebel- 
arm^jusairmiensetzt, muß die Steuermaschine zur Betätigung der 
Luf trader für den maximalen Hebelarm aus£;;elegt werden, außer- 
dem kommt hinzu, daß die Ruderwirksamkeit im Überschau mit 
zunehmender Machscher Zahl stark nachläßt, wie in der weiter 
unten beschriebenen Abb. 8 zu erkennen ist. Gelang es, den 
Druckpunkt möglichst konstant zu halten und ihn nahe hinter 
den Schwerpunkt zu legen, so war eine kleinste Dimensionierung 
der Luftruder möglich. Die geringsten Steueranstrengungen 
wären ja dann erforderlich, wenn es gelänge, Druckpunkt und 
Schwerpunkt an die gleiche Stelle der Körperachse zu legen. 
Diese ideale Lage kann jedoch nicht erreicht werden, da ein- 
mal beim Schwerpunkt selbst durch das Entleeren der Tanks 
eine gewisse Wanderung nicht vermieden werden kann, s. Abb.l, 
zum anderen eine Druckpunktskonstanz mit zunehmendem Anstell- 
winkel des Körpers schwer zu verwirklichen ist. 

2) Die Gestaltung: des Grundkörpers und des Leitwerks 

V/ie schon oben gesagt, lag die Größe des Hake tenvo lumens 
durch die Größe des Treib st off tanks, des Ofens, der Spreng- 
ladung usw. bereits bei Aufgabenstellung für die aerodyna- 
mischen Untersuchungen fest, sodaß an der Formgestaltung des 
Grundkörpers nach dem Vorbild vom A 4 nicht viel ^-eändert 
werden brauchte. Die Län[re von 8,06 Kalibern des A 4- mußte 
zur Unterbringung der etwas anders gestalteten Treibstoff- 
tanks, der zusätzlichen l.uftdruckkugel usw. auf 8,5 Kaliber 
vergrößert werden. Auch wurde der Krümmungsradius des vorde-r 
ren Ugivals der etwas geringeren Geschwindigkeit entsprechend 
auf 10 Kaliber verkleinert. Der hintere Ogivalradius mußte 
ebenfalls auf 10 Kaliber r^eändert werden. Ks ergab sich also 
eine endgültige Körperform nach abb. 2 c, die ein zylindri- 
sches Mittel8tück von rund 3t 5 Kalibern aufweist. Am Heck 

RPsTniCTED 



26 



^A/FL Archiv »r. 171 g.Kdo« 

befindet sich da» Leitwerk in awei suein&zxler »enkrechten 
Ebenen angeordnet mit "vier gleichen Tlossen und vier glei- 
chen Rudern. Der feste Teil des Leitwerk« erstreckt sich 
2 Kaliber vom Heckboden nach vorn, hat einen Schulterwinkel 
von 30° und besitzt in der Höhe des Heckbodens eine Breite 
von rund 2,1 Kalibern. Die Gesichtspunkte, die sur Gestal- 
tung des Leitwerks, das vom A 4 bis auf die Luftruder über- 
nommen worden ist, geführt haben, sind in zwei AbhandlTingen 
beschrieben, (Lit. 1 und 2). Über die Entwicklung des Ruders 
wird weiter unten im Zusammenhang berichtet* 

3) Die Entwicklung: des Tragwerks 

Der erste Entwurf des Gerätes mit der Bezeichnung C2/E1 sah 
ein Tragwerk in der Form nach Abb. 2 a vor. Das Leitwerk bei 
diesem Gerät war gegenüber A 4 im festen Teil verkleinert, 
dafür hatte es wesentlich breitere Luftruder bekommen. Die 
Messung ergab hinreichende Wirksamkeit in Bezug auf c^, je- 
doch eine untragbare Druekpunktswanderung. Unter Zugrunde- 
legung des Schwerpunktverlaufs nach Abb. 1 war im gesamten 
Unterschallbereich keine Punktstabilität bei oc - 0° zu er- 
reichen. Momentenfreie, stabile Lagen traten erst bei größe- 
ren Anstellwinkeln bei oC 'v 15° ^)i8 0C'v 18° auf. Nach Rück- 
versetzung der Flügel \md Vergrößerung des Leitwerks und 
Luftruders, s. Abb. 2 d, wurde Punkt Stabilität bei • 0° 
erst erreicht, als der Schwerpunkt auf S/D »4,58 vorverlegt 
wurde« 

Punkt Stabilität bei oC « 0° wurde auch erreicht, als das Trag- 
werk versuchsweise noch weiter zurückversetzt wurde, sodaß 
die Flügelmitte sich auf 3,72 D von Düsenhinterkante befand. 
Diese Lage ist mit Rücksicht auf die dadurch bedingte starke 
Rücklage des Druckpunktes im überSchall nicht tragbar. Im 
Überschall wurde mit dem Modell Abb. 2 a mit dem Schwerpunkts- 
verlauf nach Abb, 1 bei allen Machschen Zahlen ebenfalls keine 
Punktstabilität bei OC . 0° festgestellt. Erst das Modell nach 
Abb. 2 d brachte diese. Allerdings traten hierbei auch noch 
andere labile und stabile Lacjan bei größeren Anstellv/inkeln 
auf, auf die hier nicht näher eingegangen werden soll. 

Es war also bei den genannten Modellen, wenn es auch gelang, 
diirch Verlegung von Tragwerk und Schv/erpunkt Stabilität zu 

. RFSTRiniFQ 

27 



WVA/PL 



archiv ::r. 171 c-.K.,; 



erreichen, eine Druckpunktsdifferenz zwischen Uuter- und iJrber- 
schall nicht zu veriueiden. Legte nmn de:. Schwerpunkt so weit 
vor, daß Stabilität in jedem Falle erreicht v/urde, entstaj.den 
sehr große Luftkraft hebe lärme im Lberschallbereich und dauit 
untragbare Steuermaschinenbelastung, Ei; if^te man sich da(re;-en 
auf eine mittlere Schwerpunktslage, wobei ihre konsti-uktive 
Verwirklichung noch fraglich war, so iiiuite die Steuermaschine 
im ünterschall Labilität aussteuern. Di-: vorliegende C^teucrma- 
schine war in dem Maße dazu jedoch niciit in der Lage. 

Es mußte also versucht werden, diese Druckpunktsdifferenz zu 
beseitigen. Dies konnte nur durch grundlegende Umgestaltung acs 
Flügels geschehen. Die weitere Untersieichung führte zu einer Plü- 
gelgestaltung, die weitgehende Gleichlicit zwischen Leit- und 
Tragwerk aufweist. Das Modell trägt die Bezeichnung G2/E2. 23 
weitere Zwischenformen führten n:' ^ht zum Ziel. Die Plügel haben 
ihre größte Erstreckung, ebenso v^ie das Leitwerk in der Strö- 
mungsrichtung und eine Spannweite von nur 2 Kalibern, s. Abb. 
2 b, 2 e und 3» Es wurden an dieser Form neben Dreikomponenten- 
und Stabilitätsmessungen auch l>ruckverteilungsmessun;:en durch- 
geführt. Vergleicht man die Druckverteilunp^smessungen im Unter- 
und Überschau, wie sie am Leitwerk der Fernrakete A 4 gemessen 
wurden, s. Abb. 4, 3o sieht man, daß im Unterschall die Haupt- 
kräfte längs der schrägen Schulter liegen, im Überschall dage- 
gen die Kräfte gleichmäßiger auf die gesamte Fläche verteilt 
sind. Die Druckverteilungsmessung am Wasserfallmodell, die zu- 
nächst einaal im überschall und kompressiblen Unterschall aus- 
geführt wurde, zeigte qualitative Ähnlichkeit mit der Druck- 
verteilung am Leitwerk des A i^, (s, Abb. 5). Man sieht, daß der 
Flügel im inkompreesiblen Unterschall eine ähnliche Kräftever- 
ttilung wie da« Leitwerk A 4 in inkompressibler Strömung auf- 
weist. Danach scheint es so, als ob (^ ie lange schräge Schulter 
der Grund dafür ist, daß der Unterschall-Druckpunkt der Fläche 
relativ weiter hinten liegt, als der einer Fläche z.B. recht- 
eckigen Querschnittes. Bei der gleichmäßigen Druckverteilung 
im Überschall dagegen wird der Druckpunkt an sich immer weiter 
hinten liegen als im Unterachall. Deshalb muß die scl:iräg nach 
vorn laufende Hinterkante im Überschall eine Vorverlegung des 
Flächendruckpunktes erwirken. Mit dieser Flügelanordnung wurde 
die in Abb# 6 gezeigte Druckpunktskonstanz in dem gesamten Ge- 



28 



"'^'-/^'^ Archiv Kr. 171 '^.Kdos 

schwindigkeitsberelcli erzielt. Genaueres v/ird darüber in 
.-bsctLnitt- 6 c ausref'^hrt. ''bcleich cier jrundkörper ohne an-.^e- 
baute Flp.chen eine z.r. te-riichtlicho Druckpuiilitsv/ar-flerur.r-, 
ürer der Gesch'-vi.ici -^ cit -ufweist, v,irc' er durch .lie .r.bautei; 
30 beeinflußt, dali j.as Gesant-A .^gre-'at :ie Gemessene Druck- 
purJktskonstanz erhalt. (Lit. 30). 

^^ ^ie ^;e^enseiti.';e I.ar^e von Trap;- und Leitwerk 

Tragv,'erk una Leitwerk kör.nen so zueinander a;., -geordnet werden, 
da£ die jeweili,-en ?lüi^el- und Leitwerks paare in al-ichen 
iTbenen liec^en. Es ist aber auch niO:aidh, das 'Jrarn-verk :;er:en 
das Leitv/erk um einen ;;ewissen .in^-iel ^e^-^cne ; nan^ler zu ver- 
drehen. Am zweckmäßif^sten ,-eschieht lies um 45*^, um wieder 
eine symmetrische Anordnun : zu oekommen. Es hatte zunächst 
den Anschein, als wenn die letztere Form, bei der also^^<p.^5° 
ist, der ersten vorzuziehen sei. Bei kleinem Anstellvänkel 
wird dabei nämlicn der .Abstrom des Trap^werks Leitwerk una 
Huder nicht treffen und -Aainit erhöhte otabilitnt des Gerätes 
bewirken. 3ei der xÄ y = O'^-Lace wird gerade bei Kleinem ..n- 
stellv.inkel die Beeinflussung^ durch diesen Abstrom stark sein, 
Ee hat sich jedoch herausgestellt, daß bei pprößeren Anstell- 
winkeln die I eeinf lussung der unter 45° liegenden Tragwerks- 
flächen nuf die -Ruder besonders stark ist und unübersehbare 
stabile und labile Lagen des Körpers bei Ausschlag des Ruders 
hervorruft. Deshalb vmrde dieZlJp- 45^-Lage wieder verworfen 
tmd die^y - 0°-Lage weiter untersucht, öie ist in der Form 
C2/S2 (^bb. 2 b und 3) zur Anwendung gekommen. (Lit, 26). 
5) D ie Luft'imderentwickluDg 

Es stand von vorn herein fest, daß die i'lakrakete mi^j Luft- 
rudern gesteuert werden sollte, da auch nach Brennschluß die 
tJteuerfähigkeit des Gerätes erhalten bleiben m\ißte. Da in 
den ersten Flugsekunden der btaudruck zur titeuerung durch 
Luftruder allein nicht ausreicht, war eine Kopplung mit otraüL- 
rudern vorgesehen. 

Diese aus Graphit bestehenden Strahlruder sollten auf glei- 
cher .7elle mit dem Luftruder angeordnet werden und in dfe« 
Antriebsstrahl hineinragen. Es war Höhen-, leiten- und Drall- 
ateuerung vorzusehen, wobei Höhe und oeite durch Steuerimpulse 
vom Boden aus ferngesteuert, der Drall durch EiP^ensteuerung 

29 



WVA/FL 



Archiv Nr. 171 g.Kdos 



unterdrückt werden sollte. Es wurde überlegt, den Drall durch 
(.Querruder an den Flügelenden auszusteuern. Dies hätte zwar aero- 
dynamisch eine bessere Wirksamkeit versprochen, man wäre jedoch 
konstruktiv in Bezug auf die Übertragung der Kräfte von der bteu- 
ermaschine auf Schwierigkeiten gestoßen. Deshalb wurde grundeäta- 
lich auf gesonderte Drallruder verzichtet und die Drallsteuerung 
mit auf die Höhen- und beitensteuerung auf geschaltet. 

Die auszusteuernden aerodynamischen Momente, die infolge des Kör- 
peranstellwinkels auftreten, wurden zunächst überschlägig berech- 
net. Danach konnte die Größe der Ruderfläche wie folgt festge- 
legt" werden: Jedes Ruder mußte im Maximalfalle eine bestimmte 
Normalkraft erzeugen, die an dem Hebelarm, Schwerpunkt des Kör- 
pers bis Druckpunkt des Ruders, die entsprechenden Steuermomente 
hervorrief. Die notwendige Normalkraft konnte nun entweder durch 
große Fläche bei kleinem oder kleine Fläche bei großem Anstell- 
winkel erzeugt werden. In letzterem Falle war mit größerem Wider- 
stand zu rechnen. Außerdem war dabei die Gefahr des Überschrei- 
tens der Bruchlast vorhanden. (Lit. 9). 

Nach Abschätzung aller Möglichkeiten ergaben sich somit folgende 
aerodynamischen und konstruktiven Gesichtspunkte für die Ruder- 
entwicklung: 

a) Zugelassener Ruderhöchstausschlag - 25° 

b) Höchstzulässige Rude rnormal kraft 1 to je Ruder 

c) Zuordnung von Ruderaüsschlag zu Körperanstellwinkel 
innerhalb folgender Grenzen: 

Unterschall: 0,3^5J-<1; Überschall: 1,0^^^2,0 

d) Aussteuerung aller Bauunsymmetrien mit Ruderausschlag 19-2°. 
.»eitere Forderungen an die Luftruder kamen von Seiten der Steu- 
ermaschine, die die Scharniermomente erzeugen muß. Die Größe der 
Maschine lag anfangs noch nicht endgültig fest. Es konnten des- 
halb nur ungefähre Angaben über ihre Leistungsfähigkeit gemacht 
werden. Es wurde damit gerechnet, daß die Steuermaschinen Schar- 
niermomonte nach folgender Tabelle würden bewältigen können: 

Rudermaschine K 12, Achse Sj^ - 0,08 D M« - 55 mkg 
PrLmitivsteuerung, Achse S^ « 0,057 D M^^ ^ .50 mkg 

Es wurde angenommen, daß die Steuermaschine auch negative Schar- 
niermomente von etwa 2/5 des positiven Betrags leisten würde. 



30 



RESTRICTS 



'^VW. ilrohlT Nr. 171 g.Kdo» 

trat^r Btrüokslohtlgua« &ll«r angeführten Fordeirungen wurde 
ana eiiM sz^fie Heih« von Huderfoyaen (Lit. 13, 25) unter- 
8iMlx^« wobei eich sohließlich dae Luftruder R 12, s. Abb. 2 f , 
•arSA^t 4a« »\anaohat alien Anforderungen genügte. Man sieht 
aaa den Messungen nach Abb. 7 linke Seit^, daß die Scharnier- 
aoaentenkoPTen ia Überschall bei allen Machßohen Zahlen stete 
poaltlTe Tangenten haben, daß sie dagegen ia ünterscball star- 
ke XfSbilitftt aufweisen« Die mit difesea Kuder erhaltenen Wirk- 
ÄSakettsfeurren OC . f(<?) sind in der Abb. 8 oben dargestellt. 
(Lit, 12,16) • Man sieht daran, daß säatliche Uberschallkur- 
▼en bis SU einea »inkel Ton y « 25** ait stetiger, positiver 
fangente verlaufen. Die Wirksamkeit nimmt mit »unehmender Ge- 
sohwlndigkeit ab. Die Wirksamkeit ia ünterschall ist ebenfalls 
eijanandfrei, wenn der Körper unter y • 0®, d.h. in e^ner Leit- 
oder Tragwerksebene fliegt, lippt der Körper jedoch unter 45° 
SU Leit- und Tz4gwerkskreus ab, dann weisen die l^irksamkeits- 
knrren l>el einea Winkel von etwacC > 15° einen S-Schlag auf, 
der Labilität des Körpers in dea betreffenden Anstellwinkel- 
bereioh bedeutet« Ks gibt also su einea bestimmten Ruderaus- 
schl&g »wel »ugehörige Anstellwinkel, s, auch Abb. 9 oben, 
Wö Q^ über OC aufgetragen ist. Es wurde versucht, durch ver- 
schiedene Euder- und Leitwerksgestaltung und Änderungen am 
Hügel diesen S-Schlag su beseitigen. Die bisherigen Unter- 
ßuch\ingen waren jedooh noch nicht befriedigend. Es wird dar- 
über an anderer Stelle berichtet. (Lit. 26). Der GruM dafür 
liegt eindeutig in der Beeinflussung von Leitwerk und Ruder 
dureh die davor liegenden Flügelflächen. Derar\;ige S-ochläge 
würden wahrscheinlich nicht auftreten, wenn der Körper mit dem 
festen Teil des Leitwerks ohne die Ruderfläche allein stabil 
wäre* Das würde jedoch eine stärkere Rückverlegung des Druck- 
punktes und damit für die Steuermaschine größere Leistung er- 
fordern, sofern nicht durch eine HilfEruderelnrichtung die 
Steuerkz^fte wesentlich- herabgesetzt werden könnten. Versuche 
dieser Art sind bei der WVA im Gange. (Lit. 23). Das Auftre- 
ten des S-Schlages ist jedoch in diesem Anetellwlnkelberelch 
für das vorliegende itfaeeerfallgerät nicht unbedingt kritisch, 
da nur ia Ausnahmefall der Körper mit dem AnstellwinkclOC '^'15° 
im ünterschall in der y - 45°«Lage abkippen wird. Der Aus- 
nahmefall tritt auf bei Inüppelfehlern, Pendelungen um die 



31 



WVA/FL 



"Archiv Nr. I71 g.Kdos 



Sollbahn oder Böen. Da die Beseitigung des S-fcJchlages in 
allernächster Zeit nicht zu erwarten ist, mtiß diese Unsicher- 
heit in Kauf genommen werden. 

Eine genaue steuermaschinenseitige Untersuchung auf dem 
öchwingtisch ergah, daß die .Absolutwerte der negativen Schar- 
nlermomente herabgesetzt werden mußten, ebenso mußte das nega- 
tiTe -^—- verkleinert werden. Es wurde daher die Flügeltiefe 
des Ruders gekürzt, sodaß die Huaerf lache sich um 25 % ver- 
ringerte. Dies war gleichzeitig insofern zweckmäßig, als beim 
R 12 der- Ruderhöchstausschlag von "p « 25° nicht ausgenutzt 
werden konnte. Das neue Ruder erhielt die Bezeichnung R 21, 
8. Abb. 2 g. Die -charniermoinente sind in Abb. 7 rechte üeite, 
die Ruderwirksamkeitskurven in Abb. 8 dargestellt. Man sieht, 

-charniermo- 
erfüllt wur- 



daß die Forderung des Herabsetzens des negativen 

ments und die Verringerung der oteilheit von $^ 

de. (Lit. 24), Das Aggregat mit dem Ruder R 21 erhielt die 



Bezeichnung C2/E5, 

6) Die Meßmethoden und die .Meßergebnisse 

Die Untersuchungen im VVindkanal erstrecken sich einmal auf 
solche im inkompressiblen Unterschall, wobei Modelle von 
/v 1,30 m Länge bei etwa 40 m/sec in Kanälen von etwa 5 m 
gemessen wurden. (Luftschiffbau Zeppelin und Luftfahrtfor- 
schungsanstalt München). Dabei wurden Dreikomponenten- und 
öchwingungsmessungen, Scharnier- und D'rallmomentenmessunren 
durchgeführt. Zum anderen erstreckte sich der Hauptteil der 
Untersuchungen auf Modelle von 180, 266 und 515 mm Länge im 
Windkanal der WVA bei 40 cm^ Querschnitt und bei Geschwindig- 
keiten von etwa 0,4 facher bis 0,9 f acher sowie bei der 1,2- 
fachen, 1,6 fachen, 1,9 fachen, 2,5 fachen und 2,9 fachen 
Schallgeschwindigkeit. Auch im Lberschallwindkanal der .WA 
wurden Dreikomponenten- und Schwingungsmeasungen, Scharnier- 
und Drallmoment enmessungen durchgeführt. Zur Ermittlung der 
Steuermomente kam außerdem eine neuartige Nullmomentenmethode 
zur Anwendung. Weiterhin fanden umfangreiche Druckverteilungs- 
aeesungen über die gesamte Körperoberfläche statt. 

a) Pre ikomponent enmessungen 

Das Modell wurde dabei von hinten mit einem 2-teillgen Hal- 
ter im Heckboden gehaltert, dessen erster Teil an die Waage 



32 



^A/FL Archiv Nr, 171 g.Kdos 



führte und dessen anderer Teil zur Blendenmessung diente, 
s« Abb. 10 a. Es wurden zwei Widerstandskomponenten und 
eine Auftriebskomponente geiaessen, (Lit. 4, 6, 7, 10, 15), 
In den Abb, 11-14 sind die dimensionslosen Beiwerte des 
Widerstands c^ und des Auftriebs c^^ über der Machschen 
Zahl dargestellt. Der Verlauf des Luftangriffspunktes 
H/D m f(lla)*ist in Abb, 6 enthalten. Die Abb. I5 zeigt 
eine Abhängigkeit von c^^ und c^ über dem Anstellwinkel 
el. -i 1 im Unterschall bei der Machschen Zahl 0,84, das 
andere Mal im überschall bei Ma - 2,92. Die Polaren bei 
den einzelnen Geschwindigkeiten sind in den Abb, 16 und 
17 dargestellt. Man sieht, daß die maximalen Gleitzahlen 
Cg^/c^ im Überschall 3, im Unterschall 4,4 sind. Im Über- 
schau oberhalb Ma - 1,2 können die Gleitzahlen nur aus 
den extrapolierten Polaren angegeben v/erden, da die Tan- 
genten bis zu den letzte- 1 1 ißwerten ihr Maximum noch nicht 
erreicht haben. Habeü Kraftmessun{?;en sind laufend 
pbotographische otrömi öS^^wf-'iahmen mit der ochlieren- 
Apparatur durchgeführt worden. Bie geben ein qualitatives 
Bild der i^trömungseusbildiing, s. Abb. 18. 

b) ochwinp;imR8iaessuBp;en 

Das Modell wurd« dabei im ochwerpunkt durch einen quer 
aur StrÖfflungsrichtung aus ge spannt ian Draht, der bis zum 
Sörper durch ein Zweiecksprofil verkleidet war, gehalten, 
8oda0 «8 Schwingungen in einer senkrechten Ebene ausfüh- 
re : .jjonte» (Abb. 10 b). Dabei wurden einmal nach dem Ab- 
k*^ ngen der Schwingungen die Endlagen photographiert und 
i.iX3 d0ffl Lichtbild die Anstellwinkel ausgemessen, zum ande- 
ren wurden die öchwingunf;en mittels Registrierkamera auf- 
genommen und die Oszillogramme auf Momente, Druckpunkts- 
lAge, Normalkräfte und Dämpfung ausgewertet. (Lit. 17). 

Aus den öchwingungsmeesungen erctaben eich folgende Eigen- 
schef ten des Modells} 

Bei Verdrehung des Tragwerks um 43? gegen das Leitwerk, 
um möglichst geringe Beeinflussung der Ruder durch den 
Abstrom der Flächen su erzielen, ist bei kleinen ArjSu.ll- 
wlnkeln Stabilität vorhanden, bei größeren Winkeln gibt 
es ^edoöh labile <, üd bei noch größerer Auslenkung wieder 



J9 



WTJl/WL 



Amur t»^ in tulßkm 



stabile Lagen« Auch bei der ROckwrartteng <&•• gr»HW »glU i 
auf ^ ^ « 0^ treten bei liSherec AnstsllwlttlMlA «»Is^bte 
«t - 15° und oc. 50^ obar&kt^ristisdlMi JLad(#vttDeen t«i^|BL 
auf, wenn die Anatrösing unter f • 45^ •tt^Xgt» Dieflf Ij»« 
derungen sind z.t. derart, daß die pQiiitiT« Ot«rmktesijitill 
in eine negative übergeht imd anaoblleBend vleder iliv T^iv^ 
seichen wechselt« Beim Ruderanstellwinkel 0^ ist dev X9r^ 
per dabei inmer stabil. Verden die Bilder jedoch angestellt, 
dann entstehen momentenfreie Körperlagen Bit stabiles odev 
labilen Gleichgewicht. Die Abb« 9 seigt eiasa sololwa IUI 
bei der Unterschallgeschwindigkeit Yen Ka • 0,1 an elMB 
großen Modell von a* 1,30 a Länge. Hier ist su erksnnsn, 
da£ bis zu einesi Ruderanstellwinkel ▼pn'i^ m ^ 6^ noeh immT 
Punktstabilität des Geräts vorhandisa ist trot» des Torssl* 
chenwechsels der Tangente bei« • 19,5®, daß jedoch sohcm 
bei«ip«- 7° drei momentenfreie Lagen, näaliohOC* 1^,5°, 
OC- 22,6° und OC ■ 26° auftreten. £s sind die gleichen, dls 
an den Icleinen Modellen gemessen wurden luaid in der Abb« 6 
für Ma - 0,4 in derOC . f(ip) Kurve su erkennea sind. In dsv 
mittleren moment enfreien Lage herrscht labiles Qleiohge* 
wicht. Für den Flug des Geräts ist dieser oC -Bereich jed^h 
unwesentlich. Bei der Anströaung unter y - 0° treten der- 
artige S-Schläge in dfesen Winkelbereichen nicht auf. 
In Abb. 9 unten sind je swei Homentenkurven bei Ma - 1,86 
und 2,92 dargestellt, die die Moment enbeiwerte besügllch 
zwei verschiedener Drehpunkte angeben. Sie wurden durch 
Auswertung der Oszillogramme nach einer besonderen Parabel- 
methode (Lit. 21) erhalten. Man sieht, daß die Kurven in 
einem Bereich bis OC . 10° annähernd linear verlaufen, 
c) Nullmomentenmessungen 

Das Modell ist dabei ebenfalls um eine senkrecht zur Strö- 
mungsrichtung befindliche horizontale Achse gelagert, die 
sich jedoch im Innern des Modells an einem Halter befindet, 
der durch das Heck in das Modell von hinten eingeführt ist. 
(Abb. 10 c) (Lit. 27) Diese neue Anordnung hat den Vorteil, 
daß keinerlei Störungen durch seitliche Halterung auf das 
Modell übertragen werden können. Das Modell hat zwar nur 
wenig Spiel, es sollen lediglich damit die aomentenfreiea 
Lagen des Körpers festgestellt werden, bei denen sich das 



34 



*VA/PL t Archiv Nr. 171 g.Kdot 

liod«ll im aerodynamischen Gleichgewicht befindet. Befindet 
sich also die Achse genau im Sbhwerpunkt des Modells, dann 
wird es sich ait dem Anstellwinkel OC - 0® einstellen, wenn 
•8 beioc - 0® punktstahil ist, d.h. daß sich der Druckpunkt 
hinter dem Schwerpunkt befindet. Denn das aerodynamische 
Moment Tersohwindet , wenn entweder Normalkraft oder Luft- 
krafthebelarm ■ ist. Gibt man andererseits ein mechani- 
sches Moment durch Anbringung von zusätzlichen Gewichten 
▼oPt »odaß also Drehpunkt und SchwerpuLiict nicht zusammen- 
fallen, so wird sich der Körper in eine andere Ruhelage 
einstellen« In dieser sind das aerodynamische und das 
mechanische Moment, deren Drehsinn natürlich entgegenge- 
richtet sein muß, gleich. Da diese Ruhelage ;Je nach der 
Größe des vorgegebenen mechanischen Momentes bei jedem be- 
liebigen Anstellwii^el sich einstellen kann, ist es not- 
,.wendig, den Halter in seiner Lage zur btrömungsrichtung 
8\j verfahren. Er befindet sich zu dem Zweck am gleichen 
Segment, das sur Dreikomponentenwaage führt, und dessen 
Anstellwinkel verändert werden kann. Der Anstellwinkel wird 
daim während des Bissens solange verfahren, bis das Modell 
sich von der Anlage am Halter loslöst und frei um den Hal- 
ter spielt. Mit dieser Methode, bei der man die stabiler; 
Gleichgewichtslagen auf - 1°, aber auch die labilen, mo- 
mentenfreien Punkte auf etwa - 2° bestimmen kajin, erhält 
man in relativ kurzer Zeit genaueste Messungen der Druck- 
punktslage und iVirksamkeitskurven der Luftruder. In letzte- 
rem Fall werden die Ruder von Grad zu Grad angestellt und 
dabei der Anstellwinkel der Gleichgewichtslage des Körpers 
gemessen« Bei der iürmittlung des Druckpunktes kann mit 
einer Genauigkeit von - 1/10 Kaliber gerechnet werden. Den 
a\if diese Weise ermittelten Verlauf der Luftangriffspunkte 
über dem gesamten Geschwindigkeitsbereich zeigt die Abb. 6. 
Hier ist H/D über der Machschen Zahl aufgetragen. Die 
schwach eingezeichneten Werte aus der Dreikomponentenmessung 
und der Parabelmethode sind mit geringerer Genauigkeit, 
die etwa - 1/4 Kaliber beträgt, zu werten. Man sieht, daß 
die Druckpunktskonstanz hinreichend gut durch die Kombina- 
tion von Körper, Trag- xmd. Leitwerk erreicht worden ist. 
Daß eine stärkere Drnackpunktsv/anderung an dem Körper mit 
Leitwerk allein stattfindet, zeigt die .».bb. 6 unten, die 

'RFqRICTEU — 

, 35 



WVü/PL 



Archiv Nr. 171 g.Kdo» 



den IVD-Verlauf über der Machschen Zahl beim An«tellwlnk«l 
OC- 8 an dem flügel stabilisierten Aggregat A 4 V 1 P dar- 
stellt, dem ;ja die Flakrakete Wasserfall bis auf die Flügel 
weitgehend geometrisch ähnlich ist« 

d) DruckverteilungsmesBunpien 

Um den Konstrxikteuren die Unterlagen zur Konstruktion der 
Zelle zu liefern, ist es notwendig, die Drücke über die 
gesamte Oberfläche des Körpers, der Tragflügel und des 
Leitwerks zu kennen. Es werden deshalb Druckverteil\ing«- 
messungen an allen Punkten der Modelloberfläche im Unter- 
und Überschau durchgeführt, die einen erheblichen Arbeits- 
aufwand erfordern. Im Über- und Unterschall - soweit letz- 
terer im hiesigen Windkanal gemessen werden kann, etwa von 
Ma - u,4 bis Ma . 0,9 - wird dabei ein besonderes Halbmodell 
(Abb. 10 d) benutzt, um die von den 120 Bohrungen ausgehen- 
de;! Luftröhrchen möglichst ohne Störung der Strömung nach 
außen an die Manometer zu führen. (Lit. 3) Aue der Druck- 
verteilung werden durch graphische Integration der Driicks 
über die Oberfläche Normal- und ^Tangentialkräfte berechnet. 
Nachdem die Oberflächenreibung rechnerisch abgeschätst ist, 
kann sie zum Wider Standsanteil aus der Druckverteilung 
addiert und die Summe mit dem Widerstand aus der Kraftaesaux^ 
verglichen werden. Für die Normalkräfte spielt die Oberflä- 
chenreibung besonders bei den hier infrage konaenden schlan- 
ken Körpern nur eine geringe Rolle. (Lit. 5) Die Brgebnlssa 
der für die Wasserfallrakete durchgeführten DruckverttUungs 
messungen sind in den Berichten; Lit. 1*^, 19, 22 festgelegt. 
Die Abb. 5 zeigt die Druckverteilung längs des gesamten 
Aßgret^ates bei zwei Geschwindigkeiten im kompressiblen ünttr- 
und im Überschau bei verschiedenen Anstellwinkeln. Man 
sieht die ausgesprochen starken Kräfte, die auf Flügel und 
Leitwerksvorderkante im ünterschall liegen. Im Überschall 
dagegen ist mit steigender Maohscher Zahl eine zunehmende 
gleichmäßigere Verteilung auf allen Flächen zu erkennen. 
Für die Konstruktion des Luftruders war es wichtig, dis ?•,. 
teilung der Oberflächenkräfte auf Ihm zu kennen. Sa wurde 
deshalb an einem besonderen -Teilmodell- mit Ptiantlich 
größerem Ruder, wie es auch für die Messung dsr Scbarntsp- 
momente benutzt wurde, (s. folgenden Absohnltt) die Druek- 



36 



.;VA/FL . Archiv Nr. 171 fs.Kdos 

Verteilung auf Luv- und Leeseite an einer größeren An- 
zahl von Anbohrungen gemessen. (Lit. 22). Diese Messungen 
gaben wesentliche Hinweise für die endgültige Formgebung 
des Ruders. Die Abb. 19 zeigt als Beispiel eine Isobaren- 
darstellung , über der Ruderfläche. 

e) Die Drall- und ocharniermomenteniaessung 

Eine wesentliche Vorbedingung Tür den einwandfreien Flug 
der Rakete ist ihre Drallfreiheit. (Lit. 18) D.h. es muß 
vermieden werden, daß die Rakete sich um ihre Längsachse 
drehen, und damit in eine gefährliche Resonnanz mit ihrer 
(stuerschwingungsfrequenz kommen kann. Das würde zu Taumel- 
schwingungen (Lit, 28) führen. Außerdem vertragen die elek- 
trischen Einrichtungen der bteuermaschine keine Drehung des 
Aggregates um die Längsachse * Die aerodynamischen Kräfte, 
die den Drall erzeugen, entstehen einmal durch die Unsym- 
metrie des Gerätes, da Trag- und Leitwerksflächen niemals 
sb genau hergestellt werden können, das andere Mal durch 
die Schiefanblasung von Leitwerk und Flügelkreuz bei -rLn- 
stellwinkeln. 

Für die Drallmeseungen wurde ein besonderes Drallmeßmodell 
angefertigt, das ähnlich dem iNullmomentenmodell von hinten 
im Innern gehaltert wurde. Als Meßelement war ein Torsions- 
draht längs der Körperachse durch den durchbohrten Halter 
hindurch gespannt, mit dem die Drallmomente durch geeichte 
Drehung auf Null kompensiert werden konnten. (Lit. 18). 
Messungen des durch Unsymmetrie der Flügel- und Leitwerks- 
flächen erzeugten Dralls zeigten eine Abhängigkeit des 
Dralls nach Abb, 20 rechts, in der bei Ruderanstellwinkel 
0^ alle Flächen gleichsinnig um 2° gegen die Körperachse 
angestellt wurden. Die. Abb, 20 links zeigt die Meßergeb- 
nisse bei einem normal hergestellten Modell mit im Gegen- 
sinn ausgeschlagenen Luftrudern, Auffällig ist die beson- 
ders starke Mfirksamkeit der Drallsteuerung, obgleich der 
Hebelarm lörperachse-Ruderdruckpunkt nur etwa 1 Kaliber 
beträgt. Zur geforderten Aussteuer\ing der Drallmomente 
durch ochränkfehler ist also nur etwa der zehnte T@il des 
geforderten Höchstluftruderausschlages (^- 2°) nötig. 



37 



'•WA/FL 



Archiv Nr. ^7^ g.Kdos 



Die ßcharnlermomente, auf deren Größe und Bedeutung im /ib- 
schnltt 5, der sich mit der Luftruderentwicklung befaßt, 
schon eingegangen wurde, wurden im wesentlichen an einem Teil- 
modell gemessen. Da die Luftruder an den Modellen norriHler 
Größe für den 40 x 40 cm Kanal quer schnitt relativ klein sind 
(nur 1 bis 2 cm ) und damit n\ir absolut kleine Momente er- 
zeugen, verzichteten wir bei der Messunp; auf die Anwesenheit 
des ganzen Körpers. Es wurde ledip:lich die feste Leitwerks- 
f lache mit einem Körperstück ir len ijuftstrom gebracht, -ctn 
der daß Ruder an einer nach außen durchgeführten Achse be- 
festip^ v^urde. Mit dem Maßstab dieses Modells 1:10 wäre der 
ganze Körper etwa 80 cm lang reworden. Diese Größe war je- 
doch nicht tragbar. Da die außen lie^^enden Luftruder s. hr 
wenig durch den Körper beeinflTißt werden durften, wurde r*r,r 
Körper vor dem Leitwerksbeginn abgebrochen. Ovbb. 10 e) Die 
Ruderfläche von etwa 55 cm^ ergab da^iit ausreichende Momente, 
die unmittelbar durch mechanische Gewichtsauf lee^ung außer- ! 
'halb des Luftstroms kompensiert v/erden körnten. Entsprechende ! 
MesBun-en an einem Halbmodell nor-n-ler Größe ( ibb. IC f) er- 1 
gaben hinreichend gute Übereinstimmung mit den obigen Messun- 
gen. (Lit. 13) 

7) Der Einfluß des ot rahls auf die aerodynamischen SL-enschaften 
Der Einfluß des otrahls auf den ..iacrstand wird sich genau wie 
bei dem Körper A 4 in einer Erhöhunc im Ujitorschull unc einer 
Verringerung im Überschau bemerkbar machen. ?ür die Groie der 
Beeinflussung dürfte neben der Heckc^usbildung das Verh^^ltnis 
von Fluggeschwindigkeit zu btrahl^eschwindifr;keit eine Rolle 
spielen. Obgleich hierüber f-ör den v.asserfallkörper noch keia.e 
Messungen vorliegen, laßt sich saften, daß ar> dem HeckoRiVL.1 
durch den austretenden .Stra^il im Unternchall urhöhte Geschwii.- 
digkeit-mit erniedrigtem Druck, also üor. auftritt. Im Überschall 
dagefcen wird durch dns Aufblähen der Grenzschicht eine frühere 
Ablösung der Strömung erreicht tn:d cor Uruck auf dem Hecko-ival 
erhöht, was den Druckwiderstand. verrinGert. Die frühere . Able- 
sung der Grenzschicht ist im wesentlichen auf -'ie Entstchu.-r, 
des Verdichtungsstoßes zurückzuführen, der Lci.i Zusammentreff c 
der den Körper umstronenden luft :r.it 6cr. im U:.t:r.^iuck rr.vei- 
terten Antriebsstrahl (Glocke) e;.*;GlohL, I,: bc i.u;: auf I ^rmal- 



RESTRinir n 



36 



kräft« und Luftangriff »pmüct kiinn noch nltthts •xs&gaitl««« 
ausgesagt Verden. 

Sa wurda aln Versuch alt auatretendaa PraBXuft8ts«hl im OlMtr« 
schall an einem Modell nach der Schwingongai^thoda gtaaelit» 
bei den die PrefiXuftsuführung mittels Labgrristhdiebtuas 4«rob 
die Drehachse stattfand* Bei dan durch die gerix^a OtAS* 4«0 
Modells bedingten exparimentellan Sohwierigkaitaa kOMi^ diSH 
Sern Versuch nur qualitative Bedeutung su« Dabei «orde kalaa. 
Veränderung der Buderwirksamkeit bemerkt • Da« wOrde badauten« 
daB eine Druckpunkt sbeeinflusaung nicht stattf ladet , bas»» 
dafi die Luftruder - im gleichen Maße wie der Dmslivaakt naah 
rückwärts verlegt wird - infolge der Injektorwirkung ba^aa» 
Yom freien Luftstrom beauf achlagt werden« 

Die aerodynamische Dämpfung jedoch ist -- wie auch frOhar an 
anderen titrahlmodellen im ünterachall festgestellt • grdBar 
mit austretendem Strahl* Ala Dämpfungawert am Modall ohne 
Strahl vmrde etwa der Wert c^ ■ 5 gefuaaden als Mittel im ga* 
samten Geschwindigkeitsbereich* Übersohlägige Versuche mit 
dem Strahlmodell bei Ma ■ 2«^ zeigten eine Dämpfungssunatame 
von etwa 30 %. (Lit. 20). 

3) Die Tempemfctur der Oberfläche beim Fluge mlfe Oberschall 

Zur Vervollständigung des Berichtes über die im Uhter- und 
Überschallgeschwindigkeitsbereich durchgeführten StrOmung»» 
Tint ersuchungen sei noch die folgende thermodynamische Unter- 
suchung» die für die Plakrakete Wasserfall bei der WVA dtfrolH» 
geführt wurde, angeführt i 

Die Birwärmung der Oberfläche beim Fluge dea KBrparäi dia aixi» 
mal durch Abbremsung der Luft an Stauponkten« «upi anderen Mal 
durch Reibung an der Oberfläche stattfindet, erflsugt eine 
Brematemperatur in der Ore ns Schicht, die ihre Wärme durch 
Leitung, Konvektion und Strahlung ap das fiahäutungsbleoh ab- 
gibt« Die Kenntnis der auftretenden Blechtemperatur 1st not» 
wendig, um Material mit der entapreohenden M/azafastigkeit su 
wählen« Die grundlegenden Untersuchungen, die früher für '^am 
Aggregat A 4 durchgeführt worden (Lit« 29)» konnten jetst 
auch a\if die ?lakrakete angewandt werden« 



39 



'"^'^/^^ ..rchiv liT, 171 rr.K.fos 

Die Temperaturerhohur.G des i-.lechs, die aui'tritt, ist ceG:eben 
durch die EnergiereleichuriG ^ «^Zr ^C^^äL. ^ wobei T, die 
Umsebunf^stemperatur, v/ die Ccschwir.ai.r^keit , c die spezifi- 
sche ..arme, r die ihidbeschleurdf^nn, cias mechanische o'c=ime- 
äquivalent bedeuten und c eii> Fuktor ist, der im /indköiial i 

ermittelt v.iirde. c niuuiit in technischer. Ivlaßsystem den .-ert t 
1000 an. c ist im windkanal in .vt-hänpiif^keit von der Machschen '. 
Zahl (renessen v.ordon. Der Temperaturverlauf in der Grenz- | 

Schicht ist in Abb. 21 dargestellt. ..us vVarmeüberganGsmessun- 
gen im Windkanal konnten die Elechtemperaturen ermittel'. ..ci- j 
den, die ebenfalls in Abb. 21 in Abhäni^agkeit von der Flu?;- I 
zeit dargestellt sind. j 

Bei den auftretenden hohen Temperaturen war es notv/endi^, 
festzustellen, wie weit der in der Spitze liegende opren^^- 
r.toff vor 'oni »värmeeinmarsch geschützt werden konnte. Writer- i 
hin war für -ine Glasspitze des Gerätes, die einem Zielsuch- i 
n-orät diente, bezw. für einen optischen Zünder [redacht war, 1 
der VVärmeeinmarsch durch die Glasschicht zu berechnen. Lie 1 

Untereuchuni^en sind im Bericht (Lit. 8) niedergelegt. 



40 



w-Va/FL 



Archiv Hr. 171 r.KdüS 



9) Literaturverze ichnls . 



Lfd. Archiv-Nr, 
Nr, und Datum 



Titel 



Verfasser 



1) Heft 1059A3 gK. 
vom 4.: .1943 



2) HAP 66/97 gK. 
vorr. -7. 10. 1942 



5) HAT 66/47 g. 
voiL 11.2.1942 



4) EAP G6/93 offen 
vom 24.6.1943 



5) HilF 66/1Ü0 gK. 
vom 27.11 «1 942 



6) EAP 66/114 gS. 

VOB 6.4.1943 



7) HA|> 36/115 

vom 23. t. 19^3 



8) HAP 66/116 gK. 
vom 15.7.1943 



9) HAP 66/117 gK. 

vom 13.5.1943 



10) HAP 66/123 gK. 

vom 14.7.1943 



ochriften der Akademie Dr. Kurzweg: 
für Lui^tfahrtforschung: 2. Vortraj^ 
Geschoüse ohne Drall. 

Grundsätzliche aerody- . Dr. Kurzweg 
namische U-.torsuchunKen 
zur Khtv;icklun;j; der Ife^- 
der Pfeil-Geschosse, 

Gr^indsätzliches über Dipl.-I--. 
Druckverteiluii .snessun- Erdmanr^ 
gen raittele -.nbohrungen 
bei Lberschallf^eschwin- 
digkeit . 

Zur Durchl'ührung von Dipl.-Ii^^, 
Dreikomponenteninessuii- Kretschnei 
gen im Pee. -dor Uber- 
schallwindkanai . 

Druckverteiiun^siaescun- Dipl. In,--. 
gen am a4 V1P im Be- Krdman: 
reich der Unter- und 
Überschallgeschwin- 
digkeiten. 

Kurzbericht über erste E.Herriaann 
Dreikompone'.t enraessun- 

§en an der Flakrakete 
2/K1/L1/F1/R1. 

Zusammenlassender be-- E.Hermann 
rieht über üreikompo- 
nentenraeesuii ';eji an 
fünf , verschiedenen For- 
men der Flakrakete C2. 

Ultrarot straliXuixg aer Dr. Kraus 
Granzschicht am beweg- Prof. Jordan 
ten Wasserfall-Aggregat 

Berechnun[^ I ür die liUft-Dipl.-Ine. 
rudersteuerano; der Flok-Erdmann 
rakete C2. 

Dreikomponentenmessun- iii. Herrmann 
gen an einer aerodyna- 
misch verbBsserten Form 
der Flakraketo 02, 



41 



V^A/FL 



ArohiT ffr. 171 tMoB 



Lfd. Archiv-Nr. 
Nr« und Datum 



Tit*l 



▼•rfat— 



11) HaP 66/125 gK. 
vom 20.9.19^3 



12) HAP 66/153 gK. 
vom 20.12,19^3 



13) HAP 66/15^ gK. 
vom 25,2.19^^^ 



14) HAP 66/156 gK. 
vom 15.12.1945 



15) HAP 66/158 gK. 
vom 27.2.1944 



16) HAP 66/145 gK. 
vom 5.5.19^ 

17) HAP 66/144 gK. 
vom 24,2.1944 



18) HAP 66/145 kK. 
vom 2.3»19^ 



19) HAP 06/146 gK. 
vom 15.5.1944 



20) HAP 66/149 gK. 
vom 3.8.1944 



ültrarotatrahlung d«r Gr«n«- 
echlcht am bewegten Wasser- 
fall-Aggregat. 
Nachtr. 66/116 

Mindkanalunt er Buchungen über 
den GeBchwindiglcelts- uzkd 
Schwerpunkt se Inf luS auf die 
Steuerbarkeit des Gerätes 
C2/£2 des Projekts '*Wasser» 
fall«. 

Vorläufiger Bericht über die 
Messungen der Scharniermoftente 
an Luft rudern für Projekt 
„WaBaerfall-. 

Druckverteilungamessung aa 
C2/K4/L4/P15/R5/0° des Projekts 
„Wasserfall •* bei Ma - 1,8?. 

Weiterer zusammenfassender Be- 
richt über Dreikomponenten- 
messungen und Nullmoaenten- 
messungen. Messungen an weite- 
ren 17 Formen des Projekts 
„Wasserfall«. 

ErgänzungBbericht zu 66/155: 
(s. lfd. Nr. 12) 

Schwingungsmessungen im Wind- 
kanal am Gerät C2/E2 und einer 
verwandten Form des Projekts 
„Wasserfall«. 

Windkanaluntersuchungen über 
die Drall aus Steuerung am Ge- 
rät 02/E2 des Projekts „Was- 
serfall«. 

Vorläufiges Ergebnis de^ Druck- 
verteilungsmessung am 
02A4/L4/P15/R5/0® des Pro- 
jekts „tVasserfall« bei Ma « 
0,60, 0,84, 1,56, 1,86, 2,50. 

Vorläufige Ergebnisse aus 
ochwingungsmessungen im Wind- 
kanal am otrahlmodell des 
Geräts 02/E2a. 



Prof. J^ordsa 



Dr. V^gsDsr 



Dipl.-Iiig. 
Sckert 



Dinl.-In«. 
Erdmann 
S. Hermann 

Dipl.-Ing. 
Raffel 



Dr. Wegener 
Dr. Wegener 

Dr. Wegener 

Dipl.-Ing. 

Brdmann 

B.Herrmann 

Dr» Wegener 



RFStRICTED 



42 



mx/TL 



Archiv Nr, 171 g.Kdos 



Lfd, Archiv-Nr. 
Nr« und Datrum 



Titel 



Verfasser 



21) 
22) 



24) 

25) 

26) 
27) 



2'J 



50) 



^/VA 150 g. Über Aufnahme und .Auswertung 
vom 16.^,^.1944 von Oszillogrammen schwingen- 
der Modellkörper im v.indkanal. 

wVa 152 gK. Messung der Druckverteilung 
vom 5.12.1944 an einem schwenkbaren Ruder 

für Projekt „Wasserfall '• (R 12). 

if/VA 153 gS. Vorläufige Ergebnisse der ./ind~ 
vom 31.10.1944 Windkanalentwicklunrr von Rudern 
jiit Hilfsrudern zur Steuerung 
des Geräts „vVasscrf all". 

fc'/Vn. 159 gK, Scharnierraomenten- und bteuer- 
vom 1.12.1944 barkeitsmessuni^en mit dem 
„>* as serfall "-Ruder 21. 

.7Va 165 gK. RUvierentwicklung im ..'indkanal 
vom 20,5.1945 zur Raketensteucrun- im Unter- 
und Überschau. 

.IV:. ir>6 gK« Zun ö-ochlaf^ der oteuerbar- 
vom 5. 5.1945 keit3kurven des Geräts „.^asstr- 
fall". 



Dr. Wegener 



Dipl. -Ine . 
Eckert 



Dr. »Vegener 



Dipl.-Ing. 
Eckert 



Dr. './e[5ener 

Dipl. -Inc. 

Eckert 

Dr. V/ec-cner 



i;. Vorbe- 
le it ur.r^ 



28) TH Darastadt 



•V.. 57 '•. 
vom ?1 a tu 1941 



Die Nullmomonten-Meümethode . 



Berichte über .'chv-inniunner, des 
-vg[;;ren:ates um sci.ien -ochwer- 
pu-ikts 5., 11. f 1^^.» 14. ui.'d 
li:, i.-eric' t. 

Experimentelle Ui.t or Guchun.;;^ 
der Eremstemperatur u:.d des 
M arme über gan^^s an einfachen 
Körpern bei Lberschallc©- 
sch'.vindi^:keit. 



rom I7.i2.i943 Patentschrift: Tanaemanordnu.ig 
von xrag- und Leit\^erk. 



Dipl.Ir;-. 

Kret:3 3limcr 



Dr. . chneller 



Dr. >:ber 
(Diss.) 



Dr. Kurzweg 



43 



Definitionen und Bt.>^-ichn(jngen , 

C2 * Wasserfall B'Einsat2gerQtt Nr. zur Unterscheidung 
K « Körper R » Ruder 

fauch Index) (auch Index) 

D »Kaliber F '-^D^ 'KoUberfläche L' Länge 

Vd 'Abstand des Gerateschwerpunktes in Kalibern von Düsen hinterkantt 

^/O ' Abstand des Uiftangriffspunktes in Kalibern von Düsenhinterkante 

^ff^"^*LuftkrQhhebeLarm des Gesamtaggregats 

^ * Abstand der Ruderdrehachse in Kalibern von Ruäery order- 

^ ' Luftkrahhebelarm des Ruders 

OC » KörperansteUwinkel, Winkel zwischen Anström h cht ung uGeschcfl- 

längsachse.pasitiv bei Neigung der SpiUe unter dieAnströmrichtung 

ff « Ruderausschlag gegen das Leitwerk gemessen, positiv bei A us - 

Unkung der Ruder hinter kante über die Geschoß Längsachse. 

y « Querneigungswinkel ^ y » Winkel zwischen Flügel uUHwerks - 

o ■ ochrankwinkel einzelner Flachen gegen Geschoß Längsachse 

Ma-^ 'f^^*^<'<^^^<^^* ncli^keitfAnströmqeschwindiQkei t) 
o örtliche Schallgeschwindigkeit ^ 

§ « Luftdichte g'§ w^^ Staudruck 

A • Auftrieb, *V- ll^iderstand , N' Normalkraft, AI' Moment 

N^ - Rudernormalkraft, Mf^' Ruderscharniermoment, A^i 'DraUmoment 

A . Oompfungszahl 

^' 'qT^ ^''^^^^^'onsloserAuftriebsbeiwert^q^^^M dimensionsloser H/,derstonas 

. <^n' ^ * (^irnensionsloserNormalkraftsbeiwert,Cnt'^' dimensionsloser Momenten 

^c ' q^'^*'^^^^'^^^<^^^'^^'"<^^^^^^f^ert,c^^^^^ 

^ Mr . , n ^fr^pfungsbtit¥erC 

^R^^:f%^ ^^f^^^fonsloser Ruderscharniermomtntenbeiwert 

*' ^ * G(^itxohl n^A' LastyieLfaches . Auftrieb 
^ ö Gewicht 



Archiv Nr. I^IgKdos 



Abb.1 



n 



WVAIFL 



J^asserfali' 
Schußbahnen 



I Rachschuß 

ImimenrSehufi 

MStmUchuß 

W Trtßör vorBnnnaUtluß 




Jssu 



~i ? l S n 3 Ti 3 S 2 2 » 

Modische Zahl, Staudruck und 
\qlgl \i SchwerpunktsyerlaufaisFunktion 




45 



WYA/^L 



Archly' Nr y^i ^ Kdo^ 



Abb.2 



Wasserfallent Wicklung 



// 



r 



n 



c 



) 



-~) F-fS6/lt3 




L 



( 




) 



f622/j,s 



\"'J 



^ 



i^ 



j^' 



5' 






I L \J 



i?t2 






p 




en 



I 




KZI 



cn 



^ 



pe/ar. 



2o.2.t^S 



46 



RESTRICTED 



Abb. 3 



Archiv Nr. 1^1 gKdos 



C2lE2 

Wasserfall 



Kaliberzeichnung 



$«pr : 




$.t.Hs m ^ i «i^ 



47 



iHAjFL 



Archiv Nr. 7?7 gKdos 







2 
^ 




48 



ArcJhi¥ an 7^7 gKdas 




M*?:*feif 



49 



WVA/FL 



FL 66? 
Scharnietmomente 

der j^asserfaU' Ruder f2u.21 



— «.jj 

•to* 



Ma'Q60 



fAo'tm 



Ma'1ß6 



Ma'2J92 




50 



WVAffL 



Archiv Nr. m^Kdos 



Abb.9. 



fm^ 



/m.n 



FL6&3 



.1 StfSumharMtskuivmJ/fhsseiM 

C2IEZ 




» 


c** 


^Me.atof43* 


y^Mo'HiO 


J» 


/ 


c 


19 


\ 


\ 


» 




j yMO-tH 


«' 


/ 


/ yma-ZjH 


«' 


// 


^"^x 


S 

A 


r 


f» 


'i 


r ^ 


■ib -n -M 'h -» 



1f(f(2kii0tr) 



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51 



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Mam 0,1 Parameter ff 



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52 




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k ä A ^ — WS — W 



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im fclia wiafl tWMMl 



A balaae« for ■#ft®iir#a»Bts la th« 
wind tusiA«! 1« ei«»s@£lb»d wbioh 
pevalts tiM Aiff®x»Q&o« b«tw««a two 
fore«8 %o %»« iB«ü8uSE>«d tegr ■•&»« of 
• bridge for n^aaurlag «Uotrloal 
roslsta&o®« 



We8««rbau-Vifrtuohfi«ii« talt 
2 BS, Post Of fie« Box Vo. 60 

Munohon, 26*11-1944 



5f 



A Aiff#r#ntt> baUnoa for — MWlmg fbrotp 
in tb> wiad tttimoX 



Su—i nr 

1. Priatlpl« of tho difforoaoo boXaao«. 

S« Adjusting ooaditioa of tfao britffo 

for aoasurlag tho olootrieol ro- 

OiatABOO* 

9« Sxoeiation of tosto aad noasuroMoato • 
4 • Svanary • 



Um report 66/142 (on th« ua« of •l«otro-masn«tlc syitMia of 
prosaur« ■••■«ring boxos as tba ■•ana of naaauring in tha 
balaAo«) abow^d briafly tha auitability of tha alactro-mag- 
natic ■^fstaaia of praaaure maaauring boxaa for maasuramanta 
of fbi*o«« m particular, tha ayatam of tha S Box with a 
laainatad Ka-Hatal-Cora (Topfkam) acta vary wall in raapact 
of tha atraigihtnaaa of the gauga curva« tha aanaitivity and 
tha Inaapandanaa of tha tamparatura« Tha aanaitivity can ba 
ineraaaad b^ uaing tha aaoond box alao aa a naaauring box in 
tha bridsa« 

1) Prindpla of tha diffarenca balanca » 

Tha praaant Baaauring practice in tha ivind tunnel gives two 
■aaauraaiaaita (naln and diaphragm Beaturements) the difference 
of wihieh than givea the true forcea on tha model under exami- 
nation« Biia maaauranent becomea more inaccurate the analler 
tha diffaranea between the main and diaphragm measurement in 
a giwon aaaauring accurac^r. 

If tifta main «aaauramant fl and tha diaphragm meaaurement 
B mrm aaaavrad with a pareantaga inaecuraoy of p %, the 
d«viatiiMi aaonata to H>p or B>p > Tha parcentaga error of tha 

ISO ISO 
diffapano« 8 • B baeonaes 



S^rf P(H 4- B) ^ 



H - B 

In oiHSar ta avaliiata this^ lat tha main naasuranent show a 
daflactien 0f 100 Skt and tha diaphragn naaaurement of 90 &kt 
saaaurad witl» a& accuracy of 2f» Tha maaauring accursicj of 
tha ätttermm® H « B s lo ia than 2*190 % « 38%« Tha maaauring 

—IS" 
mtr^» of ^Is« Aift^vnce incraaaaa thua by these probable 
fi^raa liivoughottt up to approximately 20 timaa tha uiiount« 

Thia lad to tha idaa of finding tha difference electrically 
in tha ifoaiatanoa bridge« For thia purpoaa» it ia neceasary 
to bava «railabla^ for tha maaauring of ona component ^ two 
apring ayatotts« ona of which maasuraa tha forcea at tha sag- 



6! 



mtnt and holder, vhil« tht oth«r ■••fur«t th« total fore«* 
Consaquantly, tha ttptant and modal holdar muct eonaiit of 
two äqual parta in raapaet o7 tha aarodsrnaailo bahavlor, ao 
that tha foroaa at thaaa parta ara äqual during tha blovln« 
procaaa* To be mora indepandant of tha aisa of tha ra- 
aultant forward load, both springa muat poaaaaa axaetlj tha 
aama charaotarlatloa« 

2) Adjuatln£ oonditiona of tha raalatanca bridga» 

Aa it waa naoaaaary to ainohroniia tha brldga qulokly 
with tha aimplaat and laaat poaaibla handlinc# taata wara 
mada to find out whioh inflvianea mada an alteration of tha 
linka of tha bridge« 

Saoh apring waa provided with twa boxea to increaae tha 
aenaitlTlty (compare report 66/142 p* 4). The box ajatam of 
the aacond apring acta in tha bridge resiatanee in the op- 
poaita aenaa* In each of the four branchea of the bridge 
liea an inductance core L with a fixed Ohm reaiatanee portion 
R* The condition for the abaence of tenaion in the branch 
of the bridge la thent 




> 



Aa a atandard for deaTnohroniting tha bridge« the eise of 

the bridge deteminant 9Twb i^ieh in tha oaae in quaation ias 

D « (R84 jwL2)(Ra* jwLs) - (»1 + Jwli) (R4 4- JWL4) 

« R2R3 - R1R4 - w^d^I« - I.1I4) 

•fiw(R5Lg Rglg - R4L1 - R1L4) 

8 A 4- jB 

nie determinant can be divided into an actual portion 

A a R2Ra - R1R4 - w«(Lglg - tiL4) 



62 



and aa UMiginArgr pert lost 

Vh« «189 of %lM brldg« 4«%eniiBABt thM !!▼•• la th« AiJB 
l«T*l^lis distaae« fro« tte befiaBliif pelat of tte eoor«liiat# 
•nd is tin« %hi ttMiAard tor th« d«ixm«hroaltAtlos« The 
brldf« 1« then •xaehrealied if the bridge detejnslhAat it sere* 

The eoBditioa of edjattaeat e«a be falfllled hj e Tariable 
bridge llak» The leeue eurre la the AjB level best repre- 
dueee the iaflueaee ef this Ttrieble la the bridge eonditiea. 
The Boet eiaple ere the eheageeble eeateet reilstaneef • Th« 
loeva ourTe for oheageeble B is, for exeaplo« • atraight liae 
with the exie aeetloa« 

-•■^^z »^3 - ft ('?»L» + C.L,-RU.)^*('-a.-^.i4 

at tha A axis ax^ -v 

•t fh» JB udLa. 3h« laelinatlon «f this straight Una la thani 

The iaeliaatioa of the approprlata looua euTTO at tha rar lab le 

' *•' Kt «J - e- (R. U+ lf.L, -R, U ) - w* (LtL, - L. U) 
Aa Rx *^ ^» ** ^"^^^ *^ ^1 ead««£u in the foragoixig caae are 
not Torr dirfarant. Tha inclinationa of both atraight linaa 
do not diffar w9TJ auoh froa each other» 

Tha ssraohronlBation of the bridgt follows b^ changing a 
link of tha bridge, i.e. 9 Miniaun la aought on tha approp- 
riata looua lina« which ia then apparently raaohad bj fiadiag 
tha nadir of tha parpandicular from tha beginning of tha 00- 
ordinatea at tha looua Una. 

The regulating accuracy dpaada on the aenaitlTlty of the 
circuit* Thereupon« with the help of a aaoond changeable 
circuit« a new ■iniaua ia found and ao on« and thua auooaalTaljr 



63 



•ppro«eh«s th« final sTiiohronisatloA (bridf« d«t«niltt«it D 
•qual to ttro). lb« «or« ofto^ on« approaoho^ tiM b^giaalB^ 
of tho eoordlnating x>oint with ono stop, tha «iti«kar tba 
•rBObronlaatioii la bx»ought about* 

Tha atandard for tha eonvarganoa of tba brldga ayaaluroKisatloa 
according to KnpfMllar lae 



k • 10, § . log ,„ TjjVasT 



WQ|W dx ^2» ao tha aonvarganaa la aztraordlnarllor bad« 
(Plan 2) 




Zf thla la aada varlabla In ralatlon to Lx« tha loetia linft 
outa out tha aactlona: 1 



<4 



•t th# 



The Inollnctlon with the variable I^ la evidently essentially 
different from the Inclinations of the locue line» with the 
variable Rj^ or R^. Here, the convergence la better (Sect. S) 

Pox» the circuit in question, k has approximately the value 
0»S, l.e« that after approximately 4 adjastaents, the current 
In the bridge diagonal has fallen to the twentieth part of its 
initial value (4*k log 20). 




*) ^»ettti@n of teats and aeasurewents . 

In practice, the vsriable I was represented by a small 
wound up coil, into which an iron screw could be more or less 
turned« The ohangoable resistance was aa usual a contact 
wire body. Two stretched plates of the ususl kind of iron 
and neasuring 150 x 60 x 10 nm were uaed in an improvised 
for» as springs. The neasuresients were checked ss accurately 
•8 possiblo fbr both plates. The deflection of the plates 
aaountad to 0.14 ■■ under s load of 10 kg. On the front, the 



65 



weight holders wert eerewed up« The air chinks of the four 
boxes were made as accuratelr equal as possible* As« in 
spite of this, the bending or the springs was not absolutely 
equal and small differences occ\ired in the sizes of the 
chinks, the head screw of the one spring was extended end 
provided with several wedge shaped nuts, which could be put 
Into the weight holder« By adjusting this screw, a completely 
equal deflection of the apring can be achieved. There then 
occurs a snail hysteresis of the spring of approximately 2 to 
3^ by increasing and decreasing the load, which can probably 
be explained by the stretching of the springs as with the 
springs in the wind tunnel. By relaxing this attachm«nt, this 
hysteresis disappears within the maximum measuring range of 
30 kg« 

Measurements were made with different air chinks end for- 
ward loads« As an example, gauge lines were repeated for each 
box with chinks of 1 and 2 mm. The measuring points were 
taken without forward load, and at 2 kg and 6 kg. (Plan 4) 

4) Summary » 

A balance arrangement for foree meaaurenents in the wind 
tunnel is d«seribed, which is designsd to build up the dif- 
ference between main and diaphraga messurements by an eleo- 
trical method in a resistance bridge« For the detenaination 
of the force, only one measurement is thus necessary« As 
opposed to the former method of separately taking the main 
measurement H and the diaphragm measurement B, the meaauring 
accuracy is oonsidersbly increased • The meaauring error of 
both methods differs by the factor 

H 4- B 

The eonditions of adjustment for s rspid and exact adjustment 
of the bridge are deduced« A smsll vsriable induotiwity must 
still be connected into s branch of the bridge near a variabl« 
resistanee« 

The difference balance has been experimentally teated in 
two provisional spring srrangementa « 



66 



SKT 

30 

^6 

26 
24 
22 
20 



«£ 



6 
4 

2 



Äfc*?K Mr 66/ /5ö Sc.U9 



v^lRCHIMK (Tum) 

/ tuffspcUt /mm 



Y 



/(AIR CHINK ztnm) 
Luffspalt Fmrrf" 



/ 



/ 



/^ 



' / 




/ 



/ 



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(ArDPuniÄ-MCA3üÄiw€ RANae s) 



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7 



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67 



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-^- 1^«-- -^ 







3* ixthJC 



CLASSIFICATIOfI CHA^fiMD 



■V AUTWoiy^gy re at«c 

. OC3CVO 



•V J. M. Oc3CVOI^C. t»T UT. 
OATC 



FILE OOPY 

'return to 

.ÄUnstvuon-imeh.nencen-2) 



l^f Doc.m ns b 






68 



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I 

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69 



ee n^M^o 



-,^'e£<5S/ 



f. 



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70 



p, 



ee nemtin^'^ 




hB'c/eni ei^^ 






71 



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f^pr<s^^t*M hu ßolW^^-^^r von^r^nn 




'Bfi }-] in 

Su6 See"/ 10 h^ 

\^5' - Sf eu €y- 






F.'fti 



>"'^S 



fu^ls- 



7Z 






74 




\j yiy^t^ r//rl U/&^J2 



kSLJx C'^^'^:^'.-. 



ß^u 



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cyc/ I g//^ <^ — J tj A n^ <z n 






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77 






U0 sec.t,an^ f^lzSErAf^CH - Hunt(oc4r^^ 

/n e,a.sur<zni<zn t - NAC k h 



78 




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H- c St e- p 'i 

(t <<^ IB b a 



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« rt- (» h "0 O H- 


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M 


iu IS « • A 1] 


• 


jni rt- d- K- >i »«• O 


o 


IB H- «a H- p ^1 H- 


'rt- 


tr^-^o B rt- C 


^^ li 






H- H t^ (S t»0 


• ;^- 


•?&f3.^^g1S 




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O -rt 


Hi-D 


H> p 






P 




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(S 


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to 



S-; ' 



r^ 


M HI w ta 


^ 


O »d 


4 


T) 


a 





B 


P 


» 


a 


H- 


m 


4 





O 


r* 


l-J 


«+ 


(» 


ra 






p. 


2 


M 


o 




g 


13 


o 




1 


<t 


!-•• 


W 


«rt- 


H 


<+ 


tr 








r*^ 




o 


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O 


IB 




H- 


M 







•>i 


I-" 

a 


<g& 






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H- 








c 




IB 




H 


<» 


H- 




V 


w « 


tS 


ss 




r 


B 


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Oyaa3f;d^!^atl^n of the KleotrQiaQOhanJ.gohe Werke Peeneimxndo Kaat « 



Distributed to oertain member?» of the staff of thia Organ- 
iaatioa was an Organizations Plan, several oopies of which oame 
l2ito out hanäs« • 

fh» framework desorLbed below is that detailed in the Organ- 
is^ations Plan dated the Ist.Ootober 1944. Some 500 em-loyees of 
the total of 4fi00 were houeed^in the i>iYisional Headquarters at 
Gan&l 80h^Part«2üar ohen» 

3!he Organization was arranged aooording to a deoimal system 
In fiTt main departments eaeh department being sub-diTided intu 
seotiont.SLnd «ub«>8eötion8* She head of a department would boar a 
8i2isle number auoh a« SWJg, the head of a section SWB3 and a head 
of a aub-seotion W^&ZQ* She ranic and file were denoted by four 
figure numbers» She organization was as follows; 

1« M&nag«nent* 

U» DeveXopment* 21 Design 

22 Eleo trotte ohnioal work 
B3 Ground. Apparatus 
£4 Progress 

Z\ Worlcs 31 Preparatory ahsembljr 

3S Syeotion 

33 Scores 

34 General Assen^ly 

4« fest 41 BacperiB^ntsa 

42 Power Unit tests 

43 Oontrols and Test apT>aratus 

44 Instrostional 

6. Purohase 51 Orders and alio oation 

as Aooounts 
as Staff 

®ie detailed organization of one seetion of Depaartaent 2 is 
flhovn tti 

Diagram mmber*-**«« 



82 



fhc organi^^ation of tho Siektro lleahanaohe Werke in sfioot 
at Karislsagen in Ootober 1944 was aa follows | 

Supervision-General öormborger atid Jiaff • 

fke firaa was 4©Tidei under irof • v* Braiiu into six dep- It 

artaentse 1 

Is) i)@Yelopm©nt (3) Production {4} Testing (5) General Adm. 
(6) Acoo'unts» 
X« l^ie Oeirej^Qpai ei>t OODartmexi t (2) luoder Dornberge r was further 
al¥lt#i iato 3 aeotions« 

iBaxuieburg) (Steinhoff) 

|21i Plfanias C^igj Sleotrioal Apparatus, S3 Gen. E^uip. 
( Euter )♦ iJiiese three branches were broken down 
Into smaller seotionse 
IBX) Planning!- Design Gen. (öanneberg) 

Statio (Heliebrand) 
Stabllltz Heaearoh (Bornsoheueri 
A-4 Design (Sohalza) 
Wasserfall Bösign (Patt) 
Taifun Dogign(Danr.eburfi) 
Fittings (MiUineer) j( 

Fuels CHeller) ! 

Mat Regearoh (S teurer) 
Printing ab Photo (de Beok) 
iZB) Sleotrioal Appar- 

tus| Ciroiuts (Wierer) 

Control (Muller 11} 
Measurements (Kirohstein) 
Operations^ (Brutzel) 
Prelin (Desta (Böhm) 
fests & Srials (Debus) 
Statio Grad Outfits (Friohtu) 
Assembly (Heubert) 

Buildings iliShraen) 

3*e st Buildings (ITesaman) 

Spoa Vehicles (Elmer) 

frans port Service (v iiebhabor) [i 

Spare Parts ^ 

€k)nstruotion (Welntraud) 

II. «h© production Dept. (3) was divided into four seotio a 

Admin (fie^s) 

Control Pla^ng (Kuers) 

Stores (Schäfer) 

Job Control (de Tries) 

III. She testing Dept (4) was divided under the control of 
Schilling into three smaller departments i- Eesearoh (Huaburg) Ord Eau3 
iPoppeli measurements (H&ckh) as follows; 

(a) Eesearoh Wasaeirfall.*^. - . lost Equip 

laifun lest Bldgs. 

le) ICeaaurcaents;- Fuel 4b 

Prop\2l8ion j 

I?. She Geal. Admin, was divided into lighting quarters &| 
Transport. She account Department was similar to any other business, f 
Jee Chart i 

83 



( 23 ) Ground Equip- 



M»^ ^'^^wm^M 



>^1^9t 



Interroj^atod 



JUst«r» Dr.. 



Bachaami, Alfrtid 
Bergaler, Hörbei^t 
Blppax'd, ^a«t 
Buhl, Horffi&R 

Barwald RudolC 



B6<iki Gerd De 
BaiaPf Antozi 
Beier^ Anijoa 
Bra\U3t P:?of . t?da 

Braan, Von ) 

Dairndxiborg ) 

iCLaus» ) 



C^ganisation of HAP 
PeanoiBiuida and £leotro 

meoh Werks tatte 



Work 

Mo bor Tanks 
Lifo History 

H u 

Work- 

Llf© History 

Radio ABpeeta of M & 
Waaserjfail, HoMing ayateina 
and prox. fu^^s 

Regulator Valve Design 



Buehold, Prof» 7h»o4er 



BilUf 



Connootion with Pednamunda 
Frequency regulating «quip 
osnt Breansohlue» & 
CoBipaneation for errors* 

Work on Tatt StanA 



Millar and stoka« 



2wioky 



Liebhafsky, Iball 
Gollin 



Block & Kraua 



Hull 



Braim, 


MagntMi Von 


Spontaneous ignition 
of Bdxdd fuels 


time 


2wicky 


Brau% 


l'sr.^F "^at 


Lor-"^ Pis-lianoe Recket 
A9 and A 10 




Hull, Houss 

Porter 


Brau», 


▼on 


ffurther work on M 
& 'liaif un 




Ueb & Gollin 


Bc^UBf 


Prof» ¥«111 


Diaeusalon on thrust 
llotors 




Qollin & Stok( 


Braun, 


Wernor 


Discussion on jet devices 
^saerfall 


Zwicky 

Hull 


Iraun, 


Hagims iron 


Ufa History 







I.1.0* 



83 



A 



Böhm, Josof 


Lif9 H5.8toi^' 




Böhm, JofiöT 


Work on mdinting of 
Control dovloQ3 A4. 


Zwickj 


BringÄr 


Work on WaBSarfall 


I.L (k G 


BauscliJUxg3r 


Lifo History 




Berg«BRnn, i'rlta 


ö n 




Broleraan, Kcr;:t 


» n 




Claua, Karpl 


Work on Töst Stand No. 11 


L. & 3, 


Dannenbarg 


Work on Jat Motors in 
General 


Zwlcky 



Dannenberg, Äoia^oö 
ft » 

David, Dr, 

Debiaß, Dr. Jlm-i 

Daiiitt, lf/^,rnar 

Dhom, Iiig, 

DanneiÄJorg, iCorarad 

Fßtt, K-urt 
Roßc»atii£l, 

Burhcso 

Dornbsrgör 

II 

II 

Donaubauor, IIa«» 

Dhon 

Dhon, Friodrlcli 

Donabergery W;ftl^ep 



Hiß work A-3, A-A, A-$ 
Ufe History 

Gar «er, Waaserfall L k Q, 

Lire Klatory 

Taifun - Waasorfall L. & 0. 

Work 

Details of Piping and Valving 
Goddfrled 






« 



Gorman Guided Mißßile ( 

Progrnffime ( 

Talfun 

Höavy Concr^t« InBtall, ( 

Calais { 

Life History 

Work at Peenemunde 

Develop of Resonating 
duot motors - Drafting Room 
Llfa History 
Xnslaxi 



Krause & 
Fllkinsoh 
Zwicky 
Stokes & 
Porter 



Sharpe-Keimey 



Block, Kraus» 
Lt. Fox. 



84 



SirerB 



Elfer», WlUi«!» 

^chlsr, Martin 
Sisele, Jt. 

Fi^Jhtner, Ilftijs 
Frieda, W'^risar 
Fricka, 3r. 



Friedrich, .t* ä^ü» 
Ceorgii rfalUr J»a. 
Qsisdler • Qjaäji 
Gois^ier 



(lis£« Eciiia 
JKitadO, JoftcMai 



i-ro j toc tila Stability £c 
Design of the Einlenk 
Computer ^;.,.-,_ ^i ; i 

Stability of Contrcl 
Squipment Waasftrfoll 

JjLfe HiswJiT' 

His Worfc 

Ciereer 

ifork on M, A5 

Llf« History 
Lif« History 

P^'of^■33io.^fal Car aar ''^ 
^eintochtar 

Life Hisuory 
• ■ 

In t«trr oga tloa 

^fesaarfall 

Coiitrol -« Wasserfall 



'*':v^i;. 



Corrtrol of Wasserfall 

lie-in fiomingbead of auto» 
targat eaeking devioo 

Life History 

lork <m Plotting & 
Iraj actor ies of M. 

Llf^ matory 

W&Bserfall 



S'nith & Wl^llcinfloil . 



Stokes 



F/Lt Block 



T/L Block •^-^^:^-'' -^-^---''^ 

Iball 

Viilkiiison 9l HvÜl 



Smith & Wilklnioii 
Sharp«, Stoicai 
Zwicky 

Stätkas & foetmt 
£lEd.th & WHkixiftOQi 



SA Sharpa^ aA SüBxvr 



äduoky 



ffS 



Mm 
matmp 9mim 
Bitsabl«r^ PtI» 
OsttgU 
0««rgU 

BDlkar. l«Mlf 



«ork OB ttuMcrf^OI 

Uf«Eiati»7 



Bdn», »Ml 

Sen« 
fiatsr» ayü 

HM«r, mitte 






II 






Aufbau d«r Dtutaohan 
Xnftfalirt 

m w _ 

Vork at BMimuiida 
Aropellants 
Ufa Hiatarj 
Irak on laasearf all 
Ufa History 
Xifa Biatorx 
Ibrk at FaanaBnindQ 
II • • 

Uf» Bistor/ 

a a 

ffoik 

iork 

OonputlQg nananta fear 
laaaarfall 

— — •- 

IDfK 



Ptortar & Stoka« 



Stokaa ft P6rt«» 
Svlolqr 

Uabhaf alqr k OaUla 



SA Sanny« S/L Shavy« 
Stokaa & Portat 



Stokaa * Htim 



86 



üAil« ani«rt 


Lifts Bistorx 


e '' 


UMhif/arMk 


m » 


""""• '^:' 


Uif%T,tmf^ 


- m ' 9 




Klrschstaia, p^pgdrich 


•1 • 




• • 


Work Qs A4 




Kirschs t«ia 

SchtiUsg 

Bosentiltat 
• 


■sastiriog Apparatus 
Telemstsriug xasthods A4 
& G2 




Ctrsche tsla 


UsasursBsnts A4 


Sharps, Xsnny 


KrsuUi, ^!^t«r 


ArofsssiozMa «ork 




KrsJ^o, M^rmt 


Oarssr 




ttiberg, KUJS 


Ufs Historsr 




Ktt^bin, KMrtavlt 


.. » » 




Klein «T^iiAJI 


Servo Gontrol Iqpiip 


Sharps, Stciss 4 
Fttrtsir 


s » 


Guidiqg OontroXy lassarfaU 


SMoky 


■ ' • 


Lifs History 




Köstsr 


Work at Fssnsmuads 




ULsdsEfburg^ Ssas 


Ufa History 




IsDgtt l]ar« 


▼-2 




UngSt Oisst 


Carssr 




Isrsssn, ai# 


DsYslopasnts of V^Hapons 




Larsssa 


Intsrrogatioa, Ososralt othsr 
Parsonuil sto* 


■anris 


Xittrstsa 






Kaust 

Ikxrdt 

»«ppslt 

Pitt» 


Mstsor 

High Vslooity 

Additional J^tsrrogatioa 


buBAloU 


MtihliMr 


lifo BiStory 






Work 






87 


■ ..... 



K&elDMhoiaer» MLU 


Career i% 


/ "";-\';^^:;* . ■ *"' ^--^.Ji 


WKntmattA 


0*02 iBgfHI 


^^;.^^i .?..-..-.. ^.^ , 


mtXUjogßm 


Uf« History 


V..:.---A.X^ 


Bswisk» mil 


tt «> 


-j>;.V ..••■•- Jr;^-^- '5 


aahlnffry IFeaohis, 


Work on Dcffler 


S/L Sharpe, s/L lenny 


nittnr8li»i% I, H« 


Idf« History 


. _,. 1^.,.^.,.«: 


aitaer Ttec4cr 


Work oil Wasstrfail 


Dr, Port Ä pA Stoke« 


Mlmtcvalri 


• Propellants ?-2 


Zwicky 


Hleklas 


Work S«|^o Jotors 


3tokas, Porter 


BBt80r 


Work on Wasssrfall 


Stokes» Sharpi 


Mi^aer & ISnltoff 


Radio Control • Haossrfall 


Sharpe» Stokes 


ottMiiia 


Stearing Contro V-2 


Sharp« 


Ät% lurt 


life Histxiry 




• •-• 


Construction • Wassarfall 


Zwioky 


PlB«lS 


life History 




FftXat& BiUicr 


Work • Wasserfall (Fual 


Zvieky 


Ffaff , aelssi 


life History 




PtdSy lolfgairif 


« a 




fflaoMji DPUt 


M » 




BMenthal 


Infira Red Equip 


Sharp« 


BMiinildt 


Iferner 




Uihmn, Surt 


Career 


QolHn A Hiebhafsky 


• • 


tif« History 


• m 


Bi^kon, WaOmU 


n 9 




lM«n1ftii 


Career & Work 




Buitsbti, lauMi« 


Uf0 History ' 


^ 


I«i0igf OwiMur« 


a a 





88 



Sasaävosa, lalt^r 
SoidOlinf , «irtia 

Solwran, «iilt«r 

sotoitty maim 

Stahl« Hmm Joaehifi 
Stainhoff , S^'X^ 
Sohuberty R^isüiard 
Schubortf Reinläurd 
Strebely it«l]i!u>ld 
Sohnucky Umio» 
Schuller^ Alb«*t 
fi • 

Saif ert 

S&hr ' 

Solnreidetil^ 
Strob«! 
3t«iahoff, ]^tt 



Ute History 



ft 






Optioal Surfsjs of tb» 
Orbits of the V-2 

Ufa History 



Career 

Ufa History 

IdfQ History 



Work 

Life History 

a a 

Work, Thrust Meaeuremont 
life History 
a a 

Tälfuay Wassarfall 

Work at PaanaBuzide 

Work • Faananunda 

T-2 Work ' 

Oode Baffioa, A-4 Radio 

Kffaot of Xxhauat Oaaat 
oii_ radio ooiiBiunleatioh 

with rockat« 



S/L Sharp« & S/Xi S»a^« 



Stokas & Port«r 



Bal> aiO 
QI. BAS 

Z.& 0. 

stokas, Houas 

2«ioky 

Zwieky 

Sharp« \ 

PcrUr 
Sharp« 
Stoka« 



89 



Stöiahoftt "^mst 


Radi® Qontrol 


« ® 


S^KSTlag Iquip, f«2 


Sauger 


IVopulsioa nozsl98 for 


Saßgsr &t Xx^« Sofsa 


!9^ Alisrisg 


« 


ExpArinents for ooaX 
firing for athodyd 


fG9TimBm% mm» 


Career 


fsit« 


Caraor 


TsasB®, H^iiSPi^ 


Idfd Hiatorj 


TOttfdli, B«»H3«rl 


Ufe History 


?«l«t, 4H^ 


» • 


f^NM^ Tb^edfl» 


« • ^ 


l^irqr Blusi 


INuraer 


t » ' 


Lif« Hietopy 


T&asm 


Auto ataMHsatioa 
Pilotles« flying bomi» 



F.S.S. 



W^iroir 


flmiM 


Weifte, 


Htlsmtl 


W«iJI8» 


Hftlȧtt 


» 


» 


• 


• . 


2ai«l, 


mofgßo^ 


?.olka. 


mM& 



mUHGtn 
Block 

hk(h. 

Porter a> Stokit 



S/L Sharp« & X^aaiQr 



Vehic^os iiaad for SloetridL 
and radio gaar at oparational 
«hoot« of A4 

Mfa History 

fargat aeakiag aqaip Orouad to Snith & Ülkiaio« 
Plana 



Bo^ng syeteaa a.S.P« 

Bomiog Dariaa, Xn ftra Rad ^ Svioky 
Ufa History 



O 



pparational Data of «iqgly 

oonstruotad parts of driirinf 
gear for tho f-2 

latarr. work on ?-2 Zaieky 



UUMtg AXNvt 



Ute Sistory 

90 



8Qh«iae of jet »otars 

Contents of JR«iX Oftzu 

DooiOMnt« zr««et«4 fro» 
Eailmy car« tt Ftiting 

Utter to Q^mmxa&r of 
Asarloaii Trftopi 

Rocket X>eirel0|pB«nt la OerTnamr 
1929 to 1945 

Verncr Toa m^mm Report - 
Development Äf Uquid Rockets 
in GdritaBQr« 

Rocket Motot fwt Station. 

Ihitter Intarcaptftr ^jeot. 

PeeneHonde «iadtniiBel as aa 
«rtUltry lOd« 



JUL 



» Work of L90 Brandt & Kotowskl 
C. Hilar 



HAV TSCH Mt». 
Idebhafaljy, 



91 



Sockot Davolopmant in Germany 1929 - I945 
i'lQcktro Mechanischa Werks - PeenaidttncLa 

The use of the roaket as a maans of travel thru space has been 
XQ suh^act of discussion among many m^n in the past and has prov3d go 
^ffer an outlet for the seemingly abstract views held by many German 
scientists» Similar to many other developments the first st'';p in adv- 
ance into space has bem brought about s one of the necessities of war, 
A St- dy of rocket development in Germany can best be illustratad as a 
study of th? experiences and records of uhousöinds of scientists, esroerts 
and workmen working und3r thi direction of Ma^or G^n? Dornberger and 
J^of . Ton Braun who were responsible for the managemmt of the Slecktro 
Mecliaaische Werke •» Peenenriinde » 

A nvLJaä>Qr of inventors prior to 1929 had 33q)erimented individually in 
atteapting to davelope various types of liquid fire rockets, but in all 
case» theiy activities were curtailed due to the lack of financial assis-^ 
taace* After 1929» the foremost and most ent jrprisi e; of these inventors^: 
^ealiaiag the hopelessness of individual effort, dedided to form into 
growps and pool their resources in the hope that further developement | 

Sias Oj resoaed. One of these groups, the »pocket Plying Held" at Berlin f 
haa a Weraar Yon Braun as a student among its members» Shis action of 
ccabiaiag iaowledge and money met with some success, and at first per- 
»Itted of staple fundamental tests with rocket-combustion chambers g and 
lat«r^ small uncontrolled liquid rockets were actually fired» fhese 
rockets reached heights up to 1Ö00 meters and were landed for further 
sUse by means of a parachute» Once again however th ; work of these grouysi 
,v^ slow >d down by the lack of cash» 

^ In #anaary 1930 a Walter Bomberger, an officer in the Eeichswahr. 
<jnd who had graduated as Dipl» Ing» from the Technisle Hochschule B^lin 
in 1929 was posted to the War Dept as a rocket expert» He was there 
given the assignment of developing rockets for war purposes by Äa;jor 
Öen« B Be^ar who was then in charge of the Weapons Office of the War 
Ministry (See Org Chart HOI)* The only factory associated with rocket 
manufacture at this time was located at Wesennunde where black powder 
rockets for sea rescue work were produced» It can be readily understood 
then that Bomberger experienced considerable difficulty in obtaining a 
suitable building for development work and in placing ordars with varicus 
flnas for individual parts. A proving ground near Berlin was used for i 
testing purposes» I 



After overcoming the initial difficultias the results were so faroi 
Bhle that th© first large scale trial could be attempted in conjunction 
with troops in 1939. This trial was on a weapon of ver^ Xight constr- 
mction, of 10 cms diam« using a powdar fuel^ and having a range of 6 kms^ 
The results of this trial proved that this weapon could be us id to advan' 
age im saturating a definite area wit? "-j.gh explosive ammunition, and in 
tfil» way part of the normal field artillery assignment could be carried 
ovt St less ezpezise# 

Iforther developmmnt was then undertaken on the transition to smoke* 
less powder and tei5)erative and sensitivity problems» then» after the 
^oastmcticm of simple launching devices, the following weapons were 
-' ^eloped 1b rapid Sttccessioai 



92~ 



'n 



(Giinan lockst Devalopaji^nt 1929 -^ 1945)^ oontlnuad 

15 cm Jlebdwerf er ( So werf sr) 

21 cm •• 

Haavy Wur^gerät • 

28 cm Heavy Werfer 

32 cm Heavy Werfer 

35 cm Heavy Werfer 

Panzerwerfer 

Panzerchreck 

It must be borne in mind that the development of these we^ons was 
always under the direction of Dr Dombergeri and, when he considered the 

?ropellants, construction and munitions etc satisfactory^ further product- 
ion was left to tha industrial firms« ▲ few of the firms producing fuels 
for powder burning rockats wjre WASAG DAG (formerly Alfred lobel) and 
Wolfe and Son in the Walsrode, 

During the period of d3velop3ment on powder burning rockets Dr Dorn«» 
iber|er having be n assign 3d by th« Weapcns Office (sea Org Ohart fo l) 
to develope rockets for war purposes, had not lost sight of the signif«» 
icance of the liquid fuel burning rocket and considered it one of the 
revolutionary technical discoveries of the 20th Century^ He had followed 
with intense interest the activities of the various groups of rocket 
enthusiasts, syB^athiiing with thair difficulties and anticipating their 
objectives» tealizing that without financial backing this phase of rocket 
develop ement was doomed to a serious setback or even failure, Dr Domber-» 
gar obtained the necessary ftpproval to deyelope liquid fuel rockets for 
war purposes in 1932. In order to take advantaf^e of the experience 
gained in the past by those working on liquid fuel rockets It was necess*« 
ÄPy to select men of outstanding ability from among the groups of inven-^- 
>X» whose develop ements were most advanced. Th3 first to be chosen and 
^rought under control of the Weapons Office was Werner Von Braun who was 
eansidered to be more advanced than the remainder. This offered to Ton 
«ra«a the opportunity to continue development on rockets* the future of 
«llch he was most enthusiastic and permitted him to continue r,tudy at 
the f echnischo Hockscule. Such men as Drs Riedel and Hodulf were quickly 
leailstad to aid Jjsc Domberger and Ton Braun(see Org Chart 1) 

A saall test field was sät aside on the proving f round a t Hermmer- 
S'J^.?^ *^® P^ o^ o^ t.he functioning of the liquid propelled rocket was 
öitabllshed after tedious fundamental research in 1933« Often standing 
oey sM night at the construction bench, and in the workshops, these 
engineers calculated, drafted, and finall« finished the first combustion 
chafers for the thrust of 300 kgs» The Choice of fuel to be used was 
governed by performance data and of availability in Geiafny» 

In the Summer of 1934 a trial was made on a small rocket i2 of 300 
^ ^^®* ®^^ stabilized bz a rotating pay load and which reached a height 
or 2000 meters* In the interim^ propulsion \mit8 with thrusts of 1000 
and 1500 kgC exhaust velocities 2000-2100 m/see and specific fuel comsump^ 
4 n ^*^^ -^^^ *^®' ^°^ hQ&n developed at Xermmersdorf and tested on 
! special test stand«. It soon became evident however, that fermmersdorf waub 
i£?,^¥^*5ö small for further development on itPS^^? 1*00*©*'» aSd »ore people 
jwould be required if a long range*^l£quid fuel rocket was desired« 



93 



.arman Eocket pevelopement from 1929 to 1945, continued 

The Weapons Office attenrptad at this time to interest industry in thei 
futixre deTelopement of rockets but it v/as evident that past results wer 3 

•''*^f4'^§??^$^.tS°^5-"^^^'^^9^^^1^, "^o«,^^stii^ the espense involved» Dr Domberg« 
- aiizsa then that unless the Weapons'^Off ice Continued vdth the^w^k thai 
;.t)cket developement would remain at a standstill. He approcked Generals 
fritsch and Kesselring of the German High Oommand and explained existing 
cond itions and future possibilities« His interviev/s were so convincing . 
3QCK that his proposals were considered and then approved. Dr Domberger 
then augmented his staff of liquid fuel experts by such addition« from 
civil industry as he saw necessary (seo Org Chart Ifo 1) 

In choosing a site for a rocket developement station several factors 
had to be considered and weighed such as (a) secluded position, far from . 
large toTOis, (b) favorable weather conditions , (c) reasonably satisfactory 
coanranicationsi and peenomünde on the Ost Sea was selected, here alone waa 
it possible to have in Germany a range along the coast of 5oO Bas with 
suitable observation posts,. Construction of an experimental station was 
begun at this location in 1936» 

Xt was already recognized at this time^that the developement of rocke- 
showed promise both in the field of aeronautics as well as in the army, 
therefore it was decided to build two separate establishments at Peenemünd^ 
one for the Air Force and one for the Army» At Peinemiinde West an airfiel 
"4^ built for t) sting rocket aircraft and pilotless rocket propelled air- 
craft as well as auxiliary devices for standard aircraft, At Peenemünde 
Ost compre lensive test beds said workshops were set uj; to test rocket drivei 
and controls, 

\ At a total cost of approximately 300 0(M3 Gold Marks* a completely k 
i^^lated but most modern and technically intersoting station was Eonstructt 
Ifo twit hst and ing certain difficulties encountered by this group of sciential 
in the skepticism shown by highly influential officials in the government 
including Hitler himself throughout the various stages of developmsnt 
during the war^ this amount of money must impress people of all nations 
that Germany did consider the rocket as the future offensive weapon and 
would eventually replac* the most effective bombing aircraft. 

After the necessary developing facilities (high velocity wind tinnilsj 
work shops, electrical facilities, teststands, sliips planes and transport) 
had been installed at Pe^nemünde development, of the A series mad 3 great 
strides. In 1938 the first trials were carried out with liquid fuel rockel 
of the A 3 and A 5 types which were fitted with an automatic control systeir 
and had rudders in the gas stream, üJhese rockets reached a height of 12 fc' 
when fired vertically and had a range of 18 JDns when fired at an angle, 
fhey could land in bad cases by means of r? parachute and be used again« 
It was found however that such rapid progress could not continue without ^a 
corresponding proportion of set backs, Consemaently* although an ordir, X 
based on the trial performance of the A 5 had"bejn given to produce a rock 
A 4 having a range of 250 An and a war head of LQOO Kgs, this could notbe 
Continued with until further information was available and was therefore 
relegated to the background for the time being. 

The development of this device necessitated the exploration of a 
^.-i^^cult new technical field. To further aggravate conditions the prograc 
'^" i reduced in priority in 1939 and part of the civil emploaees withdrawn. 

engineers an<är workers, and with the help of General JSkeir who carEie4,(:.out 
construction, Br Doriberger himsejf -..w§^ ^^^^ ^^^^ i^pttisirsle fbt-t^e 

94 



German Hocket DeTelopment from 1919 to 1^5$ continued 

training of soldiers both for the purposes of helping the encinesrs and 
f tor the purpose of training in launching (sea Org Chart ITo 2j. from 
this time onwards the "bru^t of further develppment was lefft to Dr Braun. 

In an attempt to ohtain further data on< control » aerodjaaamics and 
stabalizationi hundreds of A 5 were fired ia trials between 1936 and 1942, 
Only from the experience gain ad from these tests and the results obtained 
from wind tunnel investigations was it possible to proceed with the con- 
struction of the A 6« A few of the investigations are as follows! 

a} Wind OJunnel Tests ail all ranges of air spead between & 1500 meter« ♦ 
,b) Stability ©f the rocket, 

c) Development of the supersonic wind tunnel and measuring methods, 
,d) dlest bed investigations on the combustion chambers and the complete 
propulsion unit, ^ 

(e) Investigations connected with the stering at all ranges of airspedda 
covered by the rocket, 

(f^ Development of measu^'ing methods for plotting the complete flight 
_ path, 

fhe requisites for success were through long and productive exper«* 
iaents on combustion, pump and valves» cnntrols, and development tests 
on all parts by thousands of engine ers» experts and workmen. All this 
labor was rewarded on 3 October 19^2 when the first range trial of the 
A 4 succeeded with sufficient, accuracy of 4x4,5 Kin dispersion to justify 
an order ofB mass production* $his accuracy of aim was not considered 
altogether satisfactoi»y by the scientists however and combined with oth^r 
"^odifi cat ions approx 65 000 alterations were required before the A 4 could 
*n the middle of 1943 be considered a real mass production job. It was 
jLbout this time I 1 i^une 1945, that Domberger was promoted to Äajor Gen. 
Another point of interest is that according to Genl Domberger* the air 
raid of 1? and h& Oct 1943 did not seriously M ier the working of the 
experiments at Peenemünde, the settlement only being destroyed* 

By this time the development at Peenemiinde Ost had grown to such an 

extent that it was decided to'' ftn^m the civilian personnel therein into a 

I Company with the Reische as the shareholders, this con5>any was named the 

rllectro Mechanische Werke, under the management of Prof. Ton Braun, The 

internal organisation for the company is explained in appendix A and 

described in Appendix B* 

Gen. Domberger and his staff of scientists were still not satisfied 
with the accuracy of aim of the A ^ and radio beam devices were developed 
to improve the lateral direction control and improved propulsion cut**off 
devices were tested to reduce dispersion in range. These inprovement#**^ 
hovever were incorporated in a small scale only and were chiefly used in 
the attack on the harbor of Antwerp, Another objectionable point which 
ts required further investigation was the fact that there appeared to be a 
weakness in the A 4 which caused 40 - 50^ of these weapons to disintegrate 
at heights between 3000 and §000 meters before striking the earth, öJ^er- 
iments toeliminate the weakness took months but eventually some inmrove*- 
Äent was noted in the year of 1944, Prom these facts it will be xmder* 
stood why Gen Domberger objected to the A 4 being put into operational 
% le but after 20 July 1944, total responsibility and time of production 
.k^*as placed ii^ the hands of the SS, Gen Dorhberger was left in the 
position of technical Adviser and in charge of homo orfcanisation only 
^ee chart Bo 2) 



95 



an Rocket Development 1929 *. 19^5 , continued.. 

Under this new organisation Gen Domberger with Prof Von Braun as 3b. 
saa of the planning and design, attention to increase the rang- of the 
i-land v/hile never put into «perational'use range at up to 480 Km v/ere 
shelved. This program had of necessity to be carried out on a reduced 
late as in gonaequence at the increasingly air superiority of the allies. 
fhe development of AA rockets was given first priority and ab sorb od most 
of the personnel. A ceorbain amount of • work was however done on the A 9 
which was a further development of the A 4. The A 9 had wings which 
enabled it to glide through the stratasphere. The flight path was tim« 
increased to such an extent that the range of the A 9 was nearly double 
that of the A 4 or approx 600 Sm for the 8$i9^e fuel «onsumption. A planX 
to install spe41ial control deviees on the A 9 which would have given it 
the same accuracy as the A 4 was considered and it was proposed that the 
weapon should go into a vertical dive at the end of the glide as did the 
Ml. 

Ä0 further actual constructional development took place on the A 9 
due to the urgency of producing a defensive weapon rather than offensive, 
Xn thia connection conditions had become so acute in Germany that in Dec 
19«^}- Öen Dornberg er was placad In charge of all rocket develppmeht and 
f weapons especially ant i aircraft types in the hope that his e«perience f 
may tend to ease the situation. In his atteirpts to produce a satisfactory 
AA weapon, plans were laid at Peonemünde to develope a guided anti. airerax: 
rocket the "^Jaifun**. The Wasserfall was smaller than the A 4* propelled 
by liquid fuel and guided by radio from the ground onto the flying targeta^ 
Successful tests on this weapon were carried out but series production v;aa; 
not achieved. The Taifun is a small ground to air liquid fuel propelled 
-"ocket launcbid from rails having a range of 12 kils and a war head of 
, JO gms. This weapon having a dlam of 10 cmjs and length 220 cms may be 
fired from its projectors at the rate of 65 simultaneously or 65 spaced 
at 1 1/2 seconds Ijiterrals. 

Meanwhile Prof Yon Braun and his staff had been continuing with plana 
for future projects and had intended to design the T 9 winged rocket to 
carry a crew. Por this purpose the rocket was tote equipped with a ret- I 
racting «adercarriggei a preasurlied cabin for the pilot » manual 1 y oper^l 
ated ateering gear for use when landings and special aerodynamic aids to f 
landin g. The landing speed of the A 9 would Mmy»Ti{ ioKa^<üitMttj^^y»f xatfy ga^T ~ 
ayxiX have bem as low aa 160 Kbl per hour. The piloted A 9 would cover 
a distance of 600 km in 1? minutes. In order to increase this range it 
was considered that a large rocket A 10 would be used for assisted take of j 
upon which the A§9 would be mounted for the takeoff. By such a combin- 
ation it was felt that the A 9 would have a range of 5000 Km both in the 
piloted and pilotless types. This combination A9/A10 would fee launched 
vertically to obviate the necessity of erecting large ground launching 
devices. 

However these plans were never carri« .Xirther than test Jobs of tlie 
A9 and drawings and calculation for the AxO. aa. due to the rapid change 
of the war fronts and the proximity of the Eussiana it was decided that 
Peenemünde must be evacuated. Gen Domberger, in order to be in a better 
position to control the administration of AA. rockets in a concentrated K 
effort to oppose Allied aircraft moved to Bad SÄChsa. He was very ahortl; 
ollowad by his staff An January 1944, 



96 



Gernian Bocket Development 1929 - 19^5, continued 

i 

On March 31st the whole of the remaining personnei of the Electro 
^^hansche Werke and as much equipment as could be moved left Peanemiinde 
P >K t moved to the same district. It was found however that the food sit- 
'<tion at that point was critical, all supplies having to be transported in 
olid 30 all were «lijlpersed in and around Blebherode where Prof Yon Braun 
made his headquarters, An attempt ?/as made to set up the lab equipment 
and continue work but once again th-j rapid advance of the Bussian Armies 
caused them to hurriedly reload what equipment they could and to disperse 
t i? ^^©igbt cars and barges totvarious destinations. A portion of the 
staff and personnel left Blcickerod« but were overtaken a öarmische-^artin 
mSXS, kirchen by the unconditional -surrender of Germany. 

In conclusion it is felt that the advance mad.^ in the development 
of liquid fuel rockets is remarkable when the difficulties encountered 
are considered, The scientists themselves are of the opinion that had 
they been permitted a free hmd the A4 could have been put into operation-* 
al use at least 1 1/2 -.2 years before it was, The success of this dev« 
elopment may be attributed to the enthusiasm and energy displayed by Gen 
Dombergby and Prof Ton Braun, the fanatical drive of the scientists and 

.ithe devo.tipn of the workers to the management of the Electro Äechansche 

«Werke. 

0. Miller. 



r 



97 



As m«Btida»di «l»ewher« ia thl© report rocket development «as put on 
th« "SefflPtt» Mat in 1931 and «til iclentlata all<«red to handle these 
dociaaent« «r coBtlnne- their etudiee from that time wer e< likewise swora 
to s«ar«^* So »eetiogs ever indiciated acy immediate war demand until 
just th»e JBoatlyi before SzjglaadTand the JWiUlutl C Lu^jii declared war on 
Ger»ai5r, '"^Kiafit^i^T^ 

At that time the firit «all to Peeneaainde wae made an! the following 
basie reoearoh seleatlate were also called t 

* Dr. Boehhold 

' froi» Bai»(&) Electro» technisohne, Darmstadt 

PSrof, ialthor. Math., Darmstadt, 

froft Mffmf, Phys, Chem, Darastadt. 

PSrofa Hewtar, Slectro-Tsoh, DarRustadt. 

Prof, mmn, Iteoh, Oarastadt. 

Fyof« thum, Maohine Toole, Darsstadt. 

f^of« HoJüpiUBii, SchwaehstroB Technik, Dresden 

Prof« Staableia, « " Berlin (now Oeeeaaed) 

Prof, FasshexMäer »» « Berlin 

Prof« Heidebruoh, Maohisen Slenente, Dresden 

(Woliaaan, Staehlein, and Fasshender also are considered to be speelßllsta 

in Fanaaelde Technik) 

Tho Seetang to wiiich the above people were called was known as «mer Ta« 
der *eifli»ait». Daring the iseeting thette scientists were told about the 
larga soaXe Oawlopaents in rooket-propoUed missiles and were givwi 
•paolfio asaignsients. At that tiiae,Dr. Ste'inhcf was the individual at 
Peemicaikie in oharga of all of the eleotrieal control and under him 
Dr« Friedrlohs was in charge of development of the steering controls (bat 
zM»t of the Bi-aanschluss control) Dr« Ing. iOrohstein wa» at that time workii« 
with Passbander in Berlin, where he becaae associated with developnitnt of the 
1/T Breanachlua« equlf»ent. He later was called to Peenemonde and put la 
charge of all tgrpee of Brannschlusa control. Mention also was made of Dir« 
tMel^in charg* of all chemical work at Peenemunde. Ife r^is killed in one 
of the aar3j bombing«« 

Th« t««a of Oamstadt were most of the scientist« made their heaclquarter« 
feH into the bands of Aaerioan troops on approximately the 6 April 1945 wad 
the Coifelnod Ihtelligenoo CI)jeotiTa« Sub-Coaniittee team headed hy Lt« Ool« 
0*Mara ins^ediatel/ proceeded to see and interrogate Dr. Hans Busch in charg« 
of the admini«tratlon at the Darmstadt Technische Hochschule and then in 
rapid sueeassion Professor Ibgnsr on the physical chemistry on rocket fual«. 
Dr. A. lalthnr, mathematics researeh, Dr. R. 7ieweg technical ^ursios, 
Vr» Han« Bau, physicist. Dr. K« Klöppel on structures. Dr. Hater, speoiallst 
on electrloal «eaaurii^ devloe« and high tension current«. Dr. Theodore 
Buehhold, V»^ A. Thum on plastics. Dr. Ing Irebhebner, machine design, 
Dipl. Ii^. Re]jR]t Titschack on machine design. Dr. Rudolf Brill, Dr« Fassbender, 
Dr« H*y«ann, Dr. Fischer, Dr. Ing. Mohlner, Dr, Carl Hein» Sturm. 



98 



Sq iofiBS»al8 of any loportanoa wer« found at this targat, th« 
üalifBWlty beli^ coiapletAly deffioHshöd wl^th the exception of the PhysiMO. 
Chemlcsal BulldlTig which had been badly looted leaving nothing of ai^ rskXvm 
eaojept personal correspondence with other scientista and of ao technical 
important. 

The follewiag interrogations may shed some light on the abow named 
selentistP contribution to the PeeneBiunde actiTltieaj 



99 



MmfMkXmi Iat»rrogaUoa of Pjpof«»»©^ Dr. Carl mgosar, Utaii^n, 2ft Airil K5. 

Profwmr mg&sr wu int«rrog«t«d Ijy f/U StokM and Dr. E, H. Port«, 

RpöfMsw i^gisar «lui hmA ©f th« PhQr»l«il C^uHiioal Soetion of the 1)»dtal«ebo 
HoohseimX« Daraat^it. H® earrdod out rosoareh imdbr ths followli« gi^B headiiigst 



U nmno äf»ssdo ealcalation ©f th« oaxlmisi exit volooltio« and the mxkmm 
9cimh obtainea fre» ^variem fcusl» or fttel ■Ixturoa. Ihi» i^ in conjunction »ith 
Dr. I&lal. ^ 

2. Catals^tifi deoo^>o»itioa of hydro peroscide lairticularly at hlÄh 
oooeentratioai 1»9tirea£i SO awä 905!;, 

3. CaleiÜÄtloD« on air vaLooity in wind tuanala and deteraination of liBdti% 
factor«, fhl« «as for tlie a«ro dTnaaiea Saotioa at F»an«aunle uodar Dr. ftormmu 

4>. Sosoarcdi o» iim prmrontion of eorroslon on alac aurfaeea eithsr by using 
titanluo oald« deposits or tiy the deooataalnation of bras«. iMs work did not 
laad to asGT iM»fäl result and «as carried out for I*, jikier «bo «as in eharg« of 
the llat«pialprüfuagsal)tsiJUis^ at BMiwisuade. Devaloj^wnt of an eleotroUtlc eeU 
for use a» a precision oealoBb aeter in oonjuaotion «1th Professor Buohhold's 
Integration ac<^l@rcsa9tsr, 

5. Researdi ca eoaduction of electricity through liquids for the purpose of 
feeding electrioal energy to gyros. Various type of solutions vare exwnined, the 
last one «hi^ «as eonsldered satisfactory beii^ a solution of caioiaa hydrostide in 
prqpyl alcohol ani i^ter. The prii»iple prohle» «as the a-wsidane« of gas forsatlcm 
of the electros, lb» best results «ere obtaii»d «Ith silver sleotros, 

UbJk 

1. Detcnainaticm of electron density in sdLxturos of oodde) for «xamplo, 
sine oxide azad galliun osdde. IMs ms the basic resiat carried out «1th a «lev 
to e3GB2dnlng the possibility of increasing electronic eamision fto« Ineandesoant 
cathodes. 

2. OetexiBiRation of the phase dlagraa of the systwa potasslua atiaoi^ teluriua 
(this «as oarrled out fsr possible appllcaUon in {dioto cells). 

3. Phase diagraa of oaeslw and osQrgen (application as above) 

A. Dstersdoatioa of the oisiduoti'vlty of pyritles for possible use in short 
«ftTS detection« !Fhis «ork «as suggested \xy Dr« ^«lk«r of the Flagfunkforseha]^ 
Institute at Oberpfaff«Qhofea* 

5. DetSCTil n at i on «T the oonduotl-vity of leed suli^de also for possible us« 
in i^aort vsv» deteöti<»u As ooadttotlTlty «as asasured U) ^th triieei sul^mr 
present (b) «1th ft dftsneieasy of suJ^afa&Br and (e) «1th ti» addition «f other 
^Alphides siwh as MaaBth suljOilde and sUvwr su^^phide. This «ork «as aot 
eoa^leted« 



100 




a« BflMtrck M thi iMMpMlUoB «f BitrmHi «aCU« i» omtMt with pw« 
aiM ^^ «Id «Istiv» «f alM odd« gsUimi codd«« 




XtesMti« Alif«fl«i •etnaring U «ati-iOii*« «ll^i r«r «JJ^» tf ^,^ 

,«J ^ msfmrim^tA h^ ^— » Mggltd Ott» SL» fj« 



•oadmU^^ bt^Mtt OnlBiM MBfiMto. ft^«*«* »■f^* 'Jf^Ä ^ !•£« 
ttdTimS m dM «% tfe« «w^isti«» of Dr. TUtatfoiof ü» 9.T.I.. 



4 fttbüH «I nMMft (terias)* 



101 



A ö. 



JKSTCH OF THE BASIC OVERALL PLAH WHIGH WAS GOBTROLLING THE 
SECRET RESEARCH OF THE PEMEMÜNDE SCIENTISTS AT TIME OF 

SURRENDER! 

In the course of the designing and developing work concern- 
ing A 4 (72) an aggregate was planed, and its design and 
pre-examination brought to a certain conclusion (A9). 
This aggregate based on the idea to change the exclusively 
ballistic trajectory of the A 4 from the point of culmi- 
nation into a gliding one by the help of additional wings. 
The energy of the aggregate A4 stored up at the moment 
burning stopped would, in this case, not be used for the pur- 
pose of hitting the target with a high velocity, but would 
be consumed to a great extent during the gliding. This should 
yiedl a reduction of the velocity at the point of landing down 
to 200 m/sec. 

By this the best possible range has be'en attained for an agg- 
regate on the granted basis of fueli alcohol and liquid 
oxygen. A further improvement is only possible by the appli- 
cation of a propulsion for marching at high altitude which 
compensates the little resistance there aid changes the 
gliding into a horizontal flight. A more exact examination 
of this possibility proves that the technical expenditure 
exceeds the efficiency additionally gained, in case of using 
oust the same principle of propulsion and the same fuels 
as in the main power plant but on a smaller acale« 
But it is quite a different thing if a Jet propulsion is used 
as a propulsion for marching, which does not necessitate a 
particular fuel! as career of oxygen, but uses the surround- 
ing air 

There can be tsiken into considerations a) VI - power, 
b)Lorin-tube, c) high pressure tube. 

a) the VI - power plant yields a specific consumption of 
about 0.9 g/kg.sec. It works intermitting, the air being soa- 
ked in automatically by the expelled gases. After the inject- 
ion of the fuel and its explosion the escape of the fire- 
gases in the direction of flight is prevented by a Venetian 
blind. On account of its high consumption this power plant 
does not come into question for the purpose under consider- 
ation. 



T02 



B7 Contrary totbe V 1 power plant which works under sound 
velocity the Lorrin tube is fit for super sound velocity. 
It works continuously, A pBsssure is produced in a reversed 
ventury by a-diabatic compression of the air flowing in. 
By injection of a fuel and its combustion the temperature 
is raised from about 300 to ^0°K to about 2000°K. By the 
rise of temperature the velocity of the expelled gases is 
increased. The utilization of the rise of pressure by the 
combustion is not possible, as the entry of the tube system 
is kept open, 

Thermodynamical Computation of a Lorrin Tube . 
1) The specific consumption G/R of a thrust propulsion plant 
with air providing the oxygen is given by the f ormuler 
A- jL ^/^„ , _^ ^^-- 

There means G« consumption iji kg/sec; £ « ratio of weight of air 
and fuel {X« factor of velocity ■ ratio between the real 
velocity in the exit cross section and the theoretical velo- 
city there; g-9.81 m/sec^| k- adiabatic coefficient for air 
■ 1.4, for fire gases « 1.2; E« gener«»l gas constant« 848 mkg/ 
Mol 5 T^« temperature in the combustion chamber in ^K; M« 

average molecular weight} Po/^t« ratio of expansion; w 

aggr 

velocity of the aggregate. 

How M^ bo seen ?ri-oa tne formula, the number £_ has the highest 
effect on the magnitude of G/R, as the other independent 
variables T-j^, M, and|/-(|^j^ are under the l?oot. It can be 
shown besides that the change of influences comparatively 
little those variables. It is, therefore, most important to 
get an £. as large as possible. This problem depends exclusively 
upon the question of fuel. A fuel with a good property of 
ignition at a surplus of air and a high value of combustion 
is necessary. With normal gasoline f can be about 12, with 
pure ethane about 15, A remarkably better value of f can, 
however, be obtained by liquid acetylen, lÄiich can be stabilized 
by the addition of ethane or amoniac. It is possible to use this 
mixture under pressure without the danger of expplosions. 



103 



S is about 21 in this case, that means 40^1 more than witÄ 
octane« The computation is, therefore, to be performed in 
the following with CgHg« fhe adtitipnal stuff is, for ^e 
•present, neglected, as its amount aä« to be fixed by eacperi- 
ments« The equation for the combustion *ith a number of sur- 
plus of air^» 1»6 (that means, there is used more than 
60% of air necessary for a complete combustion on account 
of the stoecheometric equationt 

The temperature of the compressed air isi T,-712®K| the tem- 
perature of combustion T|^«2160^ Kf the molecular weight H* 
29.4| the air fuel ratio E«21,l. 

Applying a round value for k-1.2 and a ratio of expansion 
^P3^*ls25, the specific consumption ist G/R«0«78 gAg surplus of 
mpust sec. It is possible to improve ihis number yet by the app>* 
lication of a larger 2 value, which increase E, too. However, 
the consumption shall be performed with this value for the 
present. 

c) Figure 3 shows a tube, which works at a «uper sound velocity, 
but not contunuosly. 

After the entrance of air, the fuet is Injected, then a valve 
to the funnej., soaking in the air, is closed before the explosion 
happens and, theirfore, an expelling in the direction of flif^t 
is prevented. This arrangement allows a utilization of the rise 
of pressure by combustion, and, therefore, a higher velocity 
in the exit cross section is obtained. 

F*r a considerated propulsion only anarrangement comes into 
question according to b) or c). The Lorrin Tube (b) has the 
same ratio of pressure in the nozzles for compression and expan«» 
slon« Axk aoigmentation of the velocity in the exit cross section 
is obtained only by the fact, that the temperature of the gases 
is raised by the combustion. This velocity raises, l)y thta first 
approximation, proportional to the root of the ratio of temper» 
atures. 

At the arrangement (c) there is added the raise of pressure to 
this effect. How can be shown, the pressure is railted maximally 
to about five times. At maximim pressure the ratio of ei^ansion 
is, therefore, ltl231 after the eigpulsion of 30% of the gases, 
this ratio is lf62. it is, therefore, possible to reckon on an 

104 



average ratio of expansion of 1:60, The ratio of velocities 
in the exit cros s section then is for these two cases 

wherein the adiahatic coefficient is ahout k«1.2« The siid 
ratio is Wp/w^« 1»09. An exact integration does not essentially 
change this value ♦ By the compution, the possible gain by the 
arrangement (c) is obtained, but there is on the other side 
a considerable loss. Larger cross sections are necessary on 
account of the intermitting action. Supposed, the loading 
takes the same time as the expulsion of the pressure, the entry 
cross section will be doubled and, therefore, the sesistance, 
too. It Xs clear, that, as the effective gain can only be due to 
the difference between the streaming velocities in the entry 
and exit cross section, there is no gain with the arrangement 
(c). The ratio of thrusts is 3s2 corresponding to the ratio 
of the velocities of expulsion of I50O/IOOO as in arrange- 
ment (b) , that means, if theaggregate is propelled by an 
effection thrust of 1 t, there act 2 t in the entry cross section 
whilst there are produced 3 t in the exit cross section« If 
the cross section of the air funnel is increased for 50% only, 
no gain of thrust will anymore be obtai :5d. During the time 
the air valve is dosed, the force of reaction produced by the 
retardation of the air in the venturi, will not be exerted, 
but fher« ^^,^11 % Bhuwn^ ■*"'-'- 1 the pressure of resistance is 
almost exactly the sniae as lor the stationary stai^te» 
For that reason the Lorrin tube only can be taken into con- 
sideration for the computation of the project . 

On account of the said results we propose the following projects« 
A) In order to get results as soon as possible, we propose 
to provide the aggregate A 9 (A 4 with wings) with an additional 
jet propulsion (Lorrin tube). The advantage would be that all 
the approved parts of the power plant can be used» The 
ascending trajectory similar to A 9 up to an altitude of 
20 km with a velocity of 1000 m/sec in this altitude» The 
further trajectory: Horizontal flight with a constant velocity 
(1000 m/sec) propelled by the additional power plant, the 
thrust of which is equal to the atr resistance ('^1#2 t)*. 

105 



The aggregate in mannedi the pilot sits in a vacuumproof cabin» 
The landing is performed by means of the retractable under carriage and 
a headqhell. The wings have to be designed by the help of slots and 
landing flaps so that a lending velocity of 160 km/h cannot be surpassed! 
and on the other side, the c^ -value during the ascending and horiz- 
ontal and the o^/o^ - value diring the horizontal trajectory becomes 
an optimum» 

B) An essential increase of efficiency could be obtained by the 
choice of a new fuel HH basis and the introduction of an approved 
design of the power plant. The advantages are obtained by: 

a^ increased mean density of the fuel, 
simplified power plant 
reduced net weight 

increased volume of the tanks at equal size of the fuselage 
increased safety. 

Hesults of the projects. 

Concerning A) Assumptions for Computation! 

Fuels s liquid O2» alcohol, and CpHp 

net weight t 5 t 

velocity in the exit cross section» 2030 n/sec 

consumption: 145 kg/sec 

entire volume of ^anks: 10,5ni* 

remaining rest of fuel: 500 kg 

Results A computation of the trafectory yields, that, after 

an altitude of 20 km and a velocity of 1000 m/sec is obtained, 

an amount of fuel of 1600 kg still is to the disposal f pr the 

marching plant. 1 

The consumption of the Lorrin tube for 1.2 surplus of thrust 

can be assumed to 0, 93 kg/ sec according to the given calculation 

of the Lorrin tube. Taking 1600 kg of fuel for granted the time \ 

of flight will be J^ - 1720 sec at a velocity of 1000 m/sec. The I 

range will, therefore, be (Ascent, horitontal flight and gliding | 

included): ^qqq ^ ] 

Concering B) Assumptions for computation » i 

Fuels: tetranitromethane , visol and C2H2 

net weight: 4.7 t t 

consumption: I3O kg/sec 



106 



entire volume of tacks 8 11.3 m-^ 

remaining rest of fuels 200 kg 

Results I An amount of fuel of 28^0 kg remains to the disposed 

of the marching plant. That means a time of flight of 

Q^9 - 3000 sec. This corresponds to a range of 3100 kiP* 

Shape of the Lorrin tube s The size of the entry cross section 
is obtained by the necessary weight of air Gr » the density of 
air y and a velocity of the aggregate Wg^^-gj. toi 

t^ » ^2 . 19,65 . 2 
i aggr* 0,0165 "1000 
The diatmeter is, therefore, 637 mm. The minimum cross section 
of the air funnel is obtained byj , 

where is V2 ■ specific volume in the minimum cross section and 
Wg - velocity of sound. That means 

inalogous calculation yields for the Venturis 
Minimum cross section f„« 0,223 m and 532 mm ; 
exit cross section f» 1#12 m and 1200 mr 0, 
The shape is given in Fig«2, the angle of expansion being 25". 
Conclusion c 

By the gi'fen first § rough € ^^isiderationa the range X0 of 
. aggregates simil&r to A 9 with an additional marching plant is 
obtained 

for case A) 1800 km 

for cave B) 3100 km 
Since the calculation of the Lorrin tube follows purely theoretical 
lines and experimental results in this field are not yet known to 
us, the values given were to be able to be approved, yet. It is 
known, that power plants of this type were put into effect with 
a consumption of o.l gAg»sec. Basing on this value, the given rangei 
could be increased on: 

for case A) 13500 km 

for case B) 23500 km. 
The possible shape of performance of such an aggreg^e is given in 

5'ig. 3. 

107 




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110 



VCMCTIAN BUHD 



y-1 JET PROPULSION 



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t 



LORRIN TUBf 




HIGH PPZ^%Mm TUBE 




111 




112 



f B A B a i A f I H 



icaiv»r-' 



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m%^ß«U of lo-af^U&a fiathaa&td4M I heiir« ham mmiig «» «üzing tb» mjM 

f ) A|^ili«ati^ «jf liteya-fess» Äfesai air 4«b«1-^# idnd» vU» at grdat 

«^ks^sja^ «si « ^sevta»« «^Mjo^ &« shofiei in §kvt/&i4 

t) lUMASi^ ftlMK« iim mmMlMMm» of 1^41 »jnxmd ilia e^t«r «r gra^tf 
I» Vsm m&M'tnttn^U UJMar Haw «f «Miidiig (liiiMära« Sl^pl^xR0ie»Mtii)» «iH» 

im«3L m Ho fa^tsr« (SMfflsUnfMBl «f imiA f «anmUs« and «wrUsi^ ^t «f 

113 




1% m» 4o%^ishSamI fto mumm» paiüa^ of m#% iiJMi^lm mmill >aflimnl1iiMi 
«m %• ^iqpMl UldOimpnl« Xa «Iter «wN^ «b^ltef tto» m#A iT IJb« f 2 

in the ooni^aR (xaUaBea «ctd JlwaigliMiyy lftXs«i) 

4| csOffl&i^ ticsi dsu i^ tB«4M!tw3r* YiMft %3ijiwiiiwf i» irtHHutiim i»m 

«^ tlw pmmf ppopellai yurt i« tlw «tortii« pstas^ tlw «Oi ft« a yiAsi CibT) 

V » « «t f (jr^n^ Ty) 



isMti«A«r 

tlft«tofts0t 






Y* «i «» ii.iwipiiicrtti t9y^^\ ^ ^»m 99mä «% 
I tigliwr Ute teaiMtay «t Ik«» nMi% «« n fStftM» 

«t «FMt 



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Cw^ 




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^v.^— ^ <- . i ■ - (w'^f*--^ f<?uso-'^r 



114 



Xa itut p9mw AilviB part of V»2*« trai^cioiry th» jnro^otfl» U b«lflg «ac»»d 
fjMM th« Toruoea p*alU«ii to th« final oiarUnir «»19« ly my of «utMnUe 
•OBtrca (X^gruMimruag) ia « pr«dot«ndn«d imy« Mill »or fiollaboratoar« X 
liAVii tiaXculated th& shootdA^^ ran«^ for jitaxi^ oaaesf by «ay of suMari«aX liwrlfciip 
r&tion <^ Viio f oXlOTdn^ f ivo ^^uatl^m« lui tajt as tb» poimr 4riv«ii port i« ogae«ra«4t 

(1) ])lffQr«ntial «juatdlon of th« trastslatloa BoveBMBt 

(2) Dlfirar«Btial aquatlcm of üi« &xlal inowant 

(3) Sqa&tlon of the sonsnto (ItaaanteeglalofattB^) 

{4) Sto«9rlx}g oquaij.m^ that 1« to eoxm«et ih» tara^ctoxy an^pL*« 

(5) "BidGndnk®!" end I>«Ci«etioi\.an|^ (AaatellidJilMl) 
And 1^ miy <tf moy« alaqpai« 41ff«r«iiiial •qu&tlosi tar t • fm» poimrlaaa fH^ii« 
» * ^^t mj I ^ve c^opXeto Inrora^ticai about iha traoeotoory for tho dlff«r«Bt 
glfVB pp&g^mtm$ heig^ta and apaoie at th« tljae o^^ tii« po\vcr dUcontdziunUaii to 
f <icm « baflla for firing tables« fh« aostadvantaa'o^^i^ ^^^ of tho tarajaotooqr 
^Mu» isa<le ob;3oet of epeelal roawaroh in ordar to obt .in «nadwmi rar^, furthaiu 
jHOro tS» taflueinoo of tdnd - fron the front, from bahind aid from tlie nid©, and «f 
obaacp» of BMitoar«logleal ooRditlons» finally tho tnflu^ioo of tho earth' a 
3M9t&tLonf'eio« Tho oaloulatlon of the tractor/ la^s doaic by subdivldLns 
It into a BO^iya oourao (Ulttlorer Vtolauf ) «nd aaparisq^oaed oseHlatdona» 
af-^ It had been proton ^ volunlnea« «aloulatioiui ths.t auoh a dl^aloa la 
adBldniblo« In order to eij)|pllfy-furth(».r, the ooniille&ted function tijtr^r^} 
ma Uneailsed and tabatü» maro ostabllBhod of tha apiHoable Inf Ivvjidnip ISjboo 
mluo» (IftnfXMBfftwihJaa) . Of furUtor ii/^porte.nce rfs.a roaearoh ro^ordlns tha 
äof^teo of ftoouraoy, bow far Y ^"«ö Inflttonood by taxoAtitaiii o*' ;'*Vj^,Ky and 
^t ma tberaf ore required to keep tbeiso inkluea 1» Uno* 

ü'or t^ee tra^tory oiäloaXatlons a staff «f sevos&l scien-yLsts and 

about 30 fwnao ocdottlator« ^th olootrl© ^eulatlng BROhlnoa mo b^i»fr 

115 



poepuLd inQlucÜi%- lähop and offioa perecmn«!« Beoauso eäT 'Uie fast that tto 
^xoiäc mxa very t®<üous and tdüoae eox&suffii»^ «v<9fa ^th tla« best ot^scxizsii4L&a^ 
1 T^»rk9d at the ao2a&t3t'ucy.c^ of a calcuXatlxig siuoIdBia ^&r iff ar^utial «ymaÜofifi 
«d.th the InteatLoQ df using it aXae f or »az^ cruifir pu3r|>OB#a baeido« bAl3tl«tl««4 
«itabliflhin^ of tabl©©- for new funotLona aad pcocmBsLxig of 41ff orenüid 
«qtlarti^ma in t^« flold of n&taral solennes and «r^j^««91x^^« About t24« Z 
sbeuXd siake a eppn^&.i^ report* S<s&e^9]Emt Vaxm^var Bttjiäi« tb« psizieipl« wl« tte 
fi|»^oatiasi @f iirügrat4.on roll» ( Int^ralaeriaSJ.«) ^tb photo-^^etsie disk 
S«a<^ü^ and f ollow^mp (mit f otoea^triwotei' S2»yv9BAbta»ttag tssA KadbfUbruag) 
EmpoviJsMaitaX la^i-c^üinöö broue^uu Vv-^y ^jod Xtdsult«« Th» dCMSAiradtlcaa of til» 
eaw ^i yfea a^ohin« ha« atc^pM to s^ r@g ®t « cndng to» "oar oonditloes» I bi^ 
'S.® b« abX© ^3u4 mub urg^tO^ tii brf.yi^ tfei« Is^pextant d#v®Xoj»öiit to ä «ua««a«* 

Förtfeprsö^« S ba^^ ivorlv-eä oii tlie meohagilaatiaEi f o caitsuiationc ia orday 
to faeili.ta1^ imd fea^wtt^i tiäa a^vv?x<.^iyjüixt» is/ 4»**»»^} oi' coüuiU'^i öoioiiutiag 
a^uOiißas aM msljag pm»& hdLo ays tern aacbipee (liaiiaxätii -^ ;>chJ-..ärt*iaaa«oiii»i«) • , 
A siflälay gytt^t ao^Mfl to haw b»«a achlaTOd by tho Awarioan c&lcul.iting aMtm&t 



life 



iCaiORANDllM InUvrogßtitxü of A. WALTHER, TBCHNISCHX HOCH^HOLB, DARMSTADT« 

21 AiarU 19^5 

Subject had preYlousl^, under dat«ll2M of 12 April 19A5 Indicst«! hU flold« 
of work in connoction with tho ealoulatlon of trajtfotorios for PMnintndo« his toxt 
(6 pagM) and Snglish tranalatton of it (3 pagai) are attached« 

Subjeot gava sussnaxy of Geno^n rocket raaearch fron heorsFiiy and experienoe« 
In 1931-2 all rocket reaearch was put on the Gehela (secret) list bgr General 
Dr* Baoker« former chli»f of the Heereawaffenaurt« All rocket reaearchera were giinen 
three alternatives t 

1« TUm over patents and oeaae «ork 
2« Be put in jail 

3« If they were good enough thejr worked on g ow r n a e nt 
rocket program (at Kummeradorf ) 

Dr* Booker published a reriaedr edition of Balllstios by Crans. The work at that 
time was on powder rockets • frinoipal collaborator of Dr« Booker waa Capt* (now 
llaj. Gen. DCElffilSlQSR. VON BRAOH ^»ae to Kuamersdorf in 1932 right out of school. 
Dr. THIBL was already there having eome to the attention of BSGiCEH \sy a lecture he gave« 

siubjeet believea that a beginning waa laade at Feeneaiunde - construction and layout • 
in 1936-7. Bie transfer of activity t© Peenemmde from Kummersdorf occurred In 
193d^. Kuramersdorf continued to work on powder rockets. Dr. TSXSL was still at 
SHomarsdorf in 1939. (TBISL «as killed IB Auguat 1943 in raid on Peeneminde)« 

Xhe FeenaiauBde prograa on liquid fuels «as originally scheduled to be a loi% time 
project lasting about d years, but the nasis insisted on results in two years. The 
presBui^ applied resulted in enlisting all possible aid from outside sources, 
particularly Darmstadt because several Peeneaunde authorities had studied at the 
1?öehnische Hochschule. Dr. STEÜWCFF was foriaerly a student of Prof. V/alther (the 
subjeet). 

Damstadt was_rfo busy as a res ilt that it could practically guarantee it« 
people freedoB fro» war service. The subject was drafted for ona week before he «as 
rescued. 

i:he occasion of inviting in all this outsid;B aid was the oeeting at Peenemui^e 
on Sept. 28 to 30 1939, list of attendants to «hich is included In the interrogation 
report on Dr. BOCi&IOID. aiis famous meeting as jocularly known asiong the professors 
as "I»r Tag der Weisheit *>. 

Additional persons pr^ent, not previously listed wares 

mCP. SCHÜLER Goettingen gyro expert 

niQF. BECK Dresden U. Motor transport expert 

SCHIULER 

IRCF. TOLLMIEN 
At the meeting Prof. YON BIAUN addressed the». He was the teohnical director 

117 



«oiOa tMielft mA MpMt of th* totaO. poröblM« lli» «ubj^ot «m ia this «ad 
•ubMqiaMit BStttl^tfi «MigBüd «to proUMMi •BBRantcd ia tha atUshid t«Bt, auM3j 
•ir^taUM up to SfiOkB« •taMlitgr proU«w «bA trajMi^rsr proUmns or firii« taUMi, 
At this fSnt MatlQg tlia Milltsaj atMsphara mm ae^plataly ladcias. T^ aubjaat 
«aat ta Faaaaannda »nl>aariaawt3y aboattalea yaarly« 



SttfaiJaat raporta tliftt tha firat anoaaaaAa atari «1^ 1^2 aaa 3 Oat. *iSt. 
Kradnotloa menmA anaar ^^^raii FaaaaKuida aarly bat tha raaaareh atayad aatil tha raid 
U ft9^3* Shaa anek off tha raa aa reh aaattarad ta varlooa plaoaa oa tha iala of 
WODmU fir« SXEXSCffF ma la BUBZV» IBIDOH aatU at laaat aarlqr '45. Sa tfaaa aovad 
ta a plaaa ahoaa paatal addraaa «aa WOOmiJSSgK» WaOk of Paa a aa und a aaa haliafad no« 
anraooatad te rsgioa off Bara aoaataiaa (aadargroaod plaeaa la aaatral QarBaBgr). 8oaa 
poartiaaa vast tharo a« aarljf aa *i2^ iha latar aovaaant f^roa raaaaaaaia aaa doaa 
la a hdLf taony ao aohijaat eaaoot mn^ hov tliay aoald hava taloaa all iaatrvonatita ato« 
«1^ Ihaa. 



«lad tonneft raportad to ha gaad ap to Haeh aiaihar aff J aaa aofad« 
aabjaait baUaiad it aeat to Bsfaria haoausa tha trades ahleh aarrlad it a£r ^id 

Salnlaot did not poroffass to 1» axpart oa alad taasals hat gaaa tha f alloaiag 
jgwriawhaiiii. figaraa* iha Faaanainae «ind taaaal aaad a larfa aspaaaatad aphara« Alar 
raahlqg in mm dried \if apaaElal ailiaa sal, M» haatli^ aff 'tiia air wm dona« tha 
aaasoriis spooo had a aquara eroaa aaetLoa aff oa» to to» aqnara aat«ra* Hodals 
vara ab «t 50 ob» di«»« JU aorta off aapar-sonla preUaaa aara haadlad • roakattf 
artUlassr ate. H» inqr had prioritgr oa tha Paaaawuido taanel aad tha lAftaafffa 
hod jaioritjr ea a toanal at Braasaiek. ib a aa a la oharga off tha «lad tamal aozk 
at .f>iamiMiMtflii awa SS. USSMkM aad IS. nunS« Iha Ooottiagaa alad tanaal of 
?)raadtl"a did littla «ark ffer faanawiada hatfaaso tha JNMaaoaado aaa oeaaaraad had not 
atadiad Ihara« Hui^ had atoäiad aafler fipaf • Sohill«r an! Prof. Wabar. Prof. Ban 
off Doraatadt «mild hno« aara about tha «lad toaaal. 

Aaotäar «lad tanaal at Pfeladrldiahafiaa ia oalgr good for Mach aaahar« aadar oao« 

te air taaqwatoras at hi^ alUtodas» sahloot «arkad i^th Dr. XBHISR of 
JMadriolMhaffaa. Iba lattar hi^ baoa raaatad trm his past ia fMadriohahaffaa bj 
€m Masia aad iaitaUad ia tho favsdnB«staUo fv Plqrsik dw Strataaphara (laiaar 
lilhala last.) Ka had lovaatiffatad tha atratosphar« ap to al !■• «ith hallooas« 
Both Saganar anl tha aahjeot mr* iataraatad ia aataorologiaal reekata hat did not 
wia tbaa. ttia particalar iBvaatlgatioa hara aaad data «tailahla both la Oaroai^' aai 
ia iMTioa to oaloalata tha taaparatarao la tha ooona lagror daa ta aolar abaorbtlea« 
Thii« «ark as prodoatod so tholr o..loiilatioaa wwr9 boliavad to ha asaavato. 



oAJoot» aa a poro soioBtist, «as soavlaaad that tha ihZ mm% bt ^wf 

or tfaoro «as no point to it. lis firil« tahlss «ara «aloi»l»tod doaa to 

■atars. Ba thou^ in taras of asowaoiaa off ena part ia tan tb^. "- «as 
horriffiad to ffind that tha gjnrosoopio iatograUm oooolaraMtar mi» to «Iva 
asoaraolas of oaSj ons ia a üioosaad sad ofoa aoro ao to ffiad läiat ia praatloo oaljr 
30 to 40 par Iboe« «as His aootira<7 aohisnrt. Thara aas oooatsat ssfttasnts bot«aoa 
FooaiHnde «bo «aatod i—adisf tamatf aad Hm stiltfoat tho «aatsd aoro ssouragr« 

lis 



I 



SdbJ««« «irlBiA eat th« tirim iaUL*8 rii^t ^ont t« aBMri«id rMults« Fref« 
TOLLMIBN wa« tfsifiwd ths saa« proKUu of flteldlltgr «»d flrii« t«bl»s tei xwrletd. 
th«n out «itk oUlptl« fvastloB« «hlok war« useloss for fl«ld «••• SubjootU 
aothods «er« mmerldal lBt«,^r«11on8« la tbi etaMIltj problMi tho diff«r«ntial 
•quatioa t« bo BolT»d «as^ 

«3^^«df /«y^/^/*^«? (t) 

BoswüUjT tho olnrfeie fore« is oonslderod to bo liaoor irtiieh ■ako a aafl b boISi 
saro bet tba s^Jaot rotalned thoa« taras and aolirad mmtriemllj» Ibia anblo 
alastloltgr l«v aqtiatioa lo aaafiil alao la vlbratioa problaas involTlng «ubbor» 

Tba R^aot vaa f9xj aotira oa tbeaa 1^2 piroblaina la 1941 aaä 1942« Aftar 
tb&t tha problnui that Paaaasroada furniahad Mm wara largalj rapatltions wltii 
difforant valaaa of oonst&nta, aai eotüd ba hand lad aoatly by tha aubjaot'a staff 
of oalotilator«« TvBPtbm, tba aatfaaaatio« staff of Faanansada «as abla to bandla 
mm% of ahat «mi raquivad* Up« Sobroadar baadad tbt Faaaaaunda aatb« staff« Ho 
«as eoQsldarad too absta^aat aad oaa sldad aad «as aot likad. Ha «as saeoaadad bif 
OR. filXlB)!». Otfaor nathoaatlolano oa tha staff «ara DR. STROBSSL, BR. GSISSia; 
M« UBMIQ, Urn sidbja^t was 12» oaly aatbmatioiaa oataida ramiaiiinmrfa «bo «orlosd 
oa tbas« jobs. 



a» sal^oat was askod to propas>o aa oatHa» of irtiat parablons ba «orhad oa 
«ftar I9ia iriiaa ba f iidsboi tba T»2 «orb allogadly« 

Sis prof assom of tba Oomstcdt rogioa baloagod to wHmt warn oaXlad a ToFbaban, 
FooaMUido (abbrarlatod TF) or irbaitsgaaaiasobaft Tt^ tbora aaa aaotiiar oaa la 
Oraodsa. Araf • BQSOK aas l^a Torstasd of ttw Darastadt chm bat bi« oblef task 
aaa not tba dlstribatloa of ooSiaBtlfla taska but MgotUtlona «itb tho Raaatui^coaBaBia 
ta hsap tba erfaalaatioa togatber and aaintain aal^, BOBOH alao aorktd oa raoeivara 
for tolffMtorii« of iaforaatioa firoa alasla to groiuA, Fllia m. BBU. «C Isrli^ al» 
aorbei oa thia aad oa aloatroa optia* 

*ibj««t aoikod oa tvajaetorlos far tbroa alssUos aallod tte 13, 15 and CU« 
fbsaa «ara dasicasA ta ba^ rai^ai af 10, 50 aaS 120 ka« roapootiivaJjr. Hmj wara tf 
tba typa Itet Is f£rst ^lot f»fa a s«bi «bA tbaa laaoifaa lOekat tooot la fli^* 
Sia aMlgaod problaB «as to fisA If tba optiaoi proaodora is to biara tho ro^t in tba 
boglBBiiV, aiddla or and of tbo trajaetosy, aad wltb slow or rapid btarBiag* Obarst 
dUAT siasvostod this problm« 



119 






Ztt «IM fttUiWdvK fMUaUMT iBl«T«iftti«tt ftafUMw ««m«*» ivianlfSft imHI «wlii 



I» «nU kealvsat taitrawat taNorim» •to, tl» tJüiM %• floft Mttete if 
««Nel^i firl«ti«i t» • aifiiMiu BoosHil« «p|»liM%i«R9 tft this milt «m tfat 
MMVMQr of i^MiS i>d«li d t p iB B «I ^««kiock trtiawlwi ui siidlar diPflMi U t*iA 



M «r Of« «bA Blidlur t— Mint iagmiwijit» «m« la tte AH« 



OQailteratlmi «■• On» ffliM «» IImi poMiU« «M «T mm |rii^»H bMrli«i m m% 
W «te ftiMiM», .«tfa MrtE Mil ^mm ^ Ar^flwMr lUMff la celt^aMtilMl «it| tiM 



itnet^i it flM wtSM ia Uf|oid «griM «aft fMlt m «Mi la Ik» W» 
wa tatoaiaft m^ «m* tte tMt UmUm at PiiBaaiafli Md as« 
Üw aM la Ik» alaiftte t«Mlf • I>kafW0Mr 91aaic bBd m kaovU^f« «T tte M%aa 
~ MIA ana «mC ffer «Mtiai m «teaa anr« a^Olid la antevat psA^EM 
«tUa» Aa acaut a y «T «p ta i^ «m xaqaMttd «aft Hw iMt 
MftalM« t» «art! ap ta 40 ataMgi«gM> la MaSwotiaa wllk Vtd» «Mk 
alM aaarrtniA a larlalar af artlfi^a laalM liiiai mm 
la tka u M miMttM af ttaaa iMtiwaaH ta 9mv<m% Um «IwBiMl mUm «T tki 
lifHld flinM cr «^ fMUi. ■• «Mil ttat tte aoat Malttaat igpp» «f Mtwlal 
fUMai pfiM^la. Ma «m la aonJaeUM allk inr. IbUl Md «iia iMtonaiatt 
ladl« 9«rtl^ tn isr» ila«m*a l ätoatwy Md pKrUy la 




3« SMSMflik aM aarviad mH at FMBMMd» \g^ nptiteMM Umm mi a 
«r iMlMttM ia fSaaM m fvadaMd %7 Uqald aad Mild FMlvt fMM. Ia tida 
aMa alM «ka pratdM Mtw» «f Ika fkwU aM airiOMm kH U m« fltavallj «i 
Ikat 1I««M apla yiffinid a aftffara «Ma af «ai^MtlM «k^Ma la tito tdld 
timUm aMtidMiMa «art Md tim yarUalM MMllad ft wa tk> korali«. A^ " 

tka IflalMtiM tmU ttm hm AH astid giia sIm ta air ! 

aMtM& af tka alMdla. ttMa a^Mlarala ma 
M it «M Ikavad tkat «agr fkM 9i alMtrla^ r a aata a a att d t 
M kalag Mlanakla ta jaaalai« fka ao aia Mtg tevlM 
ia aMa ttrm af kl||i m«» yMJaatila far aatiMtIa 
if iealMtiaa at mtUm UmH» op ta 2i ka. Ika Halt if 
iM apaatftad t9t tka aai^kt of tka davlM kat tka flaal aal^t laa 
daM Mt kaM if tkU «M avar triad aat at 



4« ttiMMtiMtlM af aeda taatli« d«?iaM aad ataariac aaatrala iviaMUy im 
tka AH tuii paaatkla iM ia aaaoaatlM «ilk tvpadaM. mB aavk vm aanriad aal 
prlMrilor tpr Or. riiiaiiiiiaiiiMi aad tka ^tPlM ia Mid U ka at Aawrtarf f ia karg . 



120 



Momorandum» Further Intewogation of Prof. nr. WIEWEG, Kitzlngen, 22 April, 1%5 

Subject was interrogated by R, W. Porter and F/Lt stokes. 

This interrogation was to obtain a clearer idea of the extent of the subject's 
work on the measurement of ionization in the flame (exhaust) of a rocket motcr. 

The first measurements were made at a considerable distance from the nozzle and 
were made around an arc of a circle in the horizontal plane and also some measurements 
in the vertical plane were made with the use of a long ladder truck obtained from 
the fire department. For these measurements an ionization chamber identical in 
design to those used in stratosphere research were employed. Before each test 
random ionization caused by cosmic rays etac were measured. 

Later on tests were made closer and closer until tests were finally made in the 
luminious part of the flame. For this work a very simple arrangement of two 
insullated plates was used, measurement of ionization being made by taking values 
of voltage and current across and to the plates. Many experiments were made to 
find the best materials for the plates and the insulation. »The final mateiials were 
a cheap grade of cast iron which had a hard glassy surface for the plates, and 
«bake lite« impregnated paper for the insulation. The device never was used for more 
than one test. A metal baffle was used to protect the insulation from the direct 
action of the flames. The longest test ever run was of the order of sixty seconds. 

In the flame, maximum ion densities of about 10^ ions per cc were measured. 

Biis work was done at Peenemunde at a spot on the sea coast (about 100 meters from 
the water) toward the west end of the group of buildings. A special test cell was 
constructed. Many difficulties were encountered, since the whole test only ran for 
sixty seconds, and the first part was spoiled by largt counts of dust, and the 
last part by particles of the burner coming out. Both liquid and powder rockets 
were tested, the powder rockets giving considerably more ionization. The subject 
believes that incon^slete combustion resulting in smoke particles tends to increase 
the ionization ©ffact imomm^ tbs smoke particles act as a nucleus for the ions. 

Frequently after t tsat it was necessary , according to thh subject, to look 
around and see if all the test personnel were still alive. 

R« W. PORTER. 



121 



■BMRUUmi jMUamm^Um 9t Br. lUi ua, UUlt^tm, 21 April» 1945« 
fnr. Dr. Im «HI tii«»«caito4 lilT rAt SUkm «oA Dr. K. W« 



Dr. Uro «ft» »Ise es» «T ^« »olMiUats liie am oslltd to l^ i m i mi wiiirtt f^ "Dsr Af 
d«r Itiiiisit«. Mb ffSm« iMtraeUom ««r« to vort oat o a»tbod for dotemlnlM tlio 
▼«riotion ia doaoltgr «T tbo olr la o winS tonaol ^mr tb» aodol. Ihlo aMsoroaMil 
IM tft )» ama* «i«k o M«Pi a > g yo> of proeloion if poaoiblt« tlw proUbaa m 
ootaUly flipoa )«r Ur» HanMn, hMd of Abteilm« kJk. Howvor, Dipl. Hoc» Ram 
•ad ULpl« I^. Ar«»» wapo mmtäm la tiilo eork utd iraold la purtimOar ▼i«itod 
I^UMttttt frtqiwaUy« 

Kio first aslatlmi so« toad^f ta tho sprint «^ XSOl sU sidissqBMii sorit oonsistsi 
«r Iniii iiinaiiits ia sstia a ij cr la taelnd^as, la his first lastruamU. for osssfiato 
te mtA a «ZaiOrii»" aStsUar «a Iho Qolcar tabs for assssriic tbm lonlsaUoa, läti» 
Bmi dasslspsA aa towim i lff i iiii tiasiw of his osa ahloh ms oonsldsrsd hsttop far thla 



tta syatn esaslstat oT sa IHtagf tiribo so srrsqgsd thst s aanroo hsn «f lov ^. 
(20 to 30 If ortalt sM«o) X-rodlatlsn oooU bo aads to pass seross thi tomol 
ttr«igk omU IwlaB «oanoA alth plastio, sal to «aerss fToa ths othsr slds. A 
FtaraUtgr «T saoH pairf of hoUa mm prwritea so thst aMsorsasats eoold bo as<s aU 
srswil tias asdaU Vaasltgr «as dotsndLasd ly asurarli« thi absorption of rvIUtisa 
dorlag tte psss ags ti ias o tth ths «urld]« sootlon of tbs tuintil. Dr. Rsa sgrsos that 
this MÜial is got i^rOosIsrly aooorats st host mA Uko othsr asthods oaa bo 
«as« for foaUtatlTo roovlts oaly, aaXsss th» flo« Is strictly too dlasosional« W$ 
statsd thst ths wfmä «as dofinitoly aot saffloioaUj sharp (nvt sufflolontly 
good roaolatloa, ia o«hsr «ords) to bs of aaqb «ss la stodTlz« sboek «stos. H( 
aotidag olao ass aiailsftU at tiait tias/ 



f 



An order «sa gl«» • ▼oios, Tlonns, for appsrotas to as aiuxs dsosltj bj as 
latexforraaDO asthf<« this sas droppsd hoaovsr bsoouss suas oxpsrlasnts asdo 
%gr I^« Rsa shoos« itet ths asthod eoold not work on «eooant of tho aofTHnat of thi 
«IzidGws end «alio of ths «lad tanosl oadsr prsssors* 



Ths «ork shop st ths T.a« Dvastsdt rseol«sd sn ordor and drsvings froa 

to bolld a dsYles ts onOasto SohllorsB photographs ia sooh a «sjr as to 

doasltgr. Hits appupstassas not qnlto flnlshsd «hsn ths bonUiu dsstroyad It (prtihshlj). 

cmcnMriBsslstar Ssx Sofftea «as la ohsr0i of ths tjoric« Dr. WbJcXv of Posnoanida 

ropsatsdlj «Isltsd iiarastadt la ooonoetloa «Itb this projoot« ths draslx^s ««« aot 

Mbsla anS ol^t not hsso bsoa dostrojod. 



Baa thctxgjht that Um «la« taoaol had booa asva« «say trcm FsonsanaAs soas tias h*« 
~ iMraas hs h»^ asst rsosatJIy as«« ass «Dr. Orof« UaaUt, Ptet Box — (ooaUaH 



Othsr dispersal polafta af latarost arsi 

(a) BlUharshsasaa^ ho«Bosa MalaifSB aad Oibori (M*51) la tho rlelalty of ths 
CSS pAaat thoro «aro aaoao «blah «or« at ths disposal of tho JPhyillcallseho Znstitato 
at Darwtadt tJU Sb» rssM hslsofo« to a Bstal Bssosroh fostltatloa kaovn ss 
TJUF "3» Ihs faalUtdia saro oMalao« tor Ihonwtadt throagb Dr« Bolarioh riashir 
foBMr nidi or Baa*B aoefeii« oa dovalopmit of a BUftanllar tn tha 
Mt at Issst a port of B 




Zt la hslis««« thst at Issst a port of Baa's soetloa plsnosd ta 
laoasaaf trushla. 



ih) Ar« Osh s a a r «T Hm. ImU 9%mtmH oidofa ia swostlsa «ith a 
r asUad a wAh^b Wmmm trm lMhriAti»«lttsl T( 
'3j «r Italy Isatlir «r WlfMbattol 

122 






ü. W, FORYSi« 



123 



Meaorand«». • Visit to Darmstadt on 25 April 45 • 

Places visited.. At the Technische Hochschule the high voltage 
laboratory of Prof. Hüter, and the laboratory of Prof. Busch 
were visited. Also the laboratory of Prof, //agner was visited. 
The homes of Prof, Busch and Prof. Walther were visited. 

High viltage laboratory.. Dr. Steul and Dr. Fischer showed 
us around the high voltage laboratory. Regxaar lecture and 
experimental apparatus for high voltage work constituted most 
©f the equipment. High voltage transformers, sphere gaps for 
calibration, large oylln«rical capacitors, strings of HV 
insulators, and a large impulse generator built by AEG 
were the principal items seen. 

The Hüter pressure measuring devices were discussed 
with Steul and Fischer. A sketch was drawn, a copy of which 
is attached. These were ordered for the Peenemunde wind tunnel. 
The work was begun in 1940 and finished in 1942. The Xray 
system for density measurement was also reportedly sent to 
Peenemunde two years ago. 

Busch*8 Laboratory.» la Busch's laboratory we found a room 
supposedly devoted to the testing of a telemetering transmitter 
called the Messina II. This work was done elsewhere, sent in 
for testing, and sent out. Samples of the transmitter, and 
measuring equipment such as a camera and oscilloscope setup, 
and other miscellaneo\is equipment were brought back. Allegedly, 
another party had brought Prof. Busch there two weeks before 
and had taken away eü.1 remaining papers of importance. Also 
allegedly, papers and equipment had been taken y^)i MliX t)y 
Dipl. lug. Schnapper, Lute and Hartmann, assistants who fled 
about three days before the American troops arrived. 

Dr. Fischer... Dr Fischer volunteered the Information that 
he had done some research work on Infra-red detection devices 
some time ago for the Navy. He worked at Kiel, Berlin, and 
Gutteningen. He worked with Sparks of 1/2 microsecond duration 
and 10 watt seconds energy, from which all the visible light 
was filtered! lead sulfide cells were used asa detector, and 
range was measured. He was able to see ships at a distance 
of pOOO meters and probably could have increased range, but 
since the device could not see through fog the Navy lost all 
interest. 

Prof. Busch 's home.. Frau Busch was interrogated about her 
husband's work places but claimed to know very little. No 
trace was found from her or the people interrogated at his 
lab. of the so^oalled Busch *s tower mentioned by Cmdr* Uarohant's 
party. 

Prof. Walther 's home... This was visited, but we found that the 
other half of our party had preceded us there that same day, so 
no Interrogation was performed. 



'54 



Trof« V7agner*s I.aboratory,,. This is at the Tech. Hochschule. 
Large quantities of all kinds of chemical apparatus and chemicals 
were aro\md. Some itaas were f - und and brought back v/iiich appear 
to bo connested with the electrolytic cell '.^asner designed for 
the Buohhold I-Gerät. This included some cells, unfilled, made 
of glass, with two M-shaped electrodes of silver wire sealed 
JLgyftt one end and with a sealing off tube at the other end. These 

individually wrapped and of good uniformity indicating that 
they were probably of production manufacture. Some silver wire 
of the type used for electrodes was also brought back. 

There were a number of small tubes of alloys such 
as W AIj and U Al^ that were probably merely from doctorate 
theses Investigations of phase diagrams but may indicate a 
special interest in uranium or alloys of this ty/pe so ivere 
brought back. 

Investigators... The investigators in this party were 
Dr. H.A.Liebhafsky, Capt. T. Drysdale, R.A.Soderman, and 
W. HausB, all CIOS investigators. 

^7. Hausz. 27 April 45 



125 






A. ia.apersa,8 of Profeaspy Viewe ^. 

!• B--sm£Lrk Tower« Hleder Raasataedtor Strasse« ßarmstadt. 

ISiis location was visited by Colcmel 0»Mara, F/Lt, St^es« 
and i)r. roTtev. La», riiya. Theodor Qast and Dipl. Pbys. 
(Fraulein) Alpers were found working there and Wer« Intai»- 
viewed. !ühe principal work of this Ausscnstellen was tha 
dawi!»lopBient of electrical equipnent for measiuring tha 
properties of synthetic resins. The latest work along this 
line was an automatic bridge for raeasixring dielaatrie eon* 
«tant, power factor and the like. Inoorporatad in this 
bridge was a novel type of electrostatic voltaet^r eapabla 
of very rapid response and at the same time high sanaiti- 
▼ity, J3r, Gast claimed to have been visited by an intelli* 
genoe team shortly after Darmstadt was occuple«*.« to have gona 
to the AtTiQ with the leader of this team, and to have obtai* 
ned pennigsion to continue his work» and that hs had 
surrendered two copies (all he had) of a paper entitled 
"iin I^aues Statisches Voltmeter" deseribinß hi* experlBents« 
nils paper was traced to the E.E.I.s. Serenth Army which 
^'^ " located at Darmstadt, where it was reported that both 
copies had been turned over to Con« Z« Pari» and sugg^ested 
tnat they could be traced through Captain Ssb Lee at dig« 
s&c. ä.ms:.,l,üc there. Uo fui^ther action has been taken 
i. long this line« The experimental apparatus at the Tower 

ppeared to be nearly otaoplete. In fact Dr. Oast eaid that 
he believed he wculd have It operating within a few wee^ka* 
^iefly the voltmeter consists of a thin sheet of foil aufl« 
peflded between two parallel plates in sueh a «ay that it 1« 
flpee to move toward either of the plates« being rettraine4 
only by a light spring act 1 en. !fiie whole ae««ibly le 
eneloeed^in a plastic box of unusual design« Moreaent of 
tihm foil is detected oy an eleetrioal measurement of oapaoity 
rather than by direct indioation« 

tbm oalj plaotiea actually »ad« at the Tower were maII 
amounts of polyetyrol resins. Other resins were aouldod or 
otherwise treated there, howererf and for this purpose a 
roasonable amotust of ehemioal and meohanioal apparatvc was 
provided. Dr. Gast was familiar with Frofoster fiowegff 
work on flow and pressure peters for alcoholf noaolj Siiokol 
(I'olyetbylene tetra-tuIpViide) obtained from Thiokol Oeooll* 
a^iaft, and Vinid r (polyvinyl ohlorido) from X.G« fkrbon« 
ditterfeld. For the liquid oxygen inetruBOttts« one oan 
even use cotton or paper-base plionol*fonuildohydoe aooord* 
ine to Dr. Oast« but Vinidur or Plexiglaos is better« Oxygon 
tends to icake all of the plasties brittle« but satlsfgotorir 
op3rf ti on for short periods of tine la obtained. 

12« 



W Q9M% «ms further int«3nragftt«d at his home in Sberst&dtt 

164 Adolf Hltl«r Strasss« Bm said that Dr. Klingalhoeffer 
a»d Dk*« A3mot had baan working on tha problam of alaatrlaal 
9kmr^94 cm tha boll of tha A4 Roakat and thair possibla 
affaats on its oparation» All of thair papars and apparatnSi 
ha baliarad« had baan rwaovad to Kiianzalsam to the hcana or 
factory of Dr. Hauaarmann (see referanoa later) • Hi» under-' 
standing of tha problaa «aa that aa alaotrie aharge could htf 
built up daring the flight of tha rookat ei titer by act! en of 
tha jat, OF by the friatlon of tha air. This charge, if It 
ahould attain suffieiant laagnitude« could oauae failure in 
tha operation of the radio aquipsaert because of interferenaa 
fron alaatrioal discharge or ccMBona. Be said he thought 
sooa practical results had been aohieTed because he understood that 
radio aontrol vaa being usad on the A4 operationally« 

i3r, Gaat waa askad about che testing apparatus designed by 
Wr. Yiawag for the Steuerung Gerate of tha A4» His anawer «as 
tiiat Or« Baauaarmann had done almost all of the «rork on that 
project at the dispersal in Juganhaim» but that he had been 
ardarad to remoTa all of thia work to hia home in läuisel^au 
bafore tha ooeupation« 

A «opy of a thaaia by Winifred up elt entitled ''LJaempfung von 
RegalTorgaangan durah V^araeogerte ^^ackfuehrung" which was dona 
«uadar tha diraotlon of i^rof • Vi«ag «aa obtained from i;r* Gaat« 

2* Jummtkf.fi^mm Alta Bargatr> 5 »orkahop of .iohwinn. Thia 
loaation vaa Tiaitad by Goloisal 0*Mai»a» r'lt, at okas, and or, 
Portarf aaaonpaniad by ijr« Koahlar iGarma«^» aae referenae later), 
Ihara «as SYidanaa which ahovad that elactrical and mechanical 
daralopaantal «ork had baan aarriad on» but all ataterial of 
in%fx#^* ^^'^ '-^^^ü .ir»m0vad« Dr. aasuaanoann^a name appeared on tha 
deme^ 4^, t}v^ ■' .. ..oa'kMfa» 4 larsa ronaber of «oodan boxaa 

vara pix^-. rr. ^» üCj.-u^r of th» shc»p» «hloh «ore found to contain 
««nplata a^ip»aat for phetoatatia raproduotion» and also soma 
p0»»mMl things balonging to Frof« ¥iew«g» A large lathe sjid a 
tmt other jaachina toola «ara atill in tha ahcp, and^ there «as a small 
qUiantity of v«^ soft aluniniuBt rod in irarying aisea. 

5. Klader Mod«U| Ucmf and laboratory of Dr. liXiebrand , Tn» 
labcratary was fomarly a MltlerJungend^aiR» wKi& was ta]<en over 
by Tha Dariästadtt f« B. as a dispersal. Dr. Hiidebrand was viait^d 
•a t«o aaparata oacaaions, the first tima by F/iit. rlnary and an 
iiitarpratar,aBd tha aaoona time by F/Lt. ^stokea and Dl». Porter • 
In tha first intarvia« ha olaiaiad to hava baan working en friction 
■aasuvamants on ball-baaring raaas \intil the end or 1942 and than 
on prassiiu^a naasuring instrufflonts until the bontbine in Saptembar 
1944« ainoa that tina ha had ba^n tryins to organisa the Juganhaim 
diapartal and had done no develo^'ment work« but hoped to work on 
taihflMatara« ha olaimad to know var^ Ilttla about Paanatmmda. 



117 



inoe thla stoi^ was QontiPAdiot^d by doouaents showing 
that h© had been in Peaneimind« & number of tlmaa» h« vna 
lnt©rvie#<5d attain ani &sköd to eiqplain in datalX «hat htt 
had bean delng on eaoh of thoao trips« 

?i»i©r to 1943 he appai*©Btly had baaxi working on ball baarlng 
pi»oble3?is as Indieated in the firat intarlTaw. On 87 F^bruary» 
1943« hcwaver, he was inducted into tb« anay and want to an 
iafaKts*f tr&inlBg oamp Qaar Gobi ans« After fourtaan day« 
h© «as aant to Versuohakoioniando Word (whioh oonaiated of a 
group of maehanios and taohnlolana) at Paenasiunda» fia appealed 
to a i^« .^cbuler whoa he knew and arranged to^be aent baok to 
I>»x%atadt in April 1943 to work on a äehaelteratands Xesae«» 
(liquid lewel indieator), Thia waa to be a devioe of the 
oepaeity type whleh would Indieate aoourately the leTel of 
liquid (auoh as roeket propellanta) in a tank. He oomploted 
sueh an instrument and aent It to Feenmnunde« but doesn't know 
«Aiether or not it ara® ever iised« 

In addition to his development work he frequently aoted as a 
oourier, going to Siemens« l^ggel-Fisehex»« Svelsel Gerate» 
and other Bianufaoturera to oolleet instnoients and apparatus 
for the HoGhsehule. 

lairing the su»mer of 1944 he vnt to I*0, Farben, Bitterfeld» 
to discuss the possibility of iFiproved methods of manufaoture 
for the carbon wanes for the A4 rocket» l.O. Faxten had iaqpreg* 
nated some saieples of graphite with a synthetic reain and had 
Sößt acßsm of them to Prof« Vleweg for teats of heat eonduetlTity 
and resistance to high tas^ermtures« Frof • Vieveg «as intevests4 
in the eombination of graphite with resin and aent Hildvbrand 
to Bitterfeld to find out whether or not they knew ai>cut amr 
materials which would stand the high temperatures requiredfor 
the wanes of the A4. Also i>r. Vleweg had hoped that it might 
be possible to mould these wanes using a mixture of graphite 
and reain, because the method of ^manufacture froai solid blocks 
of graphite was expenaive and took a long time. 1. 9« Farben 
1^1 d Hildebrand that there waa no material which would atand 
the required temperatures | however» he says that he later learned 
that Farben had a patent for treating graphite "electrodes " 
with phosphoric acid or phoaphatea, to preyent them from burning 
away, and underatands that wanes treated in the way were supp- 
lied to Peenemunde« Teats on these wanes were reported to hawe 
been inconclusiwe« JDr* Hildebrand la reasonably certain that 
the wanes used in production are all made of untreated synthetic 
graphite« 

In Oct bar 1944 Dr. Hildebrand took over the work i^ioh had 
been handled previously by Dr, Scl-ineider another of Vleweg 's 
asslatanta« (Dr« Schneider waa killed during one of our raids 
late in 3ept«aber» by a low-flying strafing aircraft.). This 
work had started with the application of reain Impregnated 
paper to the oonatructim of flares, originally made of aluBl- 
niura« At the time he took €fvtrf X»» Hlldebrand says« the job 
consisted largely of experimenting with resins as bonding agents 
for the powder« 

128 



Hindty parts ■ £ tii« powaji-» to ten parts cl* a solution of 
resin in b«nsol were used,- the aolution usually consist- 
ing of TroXitul (polystypol ) , one part, bensol seren to 
ten papts, The^ also used a numbep of otiier materials 
inolTlding an acld-prcof putty - trade name "Asplif* (phenol- 
basis) made by liQ, Farben, the exaot oojapoaition of which 
was not known, A number ^bf visits were made to a Dr. Kip^ 
sohner, of x:.isfeld« spebialista in flares, at Silberhuette» 

Dr. Hlldcbr&nd was asked particularly abo-t solvantloss 
"varnishes" for th© above applications and answered that 
there were some in existence and that they were tested, but 
he oould not or would not give the name of any su<di material« 

The last trip made by Dr, Hildebrand to Peenemunde was in 
February of 194S, when he went there to discuss the problsra 
of .speed indicators for the test benches • The devioe «as 
known as a Drehsahl Messer and was wanted by Dipl« Ing« 
Schüler of H.A.P«, Abteilung fuer Versuchet Group M.O. It 
was to be used with an automatic recording devise made by 
Hartmann and Bratm, » sample of which Hlldebrand intended 
to take back to DanfjatadtJ but at that time the recording 
devices had already been packed up for shipment away frcai 
Karlshagen* !i!he frequency of the taoh generator was to b« 
200 H«., (12000 ilPM) if direistly connected, but it *a» in- 
tended that it would eventually be geared down four to one 
so ^ that the fx*equenoy would be 50 Hs. The range was to be 
alternatively plus or minus one cycle per sec» or plus or 
minus five cycles per sec« 

Dr« aildebrand returned from this ty*±p in early Uareh and 
h«d been trying to prepare his lab .mtory at Nieder Xolau 
since then. 

M tbi.s laboratory we picked up a small sample of a «pathetlo 

^<nt^r wfei.8ih tag >m ^ in pf^essure and flow InsliruBMits. 
iÄ** Hildebr&ii4 either oould not or would not identify the 
material. 

Also in Nieder Modau was a photograi^Ulo reproduotlon esta- 
bllsfaüent located at jf*eter QemelnderstiNisso« There was nothln 
of technical Interest there. Apparently ProJ^. Vlewog's 
institute had planned to do photographio w<r k for theii» publlo 
at ions at this location« 

4« Ranaelsau . Home and ironmonger shop of Dr« Fhys« 
Hauaaermann's family* P/Lt, Bhsery, Mr« Hauss, end HCO Qpob- 
steia. Interpreter, visited this dispersal hoping to find 
]3f« Hausaermann, Dr, Klingelhaff er* and Dipl« Ing« Armet« 
Mo one was found but Dt* Htfussermann. Be stated that ha 
had come by road with several others from Darmstadt, inclu- 
ding . lalng•lh^ffe^, Amet» and some soadier assistants of 
the former« Arnot started back to Darmstadt shortly befor« 
F/Lt« Ekaery arrived and was presumably somewhere on the «av 
on foot« laingelhdffer went on to Hegensburg along with Ms 
assistiunts before the Alllri ono.unatJ on of Kunzf^lsau, vhtle 

12« 



Ii«LUS8öz»iManri stayed on with hie family» H« insist« that 
only one ^a^^^ load of tha rater 5 a? and papers, thsy took 
rrca üarssatadx; rsaohad lämsslaau» the rest being dMtvoytA 
on tiie «ay« This «agon is said to have eontainftd only tbt 
lathe f grinder y and otlier loisoellaAecus tools ssen try on» 
Inveati^&tcrs ft 

Dr. HaussermaEn Ttorked at i^eeneuunde fx^om Deoeaber 1959 
until May 1942 on stability eal^olations • . The work was doa* 
under a Ijt« Steuding «ho arrived at aany of the ssae results 
as Frof. it^isker« working indept»ndently» Several siaofr dts«» 
putes arose betwe-=?n the two »en over the qiueetion of whioh 
one had originated oertaln »ethods» In 1948 Bamssemann oshm 
to i/arBistadt where in adOitioti to teaehlng duties he was assl* 
stent to Prof. Vieweg» HI« work for Vieweg consisted solely 
in working out a testing deviee for the rooket steering oontrols« 
"Oiere is one such deviee for the oontrol of each axis* bonsls* 
ting of a pendulum« damping vaae» and torque -mot or eapable of 
sisulating the dynamioa of the rooket itself* He was aaked to 
prepare a paper on this dev5.ee and on the test proeedure used» 
inoludlng all necessary drawings and promised to have this 
paper finished by May 11» Col» Gifford« T*Poree, Sixth Ansy 
has made arrangements to have Interpreter Orebsteixt eollest 
the parser on that date and to forward it te 0108 Seeretariat« 
Londcsi» attention Heath* 

I»* Klingelhoff er is alleged to have reported direet to 11ew«g« 
and Haussenaann Insists he has no knowledge of this work- 

5i jQaraatadt Hoaae of Prof. Vieweg, This ho\ise was Insp* 
eeted earefully by P/Lt« Snery who removed a number of doouments 
relating to, the administration of the Ftootisohes FhysiseheS 
Institut of which rrof, Vieweg was the leader» Only one proved 
to be cf Interest, however» namely a file ooataining passes 
for the various assistants to go to KmrltihM$pa%$ ftsrllB «ad 
other pi sees, The other dootSMnts were returned» 

B» JDlspe reals of Prof» Weither » 

I« Dfcrmstadt Hcsae of Prof» Halther» Ool» O^BbM» 
F/lit» Stokes« and Dr» Porter visited this house bssauss it haA 
been lifted in dooujTf^nts fcund In the HoOhsefaole as ths hsad* 
quarters of the Fraktisohe Mathesuitissiio Institut of Prof» 
Walther. Frau nfalther was found there together with severml 
young students who were still working at the saloulatioti and 
tabulation of Bessels functions» 

?rau Äslther seemed unwilling to give any informatioa until 
she knew exaotly what Prof» ^alther had said but after being 
eonvinoed that he had been reasonably opea shs gave us a little 
information about the aotivities at ths other dispersals end 
the people who had be« working at then» A lot of doeumeats 
were found of the usual administrational type« and severml 



130 



n«w oompllAtions of B«i0«l*t fimotions of mriout kind«« 
Nothing of ft o3.asslfl«d nature was to be found* 'All sudb 
paperi had allegedly beea Immed or oarrled away to th« 
dieperiala« 

Frau Walther, herself a Prof. Math.« was aaked why the 
rarioua government organlsationa, auoh aa RLM, and the Ilka 
were interested in Beseel* a funotiona» She oontinued to 
insist that It was all in the eause of "Seienea'* and ao on« 
She added however that the oaloulations eorered Integral 
orders ta seven deolmal plaoes instead of fiva aa in eziatlng 
tables I and that some work was being done on tabulatloiSa of 
the one third order as ooeq^lex nambera« The houae was lna]^«tad 
as carefully as tine and the oonditions would permit, bat tbara 
is a possibility that doeuments of intereat ai^t still b# hiddaa 
in this looation, 

S. Arheilgen (near Darmstadt) Home workahop of BSndadorf » 
one of Walther's techni elans. Inspection of this location waa 
made by Colonel 0»Mara, F/Lt. Stokea and Dr. R. W. Forter« I^ 
was hoped that parts of Vyaltheris ooBq;>uting machinea mi^t be 
found there^ but the place turned out to be a very ordinary 
basement with a small work bench and a few hand tools. 3para 
parts were found for the standard makes of calculating machinea 
and typewriters J but nothing of any technical interest. BOndadorf 
was not there, but it seems obvious that the story told by hia 
wife is true, namely that he makes his living repairing the 
calculating and typewriting maohinaa uaed by the Hochschule, and 
in partlciaar by irof . Walther. 

3. Hledernhausen ELeonorenschula. / this location Dipl. Ing. 
Thiel assisted by Dr. Ing Glaser and Dipl. Ibit Sipf (Frauiein) 
worked with about fourteen girls on aerodynamic and stress cal- 
culations for Junkers, rooKat trajectory calculations for H. A. F. 

and ©flmilat inns of the characteristics of remotely-controlled 

bcnabs i\.^r I>. r, e. 

The school waa visited by Oolonel »Mara, F/I t , Stokes and 
R* W. Porter, and found to be closed and empty. The Burgcneister 
fr<Ma whom the key was obtained said that Dr, Thiel had taken all 
of his papers away by ooiirier several weeks before our troops «ama. 
His father-in-law waa located and from him It waa found that Thiel 
had gone to Cünstanoe. (Frau Walther told us that he o«Ba frcn 
Yienna and that he would probably go back there as »ocm aa he 
could. ) . Fraulein Sipf probably went back to her home at 15 
Weberstrasae in Frankfurt. A number of Tetters were found addx^aaad 
to her from that location. Nothing la known about Dr. caaaar 
except that Frau Walther believes he came from Steiermark, Auatria. 

No classified papers retiained In the school at the time of our 
investigation; however In ai>lte of the fact that officers had been 
quartered there, a valuable library of re aant mathematical and 
aerodynamic works was found knd brought back to England. In add- 
ition a few papers and manuaoripta by Thiel or aiaaer were found 

131 



which may be of 8o»e inter.33t. Among othar odd» and end« was 
a tabulation of the metals usad in alreraft construction and 
their oLeaignatlona, 

4* Bohenstadt near Bad Wlmpfen, Small School, 
Ttils dispersal of Prof, Walthar's was investigated by P/Lt. 
Effior/, Ä, Hausz, and HCO Grehstein, interpreter. a?he group 
here ccnslsted of Dr. Schöbe and Dr. Selow, ten girls and on« 
student. Thj^ work done was aald to be all of a purely aath«- 
matioal nature, both of the leaders professing not to know idiat 
application, if any, was intended ^ 

(a) A problem put by NVK was the calculation of Bass el •• 
functions of integral orders, Jn(x) where n ^ 1, 2, 3, eto» up 
to 35 and x varies from to 65 in increments of 0.2. These 
were done to seven places. 

(b) Selow had started, apparently as a Doetorate Pjpojeet the 
oaloiilation of Bessel's functions of the one^third oioer in the 
0€mpl9x plane with the components worked out to five-place 
ascoracy. 

(©) Calculaticns were Made for Telefunken of the propagation 

of electric fields over a curved eaii;h. Wavelengths from 0,01 

to 50 meters were considered, with the transmitter at 5, 20^ 

6Ö, and 100 meters, and the received at §0 to 10000 meters 

height. 

(d) Many small Glttersumen problems were assigned from time to 

time such as the evaluation of s 



^ ^ ** CoilAot-r bl V ^ J ^- — 









A, 



(e) Several problems had been assigned connected with the 
calculation of the reflection coefficients of multilayer materials 
using different dielectric constants. In particular they had 
recently been asked to calculate the reflection from a three«layer 
material in which the dielectric oonstantin each layer varied 
linearly with depth. The slope of this linear variation wae 
different in the three layers. 

These mathematicians claimed to have no knowledge of any balliitio 
calculations or any knowledge of the applieation of their work. 
So classified documents were ^ound although a thorough seareh of 
the premises was not possible because of limited time. 

6. Höchst Frobst printing works. Dr. Hoffenberth is suppeeed 
to have worked at this location with «i^t calculators and draft!* 
men on Mantienschen functions for the R. L, M., elevation angle 
tabulations for flak, and evaluation of wind-timriSl research» The 
prfrtlng works is on Adolf Hitler Strasse, and Dr. Hofferberth le 
sup.voaed to live on Brba eher Strasse 56. 

Vii/C Smelt who remained at Heldeluerg will investigate this target. 

132 



^* Kempten Pinna A» Ott and Fimaa Seltamann« Br» I Da 
Baauolalr« and Dipl. Ing, Dryer, with flva mechanloi.and ona 
■aaretai^y wero building a differential analyaer and doing some 
preliminary work for a problem in Fourier syntheala of X^Ray 
structure iiiveatlgatione for the RLM. Ott was a maker of 
preolslon mathematical Instrumente suoh as planlneters ete. The 
project was to be moved to Seltamanns near* there. Various parts 
are probably to be found at Ott« at Seltamanns and some In a 
eellar in Sempton which was used as a store room* 

It was not possible to Inyestlgate this target from Heldelburg» 
but it was turned over to Colone^ Clifford of T-force^ Gaft group 
4« for assessment. 

C» Laboratory of Prof« Basoh . Prof. Dr. Bus oh »s laboratory 
In the Bochschule was not dispersed as were many of the others 
because it remained in fairly good shape after the bombing of 
September 1944, This laboratory was investigated by Captain 
T, i^rysdale, H-.A. Soderman, Dr.' H.A. Liebhafsky,. and W. Hausa. 
One room was found which was- supposedly devoted to the* testliig 
of a telemetering transmitter called the Messina II. The trans* 
altter was constructed eLsewhere, sent In for testing and then 
sent out. Sami les of the transmitter, and measuring equipment 
such as a camera and oscilloscope setup and other miscellaneous 
equipment were brougiht back. Allegedly, another party had brought 
Prof, Bisoh there the week of 6 April and had taken away all 
remaining papers of Importance. Also It was alleged by Dr. Steul 
and Dr. Fischer, who were found in the Hochschule, that papers 
and equipment had been taken by Dipl, Ing. Schnapper, Dipl. Ing. 
Latz, and Dipl« Ing. Hartmann, assistants who fled about three 
days before the American troops ajprlved 

Frau Busch, who was interrogated at her home, claimed to know very 
little about hear husband's work. No Information oould be obtained 
about the destination of the assistants, or about any other places 
where Prof, Bußeii«-i wo^»! Ight have been carried on. In parti eular, 
everyone aeems to ^g^ee that there Is no such plaoe as "Busch 's 
Tower'* which was mentioned in a preliminary report by Co» Marohant. 

Dr. Fischer was asked about his work and stated that he had worked 
on Infra-red detection devices for the Navy, at Kiel, Berlin, and 
at O^ttingen. Spark discharges of 1/2 micro second duration «nd 
ten watt-seconds energy were used, which were filtered to removo 
all visible light. Lead sulphide detectors were us^d and oonvsn* 
tlonal pulse gear employed to measure range. Ships were detected 
up to 6000 meters and the range might have been further Inoreassd, 
but since the system could hot "see" through fog the Navy Interest 
^d been dropped. 

Dr. ..Steul said that he was aaslstant to Dr. Rau and had been work* 
Ing on X-Ray pressura-density measurements and other probleir»8. 

D. Hlp3i-VoItaae Laboratoi^ and Dispersal of Dr, H'Kter . 

!• Laboratory in Hochschule . Investigators Drysdale, Soderman, 

133 



Liebhafaky, and Haus« wont through this laboratory with Dr. 
Steul and Dr« Fltohor, mentioned In the preceding section. 

Standard Lecture and experimental apparatus for high-voltage 
work constituted s^ost of the equipment. High-voltage trans- 
formers, sphere gape for oalibration, large cylindrical cap- 
aoitators, strings of HV insulators* and a large impulse 
generator built by A, E, G, were in evidence. There was nothing 
to indicate work of any unusual nature. 

Prof, Hater»« small pressure guages ware discussed with Drs, 
St®xa and Fischer, A sketch was drawn, a copy of which is 
attatched. These Instruments were ordered for the Peeneraunde 
wind tunnel in ir40 and the design was ^ finished in 1942, It 
was also mentioned that the X-ray density measuring system had 
been aent to Peenemunde late in 1942 or early in 1943, 

2, dteinbach bei Lohr am Main (not certain whether Steili- 
bach is the name of a village or only the name of the man»8 
house where the work is being done). Dipl, Ing, Steinbach and 
Dipl, Ing, KnSdgen have been making samples of pressure measuring 
devloes, lEhis dispersal was not covered for lack of time, but 
might be investigated if a aopplng up operation Is desired, 

B. Laboratory and Dispersals of Dr, '//agrier , 

1# Physloal Chemistry Laboratory in Hochschule . 

This laboratory was also visited by Captain DiT'sdale, Soderman, 
Li ebhaf sky, and Hausj, It contained large quantities of ohemloal 
and electrical apparatus of unusual design. Several electrolytic 
©ells were found which probably are of the type irtiioh were designed 
for the öuchhold integrating acdelerometer. There were a number of 
these, individually wrapped and of uniform construction, indicating 
that they had been produced in quentity. All the cells were un- 
filled and consisted of a glass tube somewhat less than one Ineh 
in diameter having two "M"-shaped electrodes of silver wire sealed 
Into one end and an exhaust tube at the other. The whole cell when 
••«led and packaged would probably be four to six inches In length. 
Some silver wire, possibly of the type used for the eleetrodes was 
also talitiiD fro» tb« laboratory« 

A nuMber of tnall tubes of alloys such as W AI4 and U AI4 were 
found. It is believed that these were intended fftr academic 
exes>oi«O0 but it Ic possible that these may indicate a special 
interest in urimiu» ov in alloys of this sort. Samples were taken, 

do doounenti of any interest were found in any of the Hochschule 
Laboratories} they had been oleared, apparently, of such material). 

2, Firma Klinger and .'>ohmidt, Ilmeneuy T>mringial , 

This company wnioh normally makes thermostats and similar devices 
lifk9 also been mating Wac^nor's cell«. It is believed that both 
this company and the one on ti:ie preoedlruc pBf(fpjr*\ph iraüo only the 

134 



empty coil and that Wagner hlmfiölf employed teohniol&ns to 
filial seal and test the cella« 

These two companies oould not be investigated because they 
were not in the Sixth Army Group Area, but were turned over 
for investigation to the appropriate Caft organization by 
Colonel Gifford, 

F» Laboratory and Store-room of Dr. Hau , 

Dr, Steul, mentioned above, was interrogated at his family 
heme in Heppenheim and offered to show us through a collar 
in the Hochschule which had not as yet been investigated, 
P/Lt# Stokes and Dr, Porter went through this basement area 
carefully and talked further with Dr. Steul. 

The laboratory contained high-voltage transformers and a 
special high-voltage generator and other apparatus normal to 
work on gaseous discharges and X-rajs, In other rooms were 
foiind large quantities of lecture demonstration equipment and 
standard physics laboratory gear. One room however contained 
a large quantity of vacuum tubes and radio components, and 
several very high voltage rectifier tubes. This equipment, 
according to Steul, belonged to the Theoretisches thysisches 
Institut which was not actually a part of the Hochschule but 
used some of their facilities. This Institut was connected 
with the NVK (Nachriohtensradttel Versuchs Kommando), headquarter 
of which moved from Kiel to Berlin and finally in March to the 
Harz Mountain district. The branch at T.D.H. got most of their 
equipment away after the bombing, lea\ .ig only this one small 
room. Also in the basement in a different room, packed for ship- 
ping were some boxes of laboratoi^ gear, including a Kavy chassis: 
which was said to be part of a radar set. AMO was notified of 
tiie existence of all of this equipment and will tuiTi it over to 
the looal Slgrial CJorps .ßls. 

iÄ», Hau's papers were thoroughly so -rohed and found to contain 
only two things of importance. First a thesis by Dr. oteul on 
the Stark effect in calcium radiation, and second a paper by 
Dr. Rudolf Oebauer on experimental investigations of the operatlör 
of a high frequency tube known as the Hell »sehe Kammer, This 
latter gives sketches and performance curves showing, better than 
3ö> effioienoy at 20 watts output on 18 cm wavelength. Magnetic 
fields are used to focus the •electron stream and thereby improve 
the affiölency. De» Oebauer has' gone to Conntanoe with all his 
equipmant and may have gone on to aom© other dispersal near there, 
the exaet location of which la not known. 

Ste\a states tlriat his work was primarily a problem in physics, 
but that he had hoped it might have some applloatlon In astro- 
physia» since oalciua is so prominent in the composition of aU 



PS , 



135 



fr.!5!P J ^i*^ *?^ conatruotöd to test the oathode and 

of Q*bÄuw»B experimental tubes was found and taken 
away, but no epeolments haying a oavity could be looated. 

^A k!!^4.^ ^^ 5® (Steul) Ivid helped with that work and 
Sise&on iT'^r^'^^ .everal times in that conneotlon. HI, 
h!«^^^4 ? 4 ^ apparatus checked with that given by Dip. 
S ^«n^in^^f- J^'''*® important, however, was the fait that 
WiS^h?^h tJ^A ^**^?K*^ *^® ^^^ looatlon of the HAP wind 
«^ ij-iT desorlbed as a small valley on the out skirt« 
of a village named Koohel in the direction of Bad Tdla. Thla 
^mfSl. 'n^f'^^rS «^^f,^^ ^^ «^oohel See about 100 Km south of 
^•H^«^J Infomatlon was given Immediately to T-foroe and 
listed as a target to be guarded pending Investigation. The 
tunnel was said to be still under the direction Zt D^? HeralL. 

Ae rodynamische Institut X^lspersalj Jugenhela > 

At the residenoe-cafe of Herr Schramm, Felsbergatrasse 5, Colonel 
O'Mara, F/Lt. Stokes, and Dr. R.W. Porter found a rather eaepen- 
sive store of Instruments and equipment belonging to the Darm» 
Stadt T.H. This equipment had been used by Dr. Soheubel, head 
of the Aerodynamisches Institut, at the Grelahela wind tunnel 
and laboratory. Dr. Koehler was found there preparing to remove 
some of the equipment to his home. This equipment was reported 
to the AMG and also as a stock of Instrument» found In KoeKlera 
home In Seehelm. 

Dr. Koehler acconqsanled our Investigators to Orleshei» idiere 
both the Darmstadt, T.H., tunnel and the D.F.L* tunnel were 
Inspected. Asked about experiments on the effect of Intense 
electrostatic fields on the flow of air around a foll^ he replied 
that such experiments had been carried on In the DFL tunnel but 
that he knew nothing about- the resiilts. He added that Dr. Stein* 
hof of Peenemunde had come to the DFL In connection with thle 
work bringing assistants with him. Dr. Soheubel« he. thou^t* 
woiad know what had been done. 

It was later learned that a report on this work has been picked 
up by CAFT from a man by the name of Dr. Ruchtl In Dawnstadt, 
W/c Staelt expects to Interview Ruchtl about Stelnhof »s interest 
If time permits. 

Dr, Koehler also accompanied the Investigators to the heme of 
Dr. Ing, Oetto, Eberstadt, Slfengnind 26. Oetto has done sosi« 
work on the distortion of the tall surfaces of the D0217 at 
speeds up to 0.8 Mach, taking Into account oompresflibility« A 
copy of the late edition of Prandtl's book belonging to ths 
Technisphe Hochsohiae was removed from his library. 



H. ^^^Saogg^y^^^^ ^^^ gberbaoh Manufacturer for 

136 



Ttkl9 ixj^tnmmnt faotopy was first visited by P/Lt, Stokes, 
Dr.. Fortsr, and »?• Hauss and then again vlsltad by P/Lt. 
Bteepy, Dr. LlebhaTsky and Ite». Hausi In order to pi ok up 
soiBA parts proailsad at the time of the first visit and to 
investigate romors of additional rpoket work, said to have 
been going on in the basement • 

Dr. Steui was also the source of a dlightly different ploture 
of !*♦ KLlngelhfiffep^s work, Aooording to Steul, the "eleotrioal 
length**of the reoket ohanges during the power fllg^it because 
of the presence cf a higjily ionized gaseous "tail". Klingel- 
hflffer was studying this effect and attempting to find an 
"equivalent" length for use in radio antenna oalculaticus, and 
the like. 

The plant is in excellent condition with large stocks of raw 
materials, partly finished parts, and completed parts. Ifc«ms 
manufaetured in quantity were small switches and circuit 
braiLkers for alx'oraft, aircraft generators, and parts for the 
A4 program. Among the latter were pressiire meas\i*ing instru- 
ments designed by Prof. HiJter, the BMK (Buohhold Messkopf) 
whleh is part of Buehhold*s new range control, servo-motor 
assemblies for a stabilised platform to have been used in a 
more xaocurate type of range control developed by Buolhhold, and, 
at the Heidelberg plant, wiring harnesses, for the A4 production. 
Tools and fixtures for Heidelberg were made at Eberbaoh, which 
until the sdddle of March employed about a thousand workers« 
Three quarters of these workers were women and ten percent 
foreigners • 

Or, Ing. J. Moeller, teehnloal direct both at Sberbach and 
at Heidelberg, was interrogated in adaitlon to Dipl, Ing. 
Oarl-Heins StÄrm, development engineer and chief of the labora- 
tory, Dipl. Ing. SehÄfer, and Herren KÄfer and Kuhnert, 

It was alleged by all oi the above that the government inspector, 
Herr Lauer, burned all old drawings and took away all of' the 
«irrent drawings and all parts and assemblies in any way conn- 
ected with secret work, before occupation. The transportation 
used came from Stuttgart so it is assumed he took them there. 
Kie date when he completed the removal was March 29. Under 
pressure however, many "bits and pieces" were found in waste 
pile» and drawers. Finally I>r. Moeller agreed to assemble a 
complete BMX out of these pieces, making such parts as were 
missing. This was picked up on the second visit and appears 
to be an excellent job. A number of additional parti were also 
takenf end a few parts drawings, an assembly of the development 
•nglneey, and testing Instructions as well. Althougjti Wagner »s 
intefrating e#XXi were mounted on the assembly by ytotz, no 
MttpXe could be found. The only part of this device which rem- 
MiMd was the themiostat and part of the cardboard case« 

A complete list of component parts of the BMK and the names 
and-addresBCs «f the suppliers were obtained from the engineers. 

137 



'Uhr man in charge of shipments said that the BMK units were 
shipped to the following destinations: Technische Hochschule, 
Damstadt, Firma Albert Bussinius of Dresden, Siemens Halske 
in Vienna, and to Nordhausen. The records indicated that Stotz 
had made about lOOü BMK's altogether, 20 in May 1944, none in 
June, 70 in July, end then a rapid buildup to 200 per month 
which continued through February 1945. The method of part 
aanufaoture utilizing pressing, forming and pimching operr.tlons 
indicates that large quantities were intended. Siemens of 
Vienna made about 300 altogether according to Moeller, but went 
out of production when Stots reached the above rate. 

The Hflter gauge consisted of a metal Bourdon tube with a magnetlo 
armature and two coila arranged for telemetering. They were made 
in blocks of four on a single base. The original order was for 
1000 units, but work was stopped about a year ago after only about 
seven hundred had been completed. They were believed to have been 
used in remote indicating pressure gauges for V-weapon tanks (pro- 
bably VI). All o. the Stotz engineers claimed to know nothing of 
the smaller gauges designed by Hi3ter for the Peenemunde wind tunnel, 
or of the tiny quartz Bourdon tube units used on some of the A4 
rockets, 

A large number of the servo-motor assemblies were found in the 
»hipping room, Dr, Moeller said that at one time It hjid been 
intended to use two BMK's on eaeh rooket and In that ease these 
servo-motors would have been needed. The plan fell through, he 
said, and the servo motors were not used, (This story oheoks with 
Prof, Buchholds plan to use two aooelerometers mounted on a stab- 
ilized platform, ) , 

The laboratory et Eberbach is large and well equipped, A number 
of precision instruments, and components were observed in oabinets 
on the wall, and In addition there were a lot of boxes in the 
cellar which contained additional lahoratory equipment. These 
were marked "Lab. 19", The work of their laboratory was said to 
have consisted only of testing the manufaotured products and of 
the development of a hysteresis -type tachometer for aircraft 
engines. To have secured the equipment they had on hand, however, 
they must have had influential friends in high place» or a hlgh- 
prorlty project. 

Ing. Stten seemed to be very proud of the tachometer development. 
He claimed that it was extraordinarily accurate and was essentially 
independent of temperature, A sample of this Instrument and a taoh 
generator used for testing it was taken, Stot» would be ready, 
apparently, to go into production on this instrument If tbere were 
any customers. No model of this instrument with more than one 
pointer (for nailti-engine planes) has been designed. 

One other item whidi Stots Bberbaeh has made in large quantitlis, 
and which may be for the basis of a peace-time business, is a 
cable connector of watertight design for use on airfields and for 
other temporary cable installations, 

138 



Z« Stotz Apparatebau^ Heidelberg^ Manufacturing A4 Parts . 

Thl« plant wais visited, at a later date, by Mr. Haua«, W/C 
anelt» and F/Lt« iknery* 

Dp, Mooller was found in Heidelberg at the time of this visit 
and upon further interrogation he finally admitted he knew 
■ore about the A4 program than he had told during previous 
Interviews. He was directed to write the fullest possible 
account of everything he knew and to have it ready by May 7, 
1946 ♦ Arrangements have been made to have this paper picked 
up by the Sixth Army and transmitted to London. 

The Heldeibörg factory produced nothing of particular interest 
since it was engaged only in large scale production of compon- 
ents fiind its laboratory did nothing but test these components. 

Incidental information obtained from Moeller at this interro- 
gation includes the following t 

(a) Components for the A4 rocket were covered by the code 
KHK. For example, KHEf 20 155-01 was one of the the 
ground connection plugs. 

(b) The following firms were engaged in production of A4 
component St 

Sieberg und Kalhn at Ober Kauf fingen bei Kassel 

(Large scale electrical parts). 
Josef Meliert, Bretten, Bader 
Firma Oaressa, Banmenthca be^ Heidelberg* 
Firma Krone, Stad]^^en bei Hanover, 
Firma Widmann, Zulllchau, East of Berlin. 

Ce) Firms producing "he Elsotronio part of the Buehhold range 
©cntroli, known as ths NetÄBll are? 

Siemens, Werdau im Sachsen. 
Bussenius, Pulsnits bei Dresden. 

(d) Although the initial order for Buchholds Messkopf was 

1000, placed between one and two years ago, an additional 
order for five thousand was placed through Siemens, and 
great pressure was applied to speed production in August, 
September and October, 1944. As a result, much of the work. 
was sub-contradisd. All sub-contract drawings c«ui be iden- 
tified by the code BMK. A complet list of the names and 
addresses of the sub -contractors was obtained and is inc- 
luded with the other ;Ll8ts taken from Eberbach. 

'• R. Jung Fabrik. Heidelberf^. Heppel atrasp.e 46. 

This small plant was investigated by ii/C Smelt, P/Lt.Qnory, 
and Mr, Hausi, It is a precision scientific Instrument 

139 



factory, midamaged, and in working oondltlon. Normally 
employs 120 workers . A Tew of the part« for th© BMK nw 
niad®| otherwise they had been making miorotoae», visocsaetArB 
and other purely soientifio Instruiasnt s * 

^* ^l<^eggh &u8en^ FSPS msperaal. also obnneoted with 
Dar mstadt« 'LHT^Dr* Fischer" ^ ' 

FEF stands for Forschung, Entwicklung, und Patentwesen, an 
organisation controlled primarily for the Navy. This organs 
ization originally intended to establish a laboratory in the 
T.H, at Darmstadt, but after the bombing decided to go instead 
to Hildberghausen. Before the move was complete, however, ths 
organization, or at least the particular branch oonoemed,waB 
dissolved, and Technische Hochschule took over the space in 
Hildberghausen. or. Fischer who had worked with FEDS in Berlin 
was to be in charge. 

Fischer was interviewed at' his home in Darmstadt by F/Lt, Stokes 
ßud Dr. Porter, He, claimed to be an expert on gaseous discharge 
*'.;d infra-red technik. He worked originally with Dr. Rau on 
;ha X-ray density measurements, then went to Berlin where he 
worked for OKM, a Naval establishment, until Autumn, 1944. The 
.^'ork in Berlin consisted primarily of ant i -infra-red equipment 
for submarines (detection of our infra red equipment) but he 
also worked on a pulsed system of ranging using a 60 cm search- 
light with a »park diseharge. This system was »uooessful in 
detecting ships up to ranges of 6000 meters under favorable 
conditions, but was unsatisfactory in bad weather. At the same 
time a lot of work was done on infra red cells generally, at 
Hildberghausen as v;eii as at Berlin. Lead Sulphide «ells were 
the basis of this research, but the addition of other materialf 
and improved techniques of construction gave considerably 1«- 
proved performance. Operation in the region of 5.5 ap was 
considered »ati sf rfctory. 

Dr« Fischer stated that all his apparatus and papers were at 
Hildberghausen «nd that a freight sarload of instroasnts from 
Berlin haA basn on its way shortly before oooupation. Alsjo hs 
bellevad that i^rofessor K.Vi/. Wagnsr, hsad of FBP3, fomsr 
President of Reiahsforschungs Institut, and Professor Walter 
Weisel of Bonn Univarsity had taken refuge thars« Ha askad that 
if possible ha ba takan to Hildberghausen so that ha oould properly 
identify the apparatus there azld keep it from baing **uxineoasBarlly 
destroyad, " 

This Information was tumad ovar to Dr, Broda of Nav« Taoh, Miss. 
^. and Lt, ^TS# who agraad to talk with Dr. Flsohar and possibly 
to take hint to Hildbarghausan if thay thought his wos4c of sufflaisnt 
interest« 



140 



L, Dr, InK« Hans Hyman, Forschung.s und rrod« Messteohni k 
Auerbachj near Bensheim . ~ 

Com, McAulay and F/Lt, anery Investigated this iinderground 
plant and found a oomplete shop for making and testing 
aircraft Instrument gyroscopes. As indicated in the initial 
report by the CAPl' assessors the machine ^^y was found to be 
rusting because of lack of protective coatings, and In 
addition it was found that m at of the instraments, cathode- 
ray oscilloscopes, and other measuring equipment had been 
removed from the tost benches, ^ On the other hand the plant 
seemed to be in no danger from flooding, as was suggested 
in the initial report, since it was so arranged in the side 
of a hill that natural drainage existei. 

Nothing of technical intelligence interest was found. A 
atook of ball bearings of the Instrument type, was removed 
by F/Lt, anery. 

M. Dr, InK« Hans Hyman und Go. Forschungs Institut at Nieder 
Ramatadt . 

P/Lt, Bickerdlke and Dr. Butler visited this vibration 
research laboratory hoping to find samples of vibration- 
packed metals or other material such as were deaoribed by 
Dr. Hyman, during his Interview at Kit a Ingen, 

Dr. Thumau, the man in charge of the laboratory lives at 
Nieder Rarast adt, but was not available at the time of the 
visit. Herr HiÜttmann, a' foreman, v'ls on the premises and 
demonstrated some of the apparatus . 

The building was not badly damaged, and moat of the equip- 
ment appeared to be in running order. The laboratory oont- 
ainad a numbep of vibrating platforms for shaking, and two 
vibrating presses. The former were operated mechanically 
by means of eoöentrios or \mbalanoed flywheels, and the 
latter by alternating-current electromagnets. There was no 
•vldertoe of supersonic work. Experiments on the settling and 
Bliparatlon of powders and the production of emulsions had 
obviously been carried out. A tin of explosive powder, some 
flour and a small stock if iron powder were found on tho 
promises. The latter consisted of electrolytic powder obtained 
fro» a firm at Ettlingen, near Karlsruhe. A few weeks before 
the village fell into Allied hands, exporiinents were started 
on the production of sintered iron bullets by vibration 
pressing. Only three press lnf,s wer<^ made, however, and they 
all failed. If the compacts had beon sound, they would have 
been sintered at Ettlingen and the proc-^ns worked out there 
on a commercial scale. 

Evidence t}jere did not a« -m to war-ant further lnv6st-,lp,at;lon 
without the presence of Dr. i1)Ux»nau ox- i>r. H ym n. 



141 



^« Home of Mpl, xn^. Helmut Kellj B uohen . 

During the interrogation of this fellow at Kltzlngen 
it was found that Keil had systematioally been stealing 
new experimental vaouiun tubes from the BHP instead of 
delivering them to Dr, Wesoh at Messelhausen as he was 
supposed to have done. These tubes he said were hidden 
at his home, 

Aooordingly, Mr. Kausz aecompanied Keil to his home guid 
obtained the tubes. There were a number of samples of 
high-frequency trlodes, magnetrons (low-power) for various 
frequencies, and one specimen said to be a verj new type 
of magnetron, v/hioh is as yet unidentified. These tubes 
and Kell »3 story have been turned over to Major Dobbson, 
Royal Signals, leader of CAPT Or cup 1. 

NOTE» The last three items are only Indirectly connected 
with the activities of the Darmstadt Technische 
Hochschule but were included in this report for the 
sake of completeness. 



R.W. PORTER, 
7 May, 1945. 



142 



jpRQPESscfi yimja • $-9 Hay 194$. 

i^iirJA.; f-fcjrlgr flriÄg Uate 4f th« A--C rock«t, Ui^ radio g#«r fr^qupntly tmiXöä t9 
v^<äTa.Ui «aU»fftct<»irlljr, It «&a thoii^^jht that U»a feiluM Ed^;ht b«v« b*«a ««.;k««d 
by \bm ixiiläiti^ np e f an «]A<jtroat»Uo eharg« on tte ro«l£«t. tt» probl»» wa» 
r«f«rr«d t« Df« ?tw»^ b«eftUM hi» lÄboratory «as la a good position to cawy 
out elsotjTOStaUe sxpsrlBents» Tbs «Isetrostatle «ork ««s rwIaWd to th* «ark 
oa rssins, aaeeydieg to nr. Vlsssg, bsosus« of th« tiseesslt^ fw v,srr pure 
iasulattiig BatftrialS;» and, bsoauss of a slBllArlty in B«asur«»Qt tschnlqa». 

ÜBS of Dr« 7l«w»g*s assistants^ Or, lOingslhoffsr did sctso thsoreUoal «wrk 
ea tiM eliarg« «bi^sli a body ad^ht attain in^ils aorivg through th« atcxwpbsra^ UiuU» 
into Momat mmA f^Mtcn as dust parUel«i, clouds of wttM* dropjst» or ios 
erystalSf loos, asd tho like» and on ths «ay ia which ths jat would affsot thm 
ehargo. Sxpsrlaovta wars csrrlsd out in ths Uboratory usii« saall partiolso «f 
rmBLs msh ss yolystyrcl at rslnti-wly low Ispact sposds. The sdTfsct of tho 
flaas was studisd in saall ooabustion chaabsro uad^r eon<;rollod oo»Jltlons. dcsis 
tosts «srw «vwa 3«a'« ia frossit« chaalMrs to study tbs sffoot of ioo for»iloÄ. 
Ästs oa a largsar seals wore aaJs at PosasMindo using largs rock«t aotor« wi^^L 
diffsrsnt fools^ and soos attsapts war« !5«is to study ths ftriction off sots Jb*-^4« 
s^wr-soBie wl^ t«aa«l. Ilieso latter wars oasuecsssHal bsoauss ths Imurity 
of tho air aad« ths rosults ineonsistant, 

AB a r««at« of this work, ainaslhaffor oonclodod that tho aaxinia 
potsntiaX wfaiah al^ht ho ospsotod of tho A-^ would bo loos than 10,000 Tolts a «aloo 
ohiA would pr«tebly not eauso troiibls. rar. Tisw^'s opinion is that faalt^ 
■aaufaetaro aad doslga of tho radio oonpoosnts was probably tho oauso of tho 
»arly failaros, rathsr than any troublo duo to «loetrootatio ohargo. Itao only 
■oaos of protooUsK «^ rockst against oloatopootaUe chartjoo is tho Installatls« at 
tho oxtroidUso of Modlso, siailar to thoso wssod I aircraft. 

lo woxic wo doao by n i n g olh offor on othor than ths olsotrostatie i^iaso of 
tho profalsa. Caloalations of aoasurowats of tho popopagatlon of radio wavoe 
thrc^ tho ionlüoä gasos in thi Jot wors nado l]y Prof. Ir. )tollmna of Droadsa. 
!»r. ?i««fag hm^ Ms but dme. m% h.^ tho rooults of thsoo oaqwriasnto« 

"Om worii oa tho oloetroatatio ohargo on tho A-4 was oxtondod to include 
(^roraft so w all» sad lod to tho suggostion by Dr. fiowi« of an oloetrostatic 
Jrpo <rf pr«lai1y faso for flak rookats, «lis, doTloo dopsndod oa tho asoaaptloa 
that all alroraft would carry soao olsctric ohargo ovoa thou^ih o^ry nttaa-t 
MS aado to ksop tfcis ehargo as saall as possiblo. the projoctllo was to have 
•*J"~*^* **•** «onasotod to olootronie aaplifioro in wmh a any that 
«htoovar tho i^t»atlal difforonco betotoa ths aooo and tho root of tho prejoeitlo 
ohargsd rapidly, the ^largo would be exploded. Such a rapid ehargo in potanMal 
m expootod to oomv as the projectile approached any sort of a ohargod hody. 
TMts ware aado by flylug Ju.88«s over the T'n&f at Darastadt, and uoiz« gllderoi 
a oeaaiU^ty of ^o«t 20 at tors seoasd to be possible. SJcpori»sntal firings 
at wire aoU wsro node at Rochlin in February which showed at least a aeaom ef 
snwooa. It wsa hoped to ha^ tho design ready for produeUon ly tho nl«Wlo of 
1945« 

A ^tyV^^I^ n t n g olhof for's oxperiasatal prograa «aa tho aoasurosisnt of ion 
doaoity In the ataoephere up to 2 ka by aoans of a aaall rooording eloctroaoor« 
■o^mtoc la a glldsv* It was arranged so that a condenaer was discharged br lor^ 

143 



öondiction to a pg^mim-^xmi lower liait and than aut«i»Uoally rwhargad, rk9 
tlm of dl»«harg« wa» r«eord©d and g«v« a awaaiir« of tha ioniaaUon praeant. 

ä18© Of ln-j©r««t; t© 5*. Klln««lhcff'ar 9iae tho worts: of Dr. I^qt^I aM 
Dr, Eosaaatm »ho «eÄ-ura^l tha «lactric fiaid of the ataw^aphara \xo to 10 k», «i?r« s 
öatrio« oaliad a «TaldÄuhla» deralopad 1^ Prof. Bchwarkhagen of Dknalg and Dr. lod^ 
of tha Flugfunk ?or8e>miig»aa»Ult at Cbärpfaffaohcjfan. Soas of thaaa Inaunaiaata, 
aa waU as soaa «f }?y«f, 71a«aga loniaaUoii tobaa might ba fouoS at Ainring or at 
U»arpfaffaahofaa« 

Prof. Viawag w^» aakad about tha ^wt« which wsra auppoaadly nm andar 
Stairifeoff •» «iir««Ue« at tha DFL ttmiial at CSriaahaia on tha affact of B.Sl flalds 
upoa *lr flow. Ufa ^ropoaad aot to ioiow Rtaahrl who la a^^joaad to ha^ writtaa a 
raport on t:^ »ubjaat, hut »aid h« boliavad Eosanasn at Unr.i^, or hi« chiaf 
Dr. HcdModarf, wvela knew «fe€>ut It. Ha aant on to aantloE that Stait^of «aa aa 
•athnslastlo gH<l«p pilot, and bad a auMber of Interast» at Grio«hal« and at 

Dr. ?i«veg m^s 9.lme askad about Blldabrand*« work on tft« Bafaaltaraaaaar 
(liquid laad IndU^Ud?*)« B* daaeribad it aa folio«« i jUi Inaolatad plat« 1« nontad 
la tha top of tha ettaUAntir and an insulatacj laad brought out. fhm oapacltase« 
batMMo th« plat« and tha ro«t of tha oontai iiar dapand« on tha quantity of liquii 
r«Balnlqg. Th« imlr« of thl» eapacltjr ia »taaaurad by a »a If -balancing bridg« darl«« 
fumiabad fay Siaataa . Eildobrand'« «ork wm to 8iQ>ply th« oorr«et aatarial and 
daalgn for th« iaaiOstad plat« and contalaar, and to oorr«öt a faw diffioulUa« la 
th« brldg« acplif i«r« Th»a« problso« wer« aolvad •\ioo«88Ailly, aooording to 
I^. yi«««gt «nd all aaapla« w^r« s«nt to P««B«ffund«. 

Üw artifi«ial robbflr Mtarial obtainad fro« Dr. BUdabranl*« laboratory, «aid 
t« hava b««B u««<! in pratfaure and flow indioator« for aeid and al«ohol, «a« yrokaUy 
Opaool, trad« na«« for l««-batanol. 



144 



Znt«zT<»g&tl€a of Prof, Bisebhold aad Vrof • «altlu»r« 9 latiy 1945» Lonlon« 

py«fs* BuoblMld &Bd «either were interrogated together about the method of 
vesgi eOAtrel ueiag a stahillzed platforai asd two eeoelerometere • Prof« 
«tithes egreed to write a short disoussion on the netheaatioal haeie for 
thla •ehens. 

Prof« BoBhhold eaid the system was not used beoatise it was conplioeted 
and huUqr» ee well aa hesTy, and that aa an altaxnative, a method for eon^ 
trollin« the 'thrust was being oonsluäfed» lliis would have used en axial 
eoeeleroAetes* löiioh wotad operate a polarized reley löicnevar the thrust 
heeajee greater or läss than the desired 7alue* This relay, in tura» would 
operate a soter-driTen falve in the H„0, line to tho comb vast ion ohöa&er for 
the tttXtoiae« It was expeoted that a "fittalcfflhruag'* devioe of som sort would 
be neoessary to prereat hunting beoause of the long time oonatsints InTolved 
in the eentral loop« 

A seeoBd question asked Prcf. Bi^hhold was the "stiffness** of ths feed- 
ba«ie loop Ia his integration eooelerometar. He waa not at all eertaia of this 
but tka £g»llONi£g d&ta seess about right t Aa seoelerotion of 1 g produces • 
jM»tiOB of about % degree «hioh oausea a current of S«5 we to flow iato the 
•oils« The torque produeed by thia aeeeleratioa (lAdoh is eaaotly balanoed 
by tlM eleotrioül torque) is aVout S«5 g em« 

Prcf • Bushbold added that if the aystem were mueg stiff er then this it 
«oxad oseiUate« Xa prpdustioa it w»a hard to keep the anpUfieatioa eoasteat» 
s« aa anti«htt&t olrouit wFts used, wiiioh oonoistad of a oapaoitor and resistaao« 
ia series» eonneoted aor< ss the do terminals of the «oppev-oxide reotifier« By 
tiioosiag the rie^t ?elues» hunting oould be efr«otively elialBated for any 
Mplifisatioas possible witii one tube« 

iu X« poiaiffi. 

145 



U S F E T 
Office, Chief Ordnanco Officer 
RESEARCH & Ilfl-ELLIGENCE B8MCE 
APO 413 



(SDNAilCE TARGET REPORT 129 



Target Investigation - Electromechanischc Werke 

Garmisch-Partenkirchen 

Target No: 4-/14.9 

Subjects Covered in Investigation: 

Control of^the "Wasserfall"' 



Siiggested Distribution: 



Ordcit Project 

E.T.L. Project 

Hermes Project (2 copies) 

Bumblebee Project 



Report by 



Dr. R. W. Porter 
Technical Investigator 



146 



COOTROL OF THE "VJASSERFAtL" 



Investigators : 



FA*. Stokos, RAF 

SA. Sharpe, RAF 

C, H. Smith, U. S. Navy 

Lt, (jg) Wilkinson, U, S. Navy 

R. W, Porter, U, S. A. Ordnance 



Introduction; 



{f^^^ "Wasserfall" is the code name for the C 2, a relatively large supersonic 
anti-aircraft missile developed by the Elcctromechanischo Werke, formerly knoidm ae , 
HAP 11, under the technical direction of Dr, von B??aun and under the military / . \ 
direction of Obs. Lt, Dr. Haldere The electrical control equipment was developed >Cf>^* 
by a group known as E W 224. headed by Dr^ Theodore Notzer of Dr. Stcinhoff ^s sec- ) 
tion. Members of this group v/ho were interrogated at Garmisch-Partenkirchen were / 
Dr. Netzer, Dr. Elfers, Dr. Goissler, Dr. Haft, Dr, Weiss, Dr. David, Dipl. Ing. / 
Walter, Dipl. Ing. Klein and Ing. Nicklas. 

ij'-'-'-'-^ Four, different models of the Wasserfall have been identified. The first 
W 1, had aluminum tanks for the propellantsj only one or two of these were ever 
assembled. The second model, ?/ 2, had a shorter wing and tail surface span and 
used steel tanks for the propellants. Hydraulic rudder servomotors made by L G 7/ 
were incorporated. About five of these rockets wore constructed, of which only tvv 
or three were fired. In the third model, the W 3, the aerodynamic shape was re- 
tained, but the interior fittings wore changed slightly and a standard K 12 eloctrc 
hydraulic servomotor was adopted. About forty of these were made. It is reported 
that thirty-five were fired using the K 12 and fiv were modified to use an all- 
electric servomotor. Of those latter only the one was successfull. The latest 
design, the W /^, was to use a simplified hydraulic servomotor designed and built 
by L G W, and again had slightly different interior arrangements. It is believed 
that no san5)los to this design were completed. The following data therefore reforu 
primarily to the W 3, 

No firings were ever made against a target nor were any of the computing 
or target-seeking devices v/hlch will bo described in this report ever tested in 
actual firing trials. The test engineers wore generally pleased if the rocket 
could b© made to fly stably and to respond properly to sin5)le control signals sent 
from the ground. It is also interesting to note that some of the early tests of 
control equipment for the Wasserfall \7ore made using A U rockets. Dr, Steinhoff 
said that the now famous "Swedish Incident" was the result of such an oscporimont, 

IX Qonersl Charactorlstios of the Missile» 

The C 2 is intended to carry a 300 Kg warhoadj Its ilroight at launching 
is 35-40 Kg and its weight at target is 1610 Kg, giving a ratio of initial to ai: 
bumod woight of approximately 2,2. Launching is vortical with a thrust of 300Ö 
Kg which yoflultfl In an aoooloration of about 2 lA g at tho start and a maximum 
flctsoloratlon of 4,, 95 g at tho ond of burning, Tho total Impulse Is said to bo 
360 000 Kg 0oc, which moans that the specific Inpulso must bo approxlmatoly 1Ö6, 
Maximum burning time is about 45 floconds, Salböl and Visol aro used as propollan*' 
and aro Injocted Into the combuslon chamber by moans of oomprossod air carried In 
a largo sphorloal bottle Just behind tho war hood. 



',47 



The total length of the missile is 783 cm. and the diamotor 83 cm. Four 
swept-back wings having a span of 189 cm are used in addition to four tail fins 
with relatively large control surf acos or rudders. Fig. 1 shavs a rough sketch of 
the arrangement of the wings and control surfaces. Those wings make it possible 
to obtain a maximum lateral acceleration of the order of 12 g for supersonic velo- 
cities at the maximum angle of attack of about eight degrees. It v/as planned that 
the »asserfall should have a maximum velocity of 800 meters per second, but the 
highest velocity actually obtained is only about 600 meters per second. 

The principal control of the missile during flight is obtained by the 
action of the acrodyhamic control surfaces. The design of the missile and of thos. 
control surfaces is such that the center of pressure on the surfaces varies only 
a few millimeters over the range from subsonic to supersonic velocities; con- 
sequently it has been possible to balance the control surfaces very carefully and 
obtain a relatively small value of con;trol torque to be supplied by the rudder 
servomotors. Until the missile has attained sufficient velocity to make the aero- 
dynamic controls effective, control is obtained by means of rectangular vanes in 
the jet. These vanes arc either jettisonned by explosiYe bolts after about twelve 
seconds of flight, or are made of a hard wood, such as oak, which will burn away 
gradually at the proper time, 

HI Launching ; 

The rocket is launched vertically from a stationary platform of tubular 
construction, arranged with wheels so as to be easily transportable to and from 
the site. It is not necessary to turn the launching platform so that the "bottom" 
of the rocket faces toward the target; the control system is symmetrical and the 
rocket can bo sent in an desired direction after launching. Ho\7ever, the rocket 
must be oriented roughly with respect to geographical coordinates in order to 
BlapliSy the problem of correlating the two lateral axes of the missile with the 
two axes of the control device, 

IV Tra.1octory : 

The trajectoxy normally consists of three parts, the first ia a straight 
vertical path which lasts for six seconds during which the rocket is controlled 
only by means of its internal gyro system. At the end of this period It will have 
acquired a velocity of ^proximately 120 meters per second and a height of about 
360 meters* The second part of the trajectory is a transition curve designed to 
bring the missile as quickly as possible into the line of sight. During this 
period It is controlled by an operator on the ground who acts in accordance with 
information from a coasput±ag device called the "Einlink-Rechnor" , The instantan- 
eous positions of the rocket and of the target are measured either by optical or 
radar means. During the third part of the trajectory the control is sln?>l0 llno- 
of -sight control, that Is the operator attenyts to maneuver the rocket in such a 
way that It will always lie on a lino between the target and the control point« 

If the llne*of -sight path could be followed accurately enough, it would 
end In a collision with the target or a noar miss. Since it is questionable whotl. 
mifflcieJtt accura<^ etm be obtained by this method, however, several homing or sol. 
seeking systems of control have been proposed which will be described later. 
Because the effective range of such devices U limited, the missile would bo launch- 
ed and controlled aa outlined above until close enough for the homing device to 
detect the target« The trajectoxy woiald then enter a fourth phase during which 
control from the ground would cooso and the homing device would guide the ralssilo 
to the target. One of several typos of proximity fuses which wore under develop« 
■ent ftoB to be used to oxploAo the war head whenever the missile oooo within 
lotbal range of the target« 



14f 



The velocity of tho rocket roachos a vaino oqr.al i<o i/uo spoüd of sound 
about SGVcntöen seconds after laiinching^ Shortly before this point some difficulty 
has boon observed with control instabiD.ity but this critical region is quickly 
passed over so the trouble does not appear to bo serious, Tho tliTUst ends about 
forty-five seconds aftor tho start, but tho velocity remains supersonic until * 
seventy to eighty seconds and control is goncrally offectivc until ninety seconds 
after the start, 

Tho term »^rcffboroich» is used by tho Germans to doscribo a surface in- 
closing tho voliimo in which an aircraft must be located at the instant of colliBlon 
if a hit is to bo obtained. Ciirves of tho "Troff berich" for "Wasserfall" arc 
shown in Fig, 2. If it is assumed that no evasive action is taken by the target 
and that the target velocity is 150 meters per second in tho outward direction^ 
tho maximum height is about 1*8 Km and maximum slant range about 2Ö Km. For con- 
stant evasive actJ.on of 2 g by the target, the maximum height is reduced to about 
15 Km and the maximum range to about 2A Km« 

-^y Ground Con trol Apparatus; 

^^:^ The information-flow diagram shown in Fig. 3 is believed to represent 

-^ ^^ the basic control system planned for the \7asserf all, although it must bo realized 
that no complete system of this kind has ever been tested and that consequently 
disagreement exists among the various individuals working on tho pi*ojoct as to 
what will work and what will not. 

Two standard flak-control radar sets of the Mannheim typo arc used for 
determining the instantaneous present positions of the target and of the rocket, 
rospoctivoly. Because theso sots cannot bo located close together without mutual 
interference, a parallax con^jutor must bo used to convert the data from one system 
of coordinates to the other. Such confuting devices are well known, Tho differ- 
ence in azimuth angle or preferably the slant-plane angle between tho rocket and 
the target is presonted on tho horizontal plates (of a large cathode-ray oscillo- 
scopo) and the difference in elevation angle is presonted on tho vertical plates, 
cuasing the spot to move in such a way as to indl^ te the angular position of tho 
rocket with respect to tho lino of sight. 

During the transition period when tho rocket must bo guided from Its 
vertical path into tho lino of sight, a second spot is shown on the indicator which 
givos an artificial olovation po . 'tion for tho rocket, displaced from the roal 
position in elevation by an amount oqual to tho displacomont of tho theoretical 
transition path from tho lino of sight. Thus it is only nocossory for tho operator 
to koop this second spot in tho center of the tube in order to guido the rockot 
smoothly into tho required trajectory, Tho displacement of tho second spot is 
oonqputod by a computing oloment callod tho "Einlink^Rochner", sometimes referred 
to 08 "Qunmiband". It consists basically of tV70 integrators arranged in series so 
that tho input is oqual to tho second dorivativo of tho output. By moans of this 
dGvioG tho difforonco anglo is brought to zero as quickly as possible without 
oxcooding a maxiraum arbitrary value of angular acooloration. 

Since the rockot is not fired from a rotatabXe platform, tho relation 
between the control surfaoos and tho vortical will depend on tho azimuth anglo, or 
in othor words, tho bearing of tho target with respect to the launching point, 
Furthormoro, doponding on tho nature of tho trajeotory, tho relation of tho control 
surfacos to tho vortical may change during flight, oven though tho missilo is 
pcrtoctly stabilizod in roll by moans of tho gyrosoopiq control, A third computing 
olomont callod tho "Tau-Rochnor" koops track of this angular relationship botwoon 
tho control oxos and tho vortical. Tho motion of tho oontrol stick is rosolvod in 
auch a way as to send the proper signal to oaoh pair of oontrol surfaoos so that 
whonovor the operator moves tho s tick f orw^Td or backward tho rookot will turn in 
a vortical plane and whonovor ho movos it aidoward tho rookot will turn in tho 

149 



slant piano. This roeolutlon oorl bo aooompllshod in eovoral ways, tho simplest 
boing a rotation of tho baso of tho oontrol-stiok assombly with rospoct to tho 
operator. It is nocossory, of ooureo, that the rookot bo sot up in a kno^m 
position, tho same oaoh timo, and that tho oporator bo corrootly positionod with 
rospoot to tho reforonoo of tho control stidc assombly, 

Diaadvantagos of this control systora aro obvious, For oxomplo, tho scalo 
of tho CRT display is constantly changing unless some correction is mado to 
allow for chango in range. Furthormoro tho conditions of control aro also 
varying continuously bocauso of tho changing spood of the rocket, changing 
atraosphoric conditions, tho fact that tho control vanes in tho Jet aro either 
burnod off or jottisonod during tho early part of the flight and the fact that con- 
trol muöt bo maintained after tho thrust ceases, IJ^pl, Ing, Halter, had boon 
given tho problem of designing a dovico to go botwoon tho control fpiick and tho 
ground transmitter which would vary tho control sensitivity as an arbitrary func- 
tion of time. Howovor tho dosign had not boon ooraplotod, and tho conditions for 
which it was to have been Qosignod had not boon dof initoly stated. Another unde- 
cided question was whether or not to include a term in tho control faction which 
would bo proportional to rate of motion of tho control stick. Such an arrango- 
mcnt would bo similar to tho aidod-laying systems commonly used in manually 
operated fire-control devices and tho like. Although opinion generally soomod to 
bo against its use, tho rate terra was being tested on model systems at the timo 
work was interrupted, 

^ VI Radio Control ; 

It was proposed to use standard l?urzberg or Mannheim f lak»control radar 
' sets for obtaining tho instantaneous present-position data on tho. target and 
rocket. These systems aro well known, having been covered by several previous 
reports; no further description will bo included here. It is interesting to note, 
however, that Dr. Notzor believed that the accuracy attainable with the "Mannheim" 
when not jammed with "window" or other counter measures was about l/lO degree. 
Efforts wore continually being made to improve the operation of those radar sets 
against jamming. Microwave radar development had not yet reached a stage of 
development in Gormany such that it could be considered as an immediate possibility, 

Tho signalling system used fo^ the firing tests, was a modified version 
of tho "Kachl-Strasbourg" or "Kaehlgerat" which is also u3od in the HS 293, FX 14.00j,. 
"Enzian", and others. Two pairs of audio-froquoncy tones are employed, corres- 
ponding to the two pairs of rudders. Ono pair is 8000 and 12000 cups, and tho 
other is 1000 and 1500 cpp. Each pair of tones is keyed at a rate between 20 
and 25 cycles per second in the manner of "mark-space" keying. A fifty per cent 
keying ratio corresponds to no control signal j one-hundred per cent of one tone 
gives rise to a maximum rate of turn in one direction and one-hundred per cent of 
the other tone represents maximum rate of turn in the other direction. Inter- 
mediate ratios provide variable rates of turn. Tho keying is produced by a motor- 
driven cam, tho position of which can be varied by means of tho control stick, 

Tho modulatiijig oscillators and the transmitter are the same as those 
\isod for the Kaohlgerat. Any ono of 18 frequency channels may bo selected, all 
of which aro in tho 50 mo region, A simple dipolo aerial is usod, Tho receiver 
also is identical with that usod in tho"Kaohlgerat", It consists of four parts: 
an rf amplifier and mixor, a local oscillator with afc, an if amplifier and diodo 
dotoctor with a v c, and an audio-froquoncy discriminator, or decoder. In tho 
decoder tho four modulation frequencies are separated by filters, rectified, and 
amplified used to-' operate two polarized single-polo double-throw rolays. Those 
two relays will therefore bo altomatoly energised and doenorgisod at a frequency 
of about twenty cycles per second and with a keying ratio: which is tho same as 
that of tho transmitted signals, A fixod d-c potential is koyod by those rolays 
and then filtered so that smooth d-c signals aro produced having direction and 

150 



araplitudo corresponding to tho "mark-spaotj" ratio of tho tranomittcd eignala ami 
thoroforo, also to tho motion of tho control stick. Tho receiving aerial on tho 
rookot consists of motal strips moüntod on inoulatcd portions of tho trailing 
od/^os of tho rudders,, Thoir appearance and functioning is similar to that of the 
trailing odgo aerials on tho A 4,. 

A now radio eystoin for control of missiles such as the '"Jasscrfall" v/aß 
bo5.ng dovoloped by Telofun2<en^ most of tho work boJ.ng done ft Hohonpciacnbcrg;, 
This now system, known as tho "Brifjg-Koggo Vo?jfahron", or sometimes as "Kzan-Brigg'- 
uses the same oontrol scheno as tho "Kachl gerat'-, but' operates on a frequency of 
1300 to 1500 megacycles (20 to 23 cm). At thia higher frequency, directional 
transmitting and receiving aerials can bo used- thus reducing tho possibility of 
jamming. For example^ tho tranamitting acrj.al' consists of a d5.polo v/ith a para- 
bolic reflector vvhich is intended to bo nonntod on the radar sot which is used 
to track the rocket. This arrangono.nt allows a very narrow beam to be used and 
consoquontly permits tho use of a low sensitivity receiver, A directional receiv- 
ing aerial is also contomplatod^ bu tho design has not yet been worked out» 

The most important confjiderations in tho design of the "Brigg-Kogge" 
were ?-ow cost and reduction in the nvtribcr of critical components such as vacuum 
t'jbos. There v/ere at least tv/o models of tho transmitter t'"Ki-an") one of which wa& 
crystal-controlled and used three tubes., and the other of which was a cavity 
oscillator with only one tube, the frequency being held constant by ingenious 
mechanical design,. A super- regenerative receiver was to be used on the rocket. 
Further details on this system \7ill be found in reports on the interrogation of 
Dr« Leo Brandt and Dr^ Paul Kotowski, Tclcfunkon onginocrs, at Munich, 

For testing purposes a telemetering system known as "Messina I" was 
used to transmit continuously such information as prcssuros, tonrporaturcs, rudder 
positions, gyroscope -positions, and tho like. "Messina I" is described in detail 
in a report by W. Hausz dated May 23 on tho interrogation of Dr. Grottn^. 

VII On-'Board Control Apparatus : 

Stabilization was accomplished by tho use of three gyroscopes arranged in 
gimbal suspensions as shown in Fig. 4, Standard aircraft auto-pilot gyroscopes 
manufactured by L. G. IT, in Berlin wore used in all thrco positions. These wero 
mounted in the feil soction just "^ohind the forv/ard bullchcad. Potent iomctor-typo 
pickoff devices wore used, tho stators of which wore arranged so that thoy could 
be turned by tiny motors. These motors were specially designed for tho purpose 
by L, G, H,; the speed of rotation is accurately proportioneil to tho applied 
voltage and the powor required is very small. 

Fig. 5 shows how tho gyroscopo is used to control the missile. Opcratior 
is briefly as follov/s: Tho gyroscopes arc caged until tho instant of launching 
whereupon thoy arc released and remain free for tho rest of the flight. Dxuring 
the initial vortical portion of tho trajectory there is no external control; if 
tho axis of tho missile becomes inclined, one or both of the pickoff brushes will 
be displaced and a potential difference will bo applied to tho input of tho con- 
trol amplifier or "Mischgorat"^, which in turn causes an unbalanced current to 
flow in tho control colls of tho rudder servo. Tho resulting motion of the rudder, 
produces a torque. on tho missile in such a direction as to roduco tho inclination. 

At tho end of tho initial six-second period, radio control is ostablishc 
If the operator then moves his control stick forward, tho keying ratio of tho 
transmitted signals is changed as doscribod above, so that a proportional d-c 
potential is produced at tho output of tho "dooodor". This voltago is usod to 
run tho motor which turns tho stator of tho gyro pick-off. As tho atator turns, 
tho ruddor servo aro brought into operation until tho missilo has turnod through 
tho samo anglo as tho stator, tho gyro axis moanwhilo roraaining fixod in space. 

151 



ripis to a first approxiration, motion of the contr-ol stick producos a proportional 
rate of turn of the nissiio. The local system including the missile is dynamically 
stabilized by the usual R-0 equalizer circuits and by position feed-back from the 
rudder Servomotors, The control of both pairs of rudders is exactly the same, 
naturally enough, since a given pair may bo either vertical, horizontal, or at any 
angle in between. The names "vertical" and "lateral" control are used oi-ü-y for 
purposes of discussion. All four rudders arc used for roll stabilization^ operat- 
ing diffcrontially in pairs. 

The A-4 "Mischgerat" or control amplifier was adopted bcchuse it was^ 
rcadil^ availablCo It had to be modified, of cou-rso, because of the diffcrGnco* 
ia the way roll stabilisation was applied. It is believed that the equalizer 
circuits wore also changed boccvasc of the different physical characteristics and 
natuKil periods of the "Wa.sEcrfall". The exact values used are not known. 

Because of tho bottleneck in tubes, experiments were being made with 
magnetic anpiificrs, A standard unit dovsigncd for use with the automatic pilot 
of the Mcl09 and other fighter aircraft was tested in a model system of the 
ri-iddcr control» This unit requires an input of 1 to 2 mill d.airc ores into 400 ohms 
to prödi^ a saturated output of 100 to 200 milliamperes. The time constant is 
about 100 m5.11.i50conds| it can be reduced to as low as 8 to 10 milliseconds, but 
only if the input power is increased in proportion. Results of tho tests were un- 
satisfactory because of tiio long time constant of tho magriotic ainpliixcr as com- 
parod with that of an electronic amplifier. The time constant is particularly 
inroc>rtairfc in the "Wasserfall" because of its high natural frequency (aerodynamic) 
with is of the order of 3 cps for lateral motion and much higher for roll. Dr. 
Klein was personally in favor of tho magnetic amplifiers and thinks he could have 
overcome the time-constant trouble. However ^ tho scarcity of mu-raetal presented 
additional difficulties and the twenty to forty man-hours of labour required per 
anp3J:ficr was considered excessive in view of the fact that four amplifiers were 
required for each rocket. 

Originally it was intended that the A-4. rudder sorvoraotors would bo usod, 
but they proved to be too weak and too slow to handle tho large rudders of tho C-2 
quickly enough to maintain stability. An aircraft automatic pilot sorvoraotor 
known as the K 12, built hy L. G. 17, for tho Ju 88 and other military craft, proved 
to bo satisfactory except that it cost too nuch. Most of the tost flights wore 
made using the K-12. 

In an effort to find something loss oxponsivo, Ing, Nicklae was cxpori- 
monting with an electric servo which consisted of a 600 to 800 watt oloctric motor 
with a throo-stage reduction g oar, directly controlled by relays. To koop this 
system from hunting, the relays are cussed to "chatter" or pulse at a frequency 
determined by tho time constants of the rclay.s thoiasclvos. This pulsing is pro- 
duced by a feed-back circuit and gives a control which is similar to proportional 
control. This schor.e v/as tried in tho air about five tiraos, r.t loast ono of which 
was considered successful by Dr, Elfers, 

^ Another scheme which vras includod in some of tho doaigna wqb a vory 
ölnjplo hydraulic dovico consisting of a double-acting piston and olootromngnotic- 
ally operated valvos. Oil prossuro was to bo obtained oithor from a soparato 
couiprcseod air bottle or from tho main air supply which was uaod to prcssurizo the 
propcllrint tanks. Only enough oil was usod to last sovonty to ninety eooondfl under 
normal operating conditions; tho oil was discharged after use sinco no sump was 
provided. 

It is apparant that any syston in which tho control Is obtained by rotat- 
iTi^ the gyro pickoff stators will bo limited in tho angle through which It can 
turn vdthoat tho gyro "freezing", that le without tho axis of the gyro boconing 



152 



Qllgnocl with tho axis of the glmbal. In a miDsilo of this kiii'-l v/hioh may ttum 
in any diroction, horizontal flight cnnnot bo attainod r/ithout loss of control 
no matter how tho various gyroscopes aro oriontcd, A eystori in vrhich tho ralsöilo 
is turnod by procossing the gjrrcscopos is not subject to this difficulty bocaune 
tho gyro axes can bo maintainod approximatoly in a fixod relation to tho cxos 
of tho missilG, This fact v/as pointed out to cortnin of the B, W, onginoers 
during intorrogation and thoy were askod why tho foiTnor arrangoncnt was used. 
Tho answor was that tho L. G. W, gyros vroro readily available v/horoas other gyros 
with torqUG motors woro not. Some work y/as being done, however, on a con^lotoly 
new control, system using restrained or rate gyros together with the abovo-montj.onod 
magnetic amplifier and electric servo motor. No further details on this system 
aro known, 

VIII Model E xperime nts *. 

Because of the difficu3-tios and expense involved in testing control 
apparatus in actual rocket flights., it is of the greatest importance to bo able 
to simuü.ate flight conditions in the laboratory by means of electrical or mech- 
anical mode3.s. The simplest device of this kind was designed and built at the 
Darmstadt Technische Hochschule by Dr. Haussermann under tho direction of Prcf . 
ViewGg, It consisted of a pendulum with variable damping and natui^al period, 
having an electric torque motor for excitation and means for measurement of the 
position. By properly adjusting the pendulijim-, one can simulate a missile having 
any combination of aerodynamic moment, damping, and inertia, and by varying the 
input to the torque motor one can give the effect of rudders of different sizes, 
different velocities and so on. It is therefore possible to tost any proposed 
servo system for dynamic stability, sensitivity and so on, under all expected 
flight conditions before it is actually installed in a rocket. 

A somev/hat more complicated model is a completely electrical system 
developed by Dr. David of E. ¥„ A typical system, such as that shown in Fig, 6b 
is based on the following equations: 

o< s - aex - b Of 4 c [x - (Ö 4 o(' ) 4 d X I (1) 

X = e k (2) 

i - foe 4 g sin (ii) ■ (3) 

where (S) is the angle of the tangent to the theoretical trajectory, 

2 ^-nrz^ Ö U) 

where A e s e -(H) (5) 

£ = z cos ((H)- V ) (6) 

In the above equations, c/ , 9 , (J , A 9, V" , aro angles illustrated in Fig. 6n, 
a, b, c, d, e, f , g, v, and r aro physical constants which vary with time in a 
known way for any givon trajectory, Z is the linear error at right angles to the 
trajectory, and 6 is the angular error measured at tho control point. This 
error is displayed to an operator who responds by moving a control handle vrtiich 
changes the control signal K, In this way the overall system stability, incl-udin^ ' 
tho reaction characteristics of tho operator can be studied. 

Equation (1) can be roijritten as f ollov/s: 
^ a - A^ * B f- o< 4 C f ^x - 0) at 4 DXj (la) 

IS3 



This i8 the form actually used since X anä Ö nro linineaiately availablo and can bo 
integratod together. It will be seen that upon substitution of (3) in (la) a 
fourth-order differential equation in o< is obtained. Four intogrators are re- 
quired for its solution; a fifth integrator is needed to doterrainG 9, and a sixth 
to determine Z. 

The basic integrator circuit used in this machine is shown in Pig, 7. 
The value to be integrated is fed into the first tube as an a-c signal^ It is 
ainplifiod, rectified and the resulting d-c voltage which is of rather large mag- 
nitude is connected across a series resistor and capacitor. If the product of 
R and C is veiy largo, the resulting voltage acres. <5 the condenser will appr'-'Xi- 
mate the value of the desired integral. This voltage is turned into a c by means 
of a modulator circuit, and is again amplified and connected to the output. Part 
of the output voltage is coupled back into the input in such a way as to compen- 
sate for the finite time constant of the R-C circuit. In this way a very accurate 
integration can bo obtained. Over a period of 15 seconds, Dr. David believes, 
any reasonable function can be integratod with an error no greater than one percent. 

The most elaborate model is one designed by Dr. Fischöl of the Deutsche 
Forschungsanst-.lt fur Scgelflug Ernst Udet. This machine was in construction in 
a village called Teisendorf near Ainring airport. Dr. Fischöles system includes 
a 5000 to 1 scale model of the flak missile problem which requires a room about 
20 by 4.0 feet and 20 feet high. The missile is carried on a device similar to a 
Gentry crane which moves along the length of the room. A horizontal cross wire 
Is made to go vp and down and a point representing the missile is moved along 
this wire in such a way that motion in three coordinates can be obtained. A 
target is provided which can also be given any desired motion in three coordinates. 

The operator,^ who can see both the missile and the target, reacts by 
aoving a control stiele of the same type that would be used in service. The con- 
trc'l signals are sent in the normal way to the on-bo§rd control apparatus which 
is mounted on a large gymbal suspension. The output "of this control equipment 
is transmitted to con5)uter "A" which, taking into account the inertia of the 
missile and the torques which act on it, determines the turning motion which 
would result* The gymbals are then rotated by means of small servomotors so that 
the control apparatus is always oriented in the same direction as if it were on 
the flying missile. From calculated direction of the missile, its speed and its 
aerodynamic characteristics, computer "B" calculates the direction of the velocity 
vector, or in other words, the direction of the tangent to the trajectory. Com- 
puter "C" then multiplies the speed by the cosine angles of this direction vector 
ckiiä integrates the throe resultinj^ conrponentf? to obtain the instantaneous position 
of tho adssilo. 

It should be noted that target- seeking systems could also be tested by 
the addition of another conqjuting element since both the direction vector from the 
missile to the target and the direction of the ralBsile axis are continuously 
available. 

Although Dr. Pischel has operated the machine "qualitatively", that is 
without regard for the aerodynamic properties of the missile, the "quantitative" 
d./vice described above is only partly complete and has never been tested, 

DC Hornig Dovd^oQfii 

Both radio and infra- rod typos of homing devices wore being considered 
fr.r eventual use in '»WasBerf all" , the infra-red projects being more numerous and 
nearer to completion, A report entitled "Development of Homing Dovioes as of 
15 Aue^ist X9UU^, obtained from the Sonderkommioaion Elektr, Zubehör zu Munition, 
liets many of the different systems which were under development, Dr, Weiss 
stato^i that although infra-red target-soöking syst ems using mirrors had boon 

154 



operated in tho E, V/, laboratorios, no practical flir^ht nodol had cvor beon ccjin- 
ploted. Most of tho work was being dono at.Loitz and coordinatod by Dr. Rosen- 
thal. 

For infra-red installations <, tho entiro nose section was to bo made of 
special iron-free flint glass of which several . samples had boon obtained. One 
saipplo was supplied by Prof, IQief oth ef Breslau, Tho inf ra-f cd'.pi'opertios wci^o 
considered satsifactorj^j mechanical properties had net yet been tested. This 
nose section was to be 8 or 10 millimeters thick and would bo either noldod^ 
blown or centrifugally cast. The maximum temperature which the nose would reach 
in flight was calculated to be about ^00^0«, which tho glass could stand without 
difficulty, ' ' 

Tho range of infra-rod detection systems in. general is one to twenty 
kilometers _, depending on the angle included in the fioltd of view. Specifications 
for "Wasserfall" required 3 Km. range v/ith a 6° field. Baron von Pfeifer who had 
a direct order from the Flak Kommando has developed a long-range infra-red device 
known as "Madrid" with a very small field, but which has a veiy clever scanning 
device which facilitates picking up tho target. 

Only two inflra-red cells were available for this development 5 the Zeiss 
Ikon coll developed by Dr., Gorlich and tho Elektro-Ajcuotik from the company by 
that name at Naraslau. A, E. G. was also working on a coll, as were many others. 
The phosphor cells of Dr, Yfesch were still, according to Dr, l/eiss, "fighting 
for recognition" , 

Three types of scanning described by Dr, T/eiss are illustrated in Fig. 8. 
The simplest shutter is a disc with a round hole in it. The radiation from the 
target is focused so as to cover an area roughly the size of the hole, Uhen the 
target is in the center, no modulation results; otherwise the amount and direction 
of the error (polar coordinates ) is given by the percentage and tho phase of tho 
modulation with respect to a ref orenco on the shutter disc, Tho same effect can 
be obtained without a shutter by placing the mir ^ or lens ecßontrically with 
respect to the axis of the device and rotating it. In this case the phototube 
should have an aperture about tho same size as the target ijnage. If the target 
can bo focused into a smaller image, tho shuttor sho;7n in Fig, 8b is preferable , 
In this scheme th© magnitude of tho error is given by the ratio of light to dark 
time and the direction by the paase of the square-wave modulation, Tho third 
idea, shown in Fig. 8c, has tho characteristic that when the image raovos away from 
the center a frequency«raodulatod square wave is produced, the amplitude of the 
f m giving the magnitude and the phase of the f ra giving tho direction of tho 
error. This last scheme is claimed by Dr, VIeiss as his own development. 

A radio homing system for V/asserfall was being developed by Blaupunkt 
in Berlin, It was to be a passive system, at least one variation boing dosignod 
to homo on our "Meddo" or "Rotterdam" airborno radar sots, Dr, V/oiss had never 
seen this system, but mentioned that ho had hoard the term "Stiel Sti-ahlon» (rod 
radiators) in connection with it. For tho radio installations, glass, wood, or 
L'Ttificial resin nose sections wore being considered. 

The first and most difficult problem in tho uso of any homing system is 
that of bringing the rathor narrow field of tho homing device to boar on tho targot 
at the proper time. The two solutions which E, 17, was considering were both basod 
on the fact that the rocket is controlled during the initial part of its flight 
in such a way as to koop it on the lino of sight from tho control point to tho 
target I therefore, tho direction vector from rooket to target will bo approxi- 
mately tho oarae as that from control point to target. The homing device can bo 



155 



brought to boar on the target by (a) transmitting the angular position of tho iir.., 
of eight by radio from tho ground and moasuring it off in tho rocket with respöct 
to a fixod ooordinato system maintained by gyrosoopoS;, or (b) using a roooivor» 
on tho roüköt to d/f on tho ground radar whioh is tracking the target. 

After the homing device has picked up the target, its axis is held 
fixod in space by the gyroacopos and its error signal is used to steer the missilo. 
As a result J tho rocke b rill fly a conatant bearing course until it collides with 
thG target. H\inh i cuirne is illustratod (in two coordinates only) in Fig, 9. 
Tho target is shown attempting to avoid the missile by making a turn at point 6, 
At poi,nt 7, tho ta^:'got is to tho left of the axis of the homing device. The 
miösilG therefore turns to the left until at point 8 it has over corrected and 
ftr^a the target to the right of the homing axis. If the control system is pro- 
perly damped., the missile will settle down on a now course as shown, which will 
produce a collision at point 12, If no homing were used, tho missile would follow 
the dashed line, crossing the path of the target nearly one second too soon, 

Tho advantages of homing are so groat that it seems oortain; in spite 
of the additional cost and complication, that some form of homing 'A'ould have been 
used on tho "Wasserfall" as soon as possible, 

X T ailpiec e; 

No part of the equipmont described above has actually beon soon by the 
writor» In fac-Oo ranch of it never existed except on paper and in the minds of 
tho designers who wore interrogated. There v/as no way to insure that the facts 
obtained were tsruej it is certain that thoy were not complete. Novertheless, the 
infoi-mation is being passed along in the hope that it may serve as background for 
more d etailed investigations of the G-2, and in the belief that some of the ideas 
majF prove useful in our o^vn developments. 



R. 17. PORTER 
Technical Investigator 



156 157 158 159 160 




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170 



CGNTIMS 



F&iP 



Eloctro-Hoohanisho Vforko ,., 

ij< »M"» ••• ••• ••• 

Wassorf al ... 

Taifun ... ... ... 

B.M.'T, - Mimioh and .Berlin 

Appendicos 



Appendix 1v 
"Survey of Dovolopment of Liquid 
Roolcots inGQXTnany and Thcir Future 
Prospects" , by Prof ,W,von,Bi:aun ...• ••• 

Ax^pondix 2. 

Projootiloa Sorios "A" ... ... ••• 

Drn%Yinr;3 

Drawing No «i. 

A .it- Start and Stop Progranimo ,,♦ .». 

Drav/ing No ♦2, 

Wasaerfal, Aei-odynomio Modol ,.,, . *•• 

Drawing No, 3« 

V/8S3Grfal« DiagraiTiatio General 
Arrangoraant, ••• * « ••• ••• 

Drawing No ,4. 

ITassorfal. Oornbination Oli^rabor end Sprayora. 

Drawing Nc.u5. 

Taifun» G-enoral ArrangoTiiQnt .... ••• 

Drawing No. 6. . 

Taifun, Vonturi ♦.. •••• ••• 

Drawing No ,7 . 

Taifun. Tanks ... .., 

Drawing No, 8 

Taifun, \for Hoad ... ••• . ••• 

' Drm'dng No, 9 

Taifun, Cartridgo Pot and Tonic End Plato 



3 

9 

21 

27 

29 



32 
40 



171 



SLBOTRO-4M3HrjaSHB V/ERICE (FliEINaiikDE) 

Th6 SlDOtro-Mochoniaho liTorko \v&s a VDiy lorrjo orgonis&tion 
dividöd into fiSro aopprtmants» Eaoh on^iloyoo hod a nunibor on p 
dooinal system, the dirootors oariying singlo nuribors, departraontal 
ho&ds two, section hords throo , otb; Tho Organisation was orranced 
as follows:- 



E\7.1. 


Dirootors, 


Iiri/.2. 


DovxHlopniont 


3!rw\2.1. 


Dosii^i 


irj.2.2. 


Elootrioal 


sv;.2,3. 


. Ground Installation, 


1^7.2.4. 


Progress.* 


Ev7.3. 


Supply. 


EV7.4. 


Test. 


Bv7.5. 


Purchaso, 



In addition to tho Pccnoimindo e3ts"bii3l:iiQ9nt varioua 
«ibsidiaiy -works were maintained olsetdiere suoh as at i'mklam, 
EoacMi'sdGyf jI B3»iöhorodo, Lake Oonstenoo. As a result of tho 
B^issian ad-waisso, it'^ets dooddod at ijüo'ohd of Februaiy to riüvo 
no3t of tho ojstalaiishraDnt to Bio ichor odo in tho Harz Mountains, At 
th3 ond of Ai^ril with the cbliapse of tho "Western Front thoy wore 
ordorod to-Olwr AniaorQau/l)üt stated they foajrod oxtorinination "by 
tho S>S, so thoy scatterod to 12 villages around» ThcySvoro oöllootod 
for int03»rogat ion at Gantiish-Parto pkirohon « 3' ra il oar ö full of 
radio and olootrloal tost gear wore found at tho station at Poiting. 
Tho contexxts wore oxaminod and after an invontoiy had boon niado woro 
rotumod to the truoks« 

Tho Blootro-Msohanisho \7orko was sot vcp to invos-u^tiato 
liquid rockets iising A at off , a cover naino for liquid oaygon. 
Sopai'atp rüv>ortfl aro attached dooling with tho threo Liain weapons 
produood at Ptiononfindo, nanoly tho A ,4, ITassorfal and Taifun. Tho 
histoiy of Poenoriindo is ^ivon in Prof #v« Braun* a "Su]*voy of 
DovolopriWnt of Liquid Rookots in Gownany and Thoir Puturo Prospects" , 
(Ar^pandix 1), Appondlx 2 ßlvoB in, chart form tho particulars of tho 
full range of "A" weapons fi^oraA.1 1?p A!.7 J^nd the future A.9 ard 
A«10« Th:3Sö woapons ivuro dovulopöd oror the years 1933. to 19h5» 
Tho v/ork was originaiUy dono at the Rocket Eüpcrir.iontal Stptionj 
Bc-riin, but PeonoAidö was conctruotod in 1937 to 1938 at a ooat of 



t72 



300,000,000 niarks to provido o secluded rosoorch stat'lon r/ith apparrtus 
to obsor-'/Q tho rookct in flight h 10112 ■ t ho Boltic coast. . It wos strtcd 
thot the A, 4 Vins tho first of those "weopons to be tested c't Pooncmundö . 
(DR. SCHILLING) 

A.T.O. Units 

In addition to, the \¥Qapons A,1 to A.iO, Prof •v.Braun mentioned 
that they hod dovalopod in 1937 to 1938 & liquid oixy^on assisted toko 
off rocket v/iiich gave a tlirust of " 1 tonne for 45 sees. Ho could 
not rcmojribor the oi.rpty vi^uii^ht of the 'rocket, but thou:^ht that a pair 
would vvtaifvht botvracn 500 and 700kg, He stated that they v/üighod the 
some as Dr , 'Ja Iter *s H2O2 rockets but developed tvd-co tho tlirust. 

Dx]-Julsion Y/as by nitror/cn, . ignition by fircvrork and the 
oxygon vent valve was electrically opuratod« 'j]ho Gonibustion cshantoor 
was coolad by alcohol and -they \TOro dropped by parachute. Those 
A.T.O, rockets did not got accepted by the G.A.F. because, duo to 
evaporation, it v/as not possible for a number of aircraft to tako 
off at the sanxj tiiiio. About half an hour after they had boon filled, 
a boll rang to indicate to tho x^ilot that the a,:iplianco required 
topping up. If a flight of aircraft v/as about to tako off, tb3 
boll . r^^ight ring and delay tho take off of some of tho aircraft, 
Prof,v,Braun stated that ho thou^^it th^ ompty vciight of **.T,0, units 
WD 3 unimi.)ortant bocauso of tho greatly increased thrust given to tho 
aircraft. Ho said that Dr.Haltor's throe fluid rocket vms still in 
tho oxpoririiental stagq. 

Tost Stands« 



There vrare lit tost ^stations at Poohomundo East, reading from 
North to South as follows;-* 

Tost S'.;pnd No. 7. 

This xm3 the tost station in tho largo oval, Tho walls 
contained instrwiont "bunkers". The wall of the oval was not 
dosi^^od because of blast, but \;a3 Looant to shiold tho tost station 
from the son wind which brcuight in sand. 



173 



Tmr- T/Ds 3 large rigid scaffoldls^in T4iich tli3 A. 4 xf&s 
strDppad vertically, thu- -'HnTo t;pg auspciiaDd from e large v^i^hing 
nachiiiG so th^t from 1942 a ooni^^jlütG rodcct could "bo given a hot 
static firing test, Thcrockot was suspondod about -7^1 above tho 
ground rmd tho gasos wore dii\DotGd into a conoroto pit shapod lüco a 
v/. This pit dsflGotcd the gases upvirards and -vTas lined ".vith 
r-Tolybdonura stoel water pipes' through which 500 litres of ^vater per 
sec Tias circulated. The roclcots -wore brought out of the largo shod 
in v^iich thoy were storod and adjusted. They wore carried by a 
conveyor crano which losg^red them into the scaffolding. Tho orano 
v/as kopt there to protect the tost v/orloors from tho woether and v/^s 
then liiovöd bof ore firing. (MG-. TESS^'J^f) In spite of sooo 
evidence to the contraiy a statonibnt rma niadc that actual flirjht 
firings "wero also carried out v/ithin the oval. 

Tost Stand No.1 . 

This "was also do signed to enablo tho tost to be made of a 
ca^lcto roclcot, but it was not regardbd as satisfoctory as No,7. 

?ost Stand Ho,8. 

For static tests on thrust motors only. 
Tost Stand No. 9. 

For testing the Wasserfall 

2c at Stand No. 2. 

This si'iiall stand we»s used for toating l-J" tonne rockets 
presumably A.3 and A.5» Lotor was used for testing valves and oonpononts. 

2ost Stand No .4 and 3# 

Used for A.T.O. Units« 
Tost Stand Ko#5» 

For toßting Turboi'ur-D.j ujiits for LJt-* 

To Lit Stand No»<^». 
V/ansorfal, 



174 



Tost Stand 10 snd 11 . 

Situatod ono on tho sod shore and the other in the circlo 
inland, \vcro u^od f or 'f lir^ht firings of ^.»ks and V/assorfal, 

The i\,l+3 arrived hy railvfay and mint into the hxß house where, 
thoy vrore picked lv by tv/o cranes , tho lare;cr 32r.i hl^jn piclrcd up tho 
nose .of tho roclcot hy neons of screw holts screwed into tho head. 
The sniall crane picked up the rocket in the niiddlo and the rocl<Dt 
v/Ds transfcrrijd to voi'tioal position. It was taken to Tost Stand 
No ,7 in x-- Er-eiinstand wa^on, (MC-.HEÜüpO 

Liquid o:>:yr^n v:a.a 'n^^do at Poonenunde, They had two cariprossors 
(each two eylindors). Tho storage tanlcs vroro sphorical. They 
had tv/o each 50 ,0001^ capa city suspended from an iron scaffolding and 
insulated \7ith magnesium powder« The liquid o:Kyi3on wtxs. Kiado at the 
rate of 500 to 600 kg i:)er hour, Poonoraunde also rccoivod supplias 
of licTuid oxygon hy rail v/agon holding 22,000kg, prora tho rail 
wagon or tho storage installation the liquid oxygen was "talssn to tho 
test stond in road v/agons of which tho siuallest lie Id 5,000kg and tho 
largest 8,000kg, The road wagons were insulated with 30a:i of 
magno 3 iura powder. (DRIVBR Ivi/J^TEUFFEL ) Eng, Barwald who was in 
chargp of tho liquid oxygon chamhors for the A ,4 said that tho road 
vjBgon could hold 6,700 litres and \TOre ' sulated v/ith 5cm of glass 
wool (Hyporka) with a sheet metal outer covering, Tho loss from this 
wagon was 350 litres per 24 hour day. The liquid oacygon wbs pun^sod 
fra;i tho road cars to the A As by moans of a portablo petrol ongino 
dri\'Gn punp which ooul^^ be oarriod by two mon and mounted on tho 
road oars 9 

The liquid oxygon \ms ti-ansforrod froia a road car to tho insido 
of tho A, 4 by means of a long rigid pipo 7om insido diarAotor cove rod 
v/ith v/ovon iaaulation. 



175 



rc-orcV nation of Peenoiiaindo Te^^^^^pata« 



Sor.s ii-00 porsons v/ere rnaintcinad at DivisioDsl HeadquartGra , 
CT?rr.ii-h-PartenlcirGhen for into rrogat ion. Amons those w6ro taany 
.i-.;pori;r.nt men such as: 

Gon. von Domberi^r, in char^ie of all Roclot Davelopniönt 

in G-orniany, 
Prof, von Braun, Tg clinical Dirootor. 
Dr,Stoinhoff , Hoad of the Elootrical Soction, 
Dr .Schilling, Static and Firing Tosts. 
Dr. Dannenborg,- Hoad of the Design Section« 
Dr,PrickG, Chief Designer for Solid Rocl'Kts of 

Rlioine Motal-Borsig, 

Ur-fortunatoly Dr.TchinlsDl, the Chief Cheraist 'Aras missing, 
.■11 files and drav/ings \;-3Ta allogüd to have "been taken by S.S. 
on. Dr.Kanmlor, v/ho may possibly have vralled them 1:5) in a mine 
i.iaft at Bleiche redo» Only 450 pooplo were ordered to evacuate 
<:z r)r3^jT iu-imcrgau out of the 4,000 v/ho loft peonomunde for Bleiohorodo, 
l£ the 400 in Gorraish-Partonlcirchon, Gen. von Domberge r and Prof .von 
T^m proparcd a list of soms 200 persons v/horii they said wore of minor 
n ::rtnnGG and could be sent to their homos. Everyone of the so 
^ ' : sons -^'as interviovrod and a prox^ortion vAjre earmarked for further 
i ;"r;ntion. The rest wjtq given transport tovvt?rds their homo 
:.iütricts» 

"'"ith r-gard to tho 200 cjoolifiod engineers and scientists \7ho 
r'.rv' ined at Divisional Headquarters, Garmish -Parte nkirchon, It is 
-y;-vi:.u3 that in the course of tv/o to throe weeks v/ork, it -v/ns quite 
■)xx;. oasible to extract the full stoxy of the rocket Yvoapons or to go 
■'.oply into iMiy one of tho scientific facets of this work. From tho 
p33rchological point of viov;, although up to my,/ most of tho staff 
■jc'Vt. b.jon -vrilling to talk, v/hothor or no this vvill continue, will 
!lO[.ona upon \;hethür one- can foster tho conf idonco that the team will 
iLjt :j(j dispersed and may have tho opportunity of continuing thoir v/ork 
■■■'■;^n if only on a voiy much reduced soalo. Tho attitude of oo-oporotion 
. .'ii'i- .'incd \m to now has boon inainly duo to the load sot by Gon, von 
:; .m:-;orgor and Prof , von Brf^un, v/ho tako up tho attitude that if thoy 
■J .: convinc^j tho British and Arxriopns of tlio valuo of their work, thoro 
1-3 - chance that facilities may bo offered in England or America for 
continuing it, Disporsal of the Section Luodors or romoval of tho 
r^'jnogcjmunt vfill destroy this ettitudo and the to am as a wholo may no 



17« 



longer be tgolmically helpful. Should suthoritlos v.^ish to obtain 
the hif^h oltltuao dcts as proposod by Prof, von Braun or to launch 
A,if3 and A »93, much timo could be sax'"od oncl risk to niatoiiol and 
lifo ©voided by utiliziii;^; tho uniquo G.-5q)crii3noG of this toam of 

v/orkers. 



177 



In the course of interrogating some 40 persona, the follcving 
details v/ere obtained in respect to the construction, test and 
operation of Rocket A, 2+, 



A, War Head. 



Scsnetimes when rockets were launched they failed to fly along 
the controried path, or due to a fault in the electrical connect ians 
the POT/er Cut-fff- (Brennschluss) took place too early. Then tfce 
rocket would fall back to a place on or near the launching site. If the 
firing "programme" had not been completed the Mar Head did not explode 
on reaching the earth because the fuze Nvas not armed until the end of 
the "programme". Oji the other hand such an accident usually roaulted 
in an oxygen -alcohol fire and due to the heat generated the V/ar Head 
was likely to explode at the end of half an hour, (fROF. v. BRAUN) 

Skin Temperature , * 

Measurements have been made to ascertain the skin temperature 
reached during the rocket's dov/nwarda flight through the atmosphere at 
supersonic speeds. These were obtained: 

(a) By means of models made of rubber-like materials in the 
surface of which thermocouples were inserted. The models 
were tested in the Pcencmündc wind tunnels which were later 
removed to Kochcl» The temperature of the skin was found 
not to exceed 600° C. (re,HERIvIAM and m. KURTSWEG) 

(b) The skirj temperatures were measured in flight by a method 
described by Dip, I3ng. Schüler. Small discs of various 
metals of knmvn melting point wor» inserted into the skin 
of the rocket and connected to electrical circuits. As 
each patch melted a signa,l was transmitted by teleme];ering 
to the observ&tioH station. The skin temperature nowhere 
exceeded 650° C, Prof, v, Braun demonstrate^ tlint although 
the film stagnation temperature tfiight be as high as 1100^0, 
dvß t« soakage and radiation, the skin temperature was not 
likely to exceed more than half this figure. He pointed 
out that if meteorological examination was made of fragments 
after an air tvrst, it would giye a misleading result because 
s\jch fragment a would be heated to higher temperature tban 



178 



than uhe normal skin t<:?iU£>«rature as they would be reccivl]!^ 
heat on both sides of the skin during their .passage ixs 
fragments through the atmosphere, Further the force of the 
explosion v/ould give these fragments an abnormally high 
velocity, 

B, Alcohol Tank « 

According to Document B.iif -vAiioh d6scrxbos the choice of' timing < 
of ■ the Brennschluss , the normal fuel content would be 3,797 Kg, of 
75% Gthyl alcohol and 25fs water. During flight this tank was 
pressurized to i.,,4 atmospheres, Por 40 sees, this was achieved by 
ram compression through the pipe leading to the War Head, At the 
end of 40 sees the rocket reached a height v/here ram compression was 
no longer, eff active , so that the valve was shut by the "prograrano" 
control and theroaftet by the nitrogen bottles in the radio 
compartment , The fuel tank v/as kept pressurised throughout the 
Y/hole of the flight, (DR. ZO 11(E). 

•No definite ansvvnors v/ero obtained to queries regarding the cause 
of air bursts and it v/ould appear that they, wore either uncertain 
regarding the cause, or unvd-lling to divulge it. Several persons 
(among thorn Prof, v. Braun and Eng, Finaclj mentioned the difficulty 
of p HD serving the fuel tank during its dovmward path through tho 
atmosphere. Apparently it was likoly to be destroyed duo to: 

(a) Excess differential pressure between, tho oxtomal 
atmospharo and the pressure vd.thin the tank, 

(b) Differential pressures on- the fore and aft ends of th3 
tank duo to aerodynamic disteibut ion of pressure on the 
outside skin of tho rocket« As the skin was by no moans 
air tight the pressure distribution within tho rockat 
corresponded to that on the outsido skin with a 
corresponding tendency for tho tanks to havxj a largo 
rc^sultant force exerted on thorn towards tho tail of tho 
rocket. This tended to toar tho tanks away from their 
connoctions to tho chassis with consoquont tanlc collapso 
v/hich mir';ht cause an explosivo mixturo of alcohol and o^rpv 
to be bj.x)ught into contact with tho oxtomal skin at a 
tomporaturo of 500O c to 600° C. 

In order to overconTJ thoso dil:'fic'i.lti<;8 a now method of 
supporting the tank was dovoloiiod, Tiiis involved holding tho tanli 

179 



in "hrosd sheet stool strips v/hich vrcro in turn attachod to tho 
chassis. Such & tank was found Blizna, About a hundrod of this 
type wore raadc and they avoided -welding the suspension connections 
to tho- skin of the tank» Thoy vircre rejected for operational uso 
as it was too heavy. The capacity of tho fuel tank was 4,460 litroc. 
Some largpr tanks were niarac for A ,4 towards the end of the >var, but 
W2rc never used (iNG* FINSEL") 

C» Qxygcii Tank, 

The capacity according to docmicnt E®14 up to tho ovcrfJ.ow point 
vras 4-ji960 Kg» Tix sane docuircnt describes the loss by evaporation 
T,diilo standing proi^aratoiy to being fired as 2 Kg. of liquid oxygon 
per minute „ I'ha range tables v/oro drawn, up on tho assuiT5)tion that a 
30 minuto wait before firing ircvolvDd a ''xoss of 60 Kg» 

Prof» \% Braun said that somit imcs during tho filling operations 
thcj would be interrupted by armrfv/ air raids. This caused a waste 
of liquid oxygen and under pressure from those responsible for tho 
operational hamB,ing of the rocket, lagged osq^gcn tanks wore tried. 
Prof«, v« Braun said that the logging was not successful as its heat 
capacity was s'^xch that it transmitted a large qiLiantity of heat 'to 
the oxygen and this during the filling operation* actually increased 
the loss of oicygon* The filling operation only took 12 minutos. 

Although the- Stoiehomctric ratio of oxygen to alcohol-water was 
1^0^.64^ thoy ui3od operationally a ratio of 1 tO;^ so that tho o qaivalont 
of 3:^797 Kg. of alcohol would bo 4A^ Kß« "^^ liqui<3 oxygon« 
(PSDP. V3imM-j 

1hc:vQ would bo s^om 400 Kg» of surplus o>qj^gen and o quantity 
in excess of this might have boo?i loft in the' oxygon tank after 
Bxtjpjischluss , 

Tho vent valve v^s of an ijigonious design and tho objpct of thD 
dcublo scats was to enable the valve to open and snut at lowpr 
pressures« The valve .'served a double pxinpoBO » It could bo hold 
shut hy higii pressufo nitrogen. It v;as bO hold shut to the moment 
of filling began and al-so during the firing period, Tho valve also 
acted f^s an automatic rclii3f valve, opening and shutting, to. maintain a 
pressure of 1*2 atmospheres (gougo) * During tho operational period 
tho heat öXG}v^n(:^av was designed to maintain a pressure of 1.5 
atmospheres (gauge) At bho auction side of the oxygon puirp, 
(DIP'. WG> ZOIKB) 



180 



In ordor to prevent collopso the oxygon tank v/ns mr^intpincd 
with rm internal pressure throughout the wholo poriod of flight. 
They rcplisod the danger involved if tlcic vent valve failed to 
ro-opcn at the ond of the operational poriotSl, it "bomg felt that 
the chance of it being iced up ^ras remote. It yma connected hy a 
long pipe to the outer skin of the rocket. The valve was shut 
until filling .hcgan* Due to this the gasoa only passed in ono 
direction, that is,, from vaivo to atmosphere nnd hence there was no 
opportunity for moisture to get to the valve with consequent ico 
formation. It vras agreed that the dangers associated with ico 
were far greater on vrot days. The small Buna Piston used in the 
vent valvo was adopted in spito of the advice of experts, but proved 
very sati,sfactory in operation, (PROP* v, BRAUM) 

■^» Ho at Exchanger« 

( Liquid Oxygen-Steam ) 

This v/as dosignod by ißng, Bodlirfrig who was not amongst tho 
staff kept for interrogation at Garmisoh» 

Ee Main Oxygen Valve, 

Tho main oxygen and alcohol valvo s v^^en not pressurised by high 
prossuro nitrogen wore both opon about 8 m.m. The oxygon valvo with 
which WD are familiar, having a small central valvo, y/as an oxporimcntal 
■fcypo * "the small valvo being oliminatod in later prödüotion models, 
Tho rheostat was used to chock tho operation of the valvo on tho 
tost stand by moans of a V/hoatstono Bridgo and usoillograph.j but tho 
troops in tho fiold usod tho clootric contact to chock that tho valve 
oponcd and shut correctly, (PROP. ,V, BRAUK) , 

They had a great deal of difficulty v/ith tho packing rings 
through which the operating piston, of this valve slid, Thoy tried 
Buna but it was not satisfactory because, although it did not broak 
up at liquid oxygon terrffxjrati.u'o , it lu^t it's rosilioncc. Eventually 
thoy found a synthetic substance IG-AMT made by Venditor Kinstoff 
Fabrik of Pruisdorf , Hr. Cologno. Thoy used this substance as tho 
resilin-it outer sheath of tho rings and had a contro hard coro of 
tape wound constmction vulcanized. The first samples of JCS-Al^OII? 
wore extruded and proved to be vory resiliont at low temperatures. 
Later on when tho rings v/ore dolivorod, having boon manufactured 
by pressure moudling, thoy v/oro no good, (ENG, PASTV/A) 



181 



Eng, Hub nor täio formorly workod v/ith Prof. Vfsltcr Koil -wont 
to PoenoiTtlndG and sup^rvisod tho tost of tho Tur'oo -Purrp units 
on Tost S:and No^^» Ho gave tho follov/ing data rogarding this 
unit* Tho ratio of T stoff to Z stoff v/as 14:1. (Storage capacity 
130 litres T stoff ^ 10 litres Z stof f ) ^ V/hon the oloctrical 
contact vras inado to start tho Turbo^Purrtp miit.^ both T, stoff valvos 
(]Tiain piston and solonoid by-pass) öponod together ^nd tho unit oamc 
up to full spood in 3 »5 socs, (Dip» Eng, Zoiko in his döscriptiön 
of tho starting cyclo said 2-J sacs to fall spood» Prof-, v, Brauji- 
=^aid 1/5 s(VQ*) On tho tost stand tho unit ran at V^QO R.P.M, 
do V-X3 loping 54i HeP, During operation j tho ro-vs -were from 5j^0 to 
3. ,800 H,PJ,L At h,pOO H,PJ-I, tho consuirrpt ion of T stoff and 
Z stoff is 2.5,5 ICi^'^sGose Should oii/thing"' go \vrong v^dth tlio turbino , 
lest it should go too fast, it is providod with a "snollsohlusse*' 
which cuts off tho T stoff at an ovor-spood. 

The stoara tuJiiporoturG as fod to tho turbino '«©s 2|.00-420C0. 
It if&s Gssontial that this should be kopt constant, Tho T stoff as 
pro'vldod i.n tho fiold. v/ould vary in its concontration and so 
adjustiw-iiits had to bo mado by addurig moro or loss water to tho 
Z Stoff« (PHOP, V, BPjJJl'f) This account od for tho rather unusual 
ratio of T stoff to Z. at*Dff sinco for ü.ii.T.O.E« andH.S,293 the ratio 
was apprü.J"ij2icitoiy 25^1«. 

Thü stööm pipe ?fas üisulatod for a dUöl purpose. To (t) koep 
the steam v^rra and (ii) to pro^'ünt firös which might occur should thoru 
bü an alcohol loalv, ixi whidi caso thQ alcahol might ,gct splashed on to 
the baro sccampipc c>nd ignito* Xrs Z stoff was pcwroi irt from a can 
at thi3 last momont bofcro firii-g» It Wes Y;armod to about 30^ and 
might drop on standing to 5°G* Tho tanlv \v©s doscr-ibod as being 
capable of standing for t^-o hours at »20*^-, If aftor a cortaij;! timo 
tho rockot >;/as not firod> a door i.Vc=f c^-jcned in tho sido of tho turbino 
chaiibor cmd a Isugg. iiisortod v;hich blow ho-G air oyqt tha Z stoff tank 
(tho air vms ho at od 'S^rtcrnally by olootric xm^ns^) 

Prof ^ V* Broun said tho tliO Turbo^Puxiii:,' charribcr did not got 
■v-^ry cold due to a thiri aluminium, diaphrag'.n v/ii ich strotchod right 



182 



f 



e-cross the rockot undcrncoth tho liquid cxy^/on tonl-c. 

The rango vras controllod by tbo tining of tho Brormschluss , 
Thay must havo mat sqvok) difficult ios duo to "water harnracr" virhlch 
causGd th3ni to shut dcn-vn in tvro stogos» Sta^^c 1 at tho Vorkomn^ndo 
reduced the thrust from 25 tonnos to 10 tonnos in -olxjut 2 to 2^^ ^'cs. 
This VBB achiovod by slmtting off tho rasin piston -operating tho 
T stuff YalvOj theroby roducing tho flow of T stoff to ^^ of äts 
normf^l volunra tho rovs nov/ boing 2,000 R,P,M, Lajor tho solenoid 
T stoff Volvo was olso shut and the thrust drops to nil in about 
2 so OS» Thoro is a variation of this procoduro which nakos tho" 
pro -shut off stög'^ 8 tonnos thrust. 

Caro is takon that no T stoff should ontor the j!"3~octiQn 
chambor until thoro is an assured supply of Z stoff. Tho.Z staff 
on önti-y 'Opoxatos a diaphragm contact vyhich in turn makes tho 
nooossary oloctric contacts to causo both T stoff volvos to opon# 
This diaphragm contact is knovm as tho Rubidkontact« 

&*• Koducing Valvo for Tijrbo-Pusinpp, unit and Sor vo.Y.ol-vos> 

Tho rodiicing valvo was designod in Poonodiindo» It had to control 
tho low prossuro at 35 atniosphoro (gaugo) with a rolioblo variation of 
0.6 stmosphoros ». Tho valvo v/as supposed to function v^ilo tho high 
prosstjro bott^ßs droppod from 2.00 atmospheres to 50 atpiosphorcs (cpugo), 
Tho valvo contains two flexible diaphra^ns and its ©djustmont is 
sonsitivo to. variations in tciirporaturo» When cold tha valvo doos not 
function so eccuratoly» In order to counteract this j tho valve was , 
QlQctrically hostod, (EMG. HOTilR) . 

Bng« B5ttchßr'\7as onployod on testing roducing valvos, Tho 
volvQ MT0S- tested by blowing nitrogon tlirough frori sore high pressure 
bottles and allovdr;g the lio^-h prossuro to roduco slowH^ whilo the 
controllod pressure on tho low prGssu3:H3 sido was raoaaurod. Ho 
did not know tho magnitudo of tho gas flow» Tho nssasuremont was iTiade 
by moans of a Bourdon Tubo , plus a l^otcntiomotor , plu3 Oscillograph, 
Tho irBnufacturc of thoso valvos was carriod out by' threo or four 
oxtemal firms^ Anothor ronson suggostod for oloctrically heating 
tho valves was to oountoract the cooling of tho nitrogon as it expands 
in tho rodiiGing volvc« From 1944 onwards a great doal of tho work 
on tho rockot fittings v\ra3 carriod out at Anklam^ about 40 to 5^ Jün« 
away from PoQnoni;,ndo « 



The normal delivery pressure of both puiips was 25 stmospheres 
(gauge). (MG. HOFI?J/ü".M) 

Thiring the- function of the poYZ-er plant due to the quantity 
,. . ^a.quid oxygen in passage from tönlis to combustion charnber, tho 
S:' lent teirperature around the Turbo-Purnp unit and combustion 
iharnbor foil to -10ÖC. 

H, Conibustion Chaiiiber and Burners, 

prof, V, Braun said that tho design of burner cups v/as his 
ossontial patent and forniod tho basis of all tho "A"' -weapons. 
Just as T stoff was used as- a cover name for Hydro go n-Pol-bJCidjc , so 
A stoff was used for liquid Oxygon, Thoro is a fair amount of 
evidence to indicate that most of the fundamental research associated 
Yfith tho "A" -vvoapons v/as not done by Prof, v, Braun and his staff, 
but was carried out by various Professors at tho Dresden Institute 
of Technology and at other similar institutions. The early work 
at Peenedundo before tho war was concent rat« d on 1 tonne thrust 
chambers (probably forA.T.O, units). These chambers operated v/ith 
only one burner cup xrlth the type of which l8 are oiiiployod for A ,4, 
The next stage was combustion chanTbors vdth 3 burner cups for k tonne 
thrusts. Prom this stage they -went straight to tho 18 cup assembly 
for A',4s It Tms proferablo for the liquid oxygen önd 'the alcohol 
to arrivo simultaneously =, but if one had to come first it must bo 
the oxygan^ In practica) they found that it took about 1 sec to 
establish the flow of ligjiid oxygen. (ENG. LBTOE^IBEEG-) 

It is. reported that in 1939 to 1940 Prof, Bock at the 
Institute of Tochnology, Dresden, carried out fundamental research on 
the combustion of alcohol and liquid ox:y£en* Small conibustion 
charifccrs wore built for oxpcrimontal purposos. One of those had 
D thrust of 1 tonno. Experimental chambers, y/cro run for one -minute» 
Th:/y woro ostablishod In an oxporiinental station at Kumraersdorf , 
In 19^>0 Prof, Beck was transferred to tho Institute of Automobilo 
^■r-ineoring, Berlin, iwhoro he died tlw following year. 

It was reported that tho combustion system of tho A. 4, was 
invontod by Dr, Thiol, Ho was killod in tho first largo raid. 

Eng, Hans Lifidohborg said that from 1930 onwards ho was doing ro- 
soaroh at tho Technical School, Di^osdon on fuol injootora for Äoisol 



184 



enginos. He stated thc^t tho dosign of the fuol injoction nozzles 
for A, 4- was sottlcd at Drosdo». Thoy had a laboratory for 
moasuring the output and for photographing the spray of tho alcohol 
■ jets. Eng, Lindönborg said that: 

(a) The output of the alcohol jets Y/as constant ^'or a given 
pressure drop across tho jot_, I.e., v/as not affected by tho 
bade i^rcssuro duo to tho prossuro in tho^ ccr/_ibu3t ion char.i>or. 

(b) Tho alcohol jots r^avc tho same calibration during "hot" 
operation of the cor.ibustion chariibcr as v/as obtainod during 
"cold calibration. 

In the burner- cups plain cylindrical alcohol jots vrorc used at 
tho X)ol end near tho oxygon s-prayor. Wide anglad alcohol sprayjrs 
Trvoro dcvclopod for uso at the hot end to keep tho surface cool. 

Eng, Linde nberg, from 1940 onvrards, \vorkod part of the tiji» in 
Drosdon and part at Peonoinundo on tho dovolopnxünt of tho contoustion 
chanibcr. Tho normal atomizing prossurc v/as 3 atmosphcros. 

Prof. V. Braun said that tho flaino front vras established just 
.inside or at tho mouth of tho combustion cups. Ho agreed that this 
condition was associated with a possibility that tho combustion 
chamber head might got burnt, but pointed out that if the flame front 
is allowed to form at a distanco away from tho burners , tho 
effioionoy of oombuation and specific djnpulse wouH suffer. 

In respect to tho cooling jacket, the frictional drop was 
reported as 5 atmospheres and the tenporature rise would bo from 
10^0 to liO'^0,, i.e. 30O C. (ENG. HOPM,irj]N) 

Eng. Lindonborg said that the tonperaturo rise was between 4.0° C 
and 60° C. Ho explained the functioning of tho 36 screw plugs which 
are s'^t in the wall of tho combustion clismber in groups of 3 upstream 
of tho vcntury throat. Each plug is di^illod with 4 small holes. 
V/hat was not apparent from examination of a used rocket, vms that 
before firing tnosü 144 holes v/ere filled with V/oods or. other low 
tompuraturo nclting metal. V/hen tho skin of tho cordbustion chanbor 
reaches a certain tenip^rature tho metal plugs molted and additional 
surf acq cooling is provided for tho throat of tho vonturi, Tho nistal 
strips in tho cooling .jacket ucrye a dual pur^joGO of pro serving the 
width of the cooling space and also carrying out the more important 
function of strengthening the combuotion chamber at o point whüre it 
is niost likely to suffer from any oxoossivo pressure duo. to an 
impulsive start, Th^ro ia one unoxi^laincd small comiection to tho 



185 



large annulus at the feed-in Äßd of tho cooling jacket. From 
thxs o small pipe ms led to tfe outsido of tho roctet and this 
provided th© only wß&ns of draining off the oloohol iri tho event 
oi sonisthing going ^^ong diar^Jig a combustion test on the test etand. 

Di% Ifelier irentioned thot for combustion chsmbörs up td 1 tonne 
tiirust spray cooling ie neoass&xy, 

_ Tte üöss flow of fuel was as follows as given by Dr,' Palm« 

During the first 5 sees operation (under gr8\dty feed) 7 Kg^'seo, 
(Eng«. Hof^fniann stated thot there xms approximately 8 kg, of each fluid 

per sec for the first 5 to 7 sees)« y/hen the p-iangs h&d reached full 
speed tte imns flaw of "both fbjfÖB vras 127 kg,/sec T^ich gave a thrust 
of 25 tcrmes^ (jJiv- goiics said that tho issar. thr^if^t tos 27 tonnes, 
the thrust rising 'by 4^2 tonnes in the course of flight*) 

(Eng* Hoffinaim. stated 1.35 Kq/sqc ^tiich eqisals 60 k^soc alcohol 
plus 75 £u/sQo cö^^gen») 

Yt^rlous fi^pji-es m^re put. forward regarding tho specific -in^D'jils© 
obtal^Äd,, Prof* xr., Braun r?3iä thai for operational purposoa 
thcj rsefejnod on «.ji 'hmulsQ of 4-»75.|ga/kg/soo (210lb/lb/soc) "but on 
the test bod th^y tod aohicvod an .Sjipulso of 4«5'Sn/k^soc (2201b/lb/ 
sec), , Tto mportsd tiiriist of 2.5 tormos with a iiiss-s flow of 
127,5g^/3i30 4^ otjaiiJBlont to a specific Ir/^ulsc of 5.,08gfiy^kg/soo 
(l971h/lh/BOo) ^ I).r*.Hallor sold -that for rolati-w^iy saiell combustion 
ch&jiiborB tfcey ccaild uao 9^4 aloohol as a fuol^ but this ^vo too 
hot ooitbimtion obsmbar cofeiltiori.^ for largo oh^mbors, Iho sm&ll 
oliarrhGrs do not rogair-o siirföce cooling, Soiix? six or seven years 
age they tried using gßmliXiO.BB t- fuol, Pi?of* ¥« Braun said that 
it -■ms unaatisfactorsr« G-OfifouFtiori. conditions "vTorö not »s good' as 
with alcohol. and parsons working on tho, tost stand m*ro covered v/ith 
sofit« Tb3 main objection to the use of aviötion spirit -ma thai it 
aid not fmictio!! imll as coolant g tending to givo yjx-qusX ooolii\g * 
to thc.-diff«3ront purtfe of the surfeco and &1bo to fcrii- ges locks» 

Tm vonturi eould not bo dcsigi-iod tc glvo tho corro.ot c;xpansion, 
b'3th .^t ground 3övo1 and at tho end of tho firing poriodj - IXu-'ing 
this period tho thrust rose from. 25 tor^rioa to 29 tonnoe- due- to tho 
t^ooroaso in the axtarnsl pross'aro» As c consproinisc th^ venturi vfas 
doair^d for an ©xpansioB down to 0,85 aiiriospha^öd '1(&b;;olu'fcc.), 



Jji'n V, Bravm said that tho r^raphite usod for tliosa rudders t/ps 
the some oa that usod for olbsctrados in electric furiiacGS* Ho 
po3jtitod out thöt tho function of thcs gas rudders was to stohiltBJ 
tho project ilG during th<3 firsx x>art of its fliglit until it attaiiiod^ 
a sufficient spood for the tail fiijB to ensure stabilitj„ Thoy had 
-ej^orisTßntcd end found t-het thoy could substitute oak gas ruddors 
instead of graphito , bocausQ tho oßk would last for tliO necüösay.y 
fow sooonds« 

J* To at ing tho A «4 » 

AH tho fuel nosiäle-s vforc , iridopoiidontly calibrated and la tor 
v^ro again calibr&ted Iti situ hy tikjohs of & stötio cold blovf-^out 
tost carried out on a ooirfcustion chantoor unit from fijcod 'woi-ghod 
tanlcs. In this test the liquid qxygßn v/as dirociod into flexiblo 
hoses back to a suinp^ Y/hilo the ploohol was oaugljt in a löige funnel 
about 3 fo.et in diamotör and Xod' beok to onothoi tank« 

Up to 194.2 it yma not possiblQ to give tiss 001153 10 to rookot a 
hot static tost» Tho co?ribuation ohan-ft>oi^ however^ wDre givon a 
soparato hot static. tost and the thruBt was iripasurod by largo 
balancod anns yi^ighing iiBohihos jnado by SÜlz of Toledo, Nr,Oologno, 
Tho weighing snä chinos had a noodle on s dial as an, indioator and this 
was photographod by high spood camora throughout tho run» 

Thsy had triod to hsssui^g the "thrust on a -s^olo rocket boforo 
1942, but thQ scalos woro not sufficiontly aoajrato. From 1942 
onwards, errangemonts v/orv: pBdo so that on Tost Stand No«? tho 
coni£)loto rookot oould bo suspondod in a scaffolding v^ich was hung 
from a woi^ing maohino j so that tho thrust during a hot static 
run oould bo raQasurod, (ENG* TSSS1\I/"*NN) 

Tho Bstablishmont built up en olaborato range of instrujTionts 
so that thoy could rooord tha bohaviour of the rockst during static 
tostst In ordor to oscortain tho rate of flow of tho working 
substanoos , special floY/riietors and tost gaugos had to bo dovolopod 
for liquid O3cygon and alcohol tsinks and pipo« Those mstrumonts 
&ro dosoribod in s^ soporato report ro cording infonnation givon during 
an intorrogation of Dip, Eng, Schulor^ -vviiosc solo concern was 
moasuring and motoring probloms on tiio A»4 ond other v/oapons« 



187 



In ftddition to r-L^kin^ oloborate moasuren^nts on the thrust 
motor and the v/holc rocket during static tests, arrangei'ients were 
made to rxpsure and' tronsr.iit to the ground stf^tion the more 
iinportont doto during flight. Dr, Schüler reported that he left 
Pecncnundo vdth the second groui^ ova cast ion and that ho thought that 
most of the special instruments vrould he sent to Lchcstcn,' near 
Salfcld, Leipzig whcro it was intended to continue work on conibustion 
chambers. 

All the instruments in the rocket %vGrQ dcsio?icd so as to 
croc r. to Indicators- and recorders a considerable distance o\vay. The 
in^truncnts and observers ■■we re housed 3Ji underground observation 
chambers knov/n as "bunkers", V/lien testing thrust motors alone, the 
nearest bunker v/as 15 metres ay/ay, Y/hen testing whole rockets the 
procoduro vfas regarded as boinrj very much more dangerous and the 
Instrun-cnts vrorc housed in a bunlcer 100 to 150 metres away 

t. Firing the Roctet. 

The range tables -gave the brennschluss time and velocity for a given 
all up -weight sn-l desired range. Originally the Brennschluss was 
operated by radio cör^-oand from a ground station. Later this was dano by tha 
Gyro-occolcroirCitcr and then by the Buchold Electrolytic Integrator, 
A fourth mo J tj accurate ^stcm was in process of being dovcloped 
v/hcrcby the acceleration time curve would bo kept constant by 
controlling the flow of T stoff to the Turfeo-Punp unit. 

Tlio bearing was controlled by the rotating launching platforra 
v/hich was set in the sanr; raarjicr as v/hen firing a gun. For this 
puroosö a diraction tolosccrpo and a Loitz Colirnotor were used. 
The training of the pro jo etile on the ric^t boarijig was done from 
the ground, so thrt it v/as first nccossory to measuixj by optical 
methods the angle between the rcforonoo plate near the ground and 
the mounting of the gyro in the control compartment. (DR. R0S2NTH/iL) 

Before filling the rockets the tanks and valves vraro tested for 
tii:';htnoss by pressurising the- valves to 1,8 atmospheres and seeing if 
this v;as maintained for 5 minutes. The T atoff and Z stoff valves and 
tanks were also tested, 

TVio lifjaids were jnit in in the follov/ing order: 

r/ f, \ ,.„ < Those were nil ;'-u!:i|)Od '.liroct 

^. T stoff ) „ , , , ■ , .-, 

3. Liauid O'xynfm) ^^^''^ ^^'"^' ^'^ projoc1;i]^. 



188 



4. Z Stoff. Poured out of a can, 

L, I/'?iit Jon ;. 

\7hQn the ro.okcjt was roady to be fired an ignitin^^ .torch was 
lit, ' There are two' types: 

(a) A Pyrotechnic (black pov/der) ignitor, and 

(b) L liquid operated torch using a "Hypergol" pair of 
fluids; such as nitric acid snd Visol« 

They preferred the firev/ork because the liquid ignitor 
required more attention and had to be refilled betwDen each use. 
Y^en the firev/ori; was alight the nitrogen v/as out off from the 
main alcohol and oxygen valves, which caused them to open to 
their natiiral positions, namel^y about 8 mim, open. The alcohol 
and oa;ygGn nov/ flörm through the punps under a gravity head from 
the alcohol tank and a pressure of appro x iinat o ly 1 atmosphere in 
thä oxygen tänl<: as the. vent valve is hold shut during the 
operational period. The f lo\7 of alcohol and oxygen which amounts 
to 7Kß/soc-15Kg/3eo, according to different authorities., lights 
quite easily. If all 18 burner cups light simultaneously there is 
no shock, but if some ignite iimiodiatoly and the rest later there is 
a moderate bang when this occurs. 

These conditions are maintained for 5 or 6 sqcs until the 
operator is.assurod that ignition is satisfactoiily attained and an 
adequate temperature exists in the combustion chamber, Y/hen only 
thrust motors are being tested the ob server, being about 50 foot away, 
can judgo by the glow in the exit fron the venturi. If a whole 
rocket is being tested, the observer is much further away and they 
have used heat sensitive devices such as thermocouples to indicate 
electrica lly that ignition has boon achieved, ^Ylion this is so, 
the operator .raakos an.Q'loctric contact which sots the T - Z stoff 
syst on in operation. The Turbo-Pmip rapidly roaches full spoöd 
and while this is' hajppening tho thrust exoeods the weiglit of tho 
full projectile, so that if it is not being statically tested it 
loaves the ground. 



189 



This guicbd onti~ö ircra ft- iTO&pon hM boon in the course of 
äevQlopinDnt smcso 1940» At the ond of the war it hfd not been 
ua®a oporötionBlly^ boing sti3J.*in the dG-v«:.>lopraünt .st.-^ge, Evidonoo 
obt^ijiQd Bt tho iilnd. TimnoLs ai Koohci shows that at loest six 
difforont shr-pjs mä been tried out to get the best aoro<3;5rnBmiö results, 
>Y 5^hü siiöpe ,ndüTjtöd for oporatioml use is sbov/n on Drawing No, 
^r^ Xsm "ÄÄiich. all th-a dajißnsions arc givon in tenns of tho diameter« 
MsL £tjTprö3C3ji^tG &pooif icat loii is givon bo low. 

Distiaotcr - 88ai>i5« 

Chfo-rall longfch - 7«87 metres, 

Bp&n "- 1 «9 EDtrcfj» 



tf acid «" l60CXg„, W€i,r^it of fuol 385kg« ' 
Woi^t of higsi prossim:) nitrogen - ?GICg« 

©•JTilst - B tOTinOSa 

öjif&tion of bmTiijig,, t?mc ~ Sii^^.tlj loss than k5 sees* 
M^ss fußl fljofw - i.pproxlcs^tcll/^'" i^Si^g/soo« 
öpöciXiö liapulB^ - About 17öIb/lb/8peo 

Hi#^ prossm-a 1^2 26o --a-'ai« ' V2ou£p) , Boducmg v^:kxi 25-27£>ta( gau^^ ) 
'^ .Most of tho infcsnnaticm regarding ths Wassorfol oanio from 

Drs» Heller _p Paliu ond Sf3ite^^ Thi3 fuels to bo usod^Toro mix»d 
acid (!X?;o nitric ^.cid ©-ßd 10^^ sitlphuric acidjvith Vis öl or Optolono« 
It i0 prob^blo that the Yisol (C2Hr--0*CH==Cii2-) ^^'öuld be rnixod with 
Äin.l±tie to prasBote csjiitnistiosi ^ although rnixod acid was described as 
bciiag aäorc..- rcasllij 00lf-igßi.i"iiig with pu-JEO Vispl than straight 
'Jx/ . nitric* ffe OptolBiw consistod of 5 oorap-ononts and was roughly/- 
\ imäß up rf^, .^C^fV'isoiy 10j2C^g Ardline ^ the rost boing Optol (a 
cool t0i' raw product öoatainiiiig Ftenol idiioh iiililbits the formation 
^ ^li^\} ^ Beicssol and Xylol (tht^ also pro^^nts th© formation of 
Oi^Bi^ or/stals,) Tlio tdxtwro is reputed to havo.a specific gravity 
of . ax:|;>röi£isBatoly 0^9* The Stoiotaiiotric mixturo, wos ona payt of 
/ a€M:ö«22 x^aii^ö of fyo-l^, but fo2" c>por8tional purpoaoa thoy used onö 
/ part' of ©<:dds0*24 parts of fliöl, Tho thoorotioal spocifio inpulse 

for P2±mä ©cid and Optolorö w&s 214:ib/lb/soc, but thoy actually 
I db-eaissöd 0'bout^jl83« Blp» Eng, Schilling i..ho vma ovor. all orperimental 
\ work jst Feo-i»raLmfib said that for preotioal purposes thoy aocoptod 
V iiii^xilfiCö 1!3^^ löwur than tho thöorotioal. 



190 



other figures cjiiotod fcr those fuels v/qtv ; 

One pD.vt nitrir scxct plus 0»25 •'parts Visol«, Zlh-Xb/lö/Boc^. 
0,9 parts nitra.c aoid plus 0*1 part aiiXphurlc acid pliiJ: 

Viscl, 20h.Ib/Ib/3QQ. 
0«9 parts nitric acid plus 0«1 part sulphuric &cid pluß 

Optoleno, 2041"bAV^^^«^'* 

At a later inter'viow Dr« Hcllor said thn-t.. .taking] an avörsgo 
^)Ociflc-'tjipis.lse. of say 4*9ffiV'lv.g/'sQC^ changing the fiaeJ from (^tolenc: 

to V/isol etc on\T ni&dß a difforcnca of ■?• or - 1/iO'gn-i in the spoolfio 
impulse , 

It was hopod to store- -.-t be sc v.Jöpons fuli^»- ioadod with liquids 
for a minimuüii poriod of 6 months and p;'efcr&blj for a year before 
firing« As "both liquid vossols were f ittüd' ot each ond vrxth 
aluminimum bursting diapliragms, it vid-s ossQntial that in stora^-p tbfi 
prossuixä within oacsh torfc should not oxcoöd o prussuro lütol^^ to burst 
tho diophrag:iis v/hich -woro dosign,od to go at 10 otmosphorcs differential 
prossurc, For oxporiraontal purpq®QS a ullögo space of 33 litres yi&s 
loft in tho acid tankj for opera ti<3nal use 48 litros was loft. 
In tho fuol t0nl<: for o^^orimontal purposos thoy usod e u3.1ago space* of 
13 litros, but in th3 operational model this was botroen 16 and 20« 
Tho storago lifo was tostod by filling at 10^0 and thon raising the 
ambiont tomporaturo to 40 or 50^0, 

Bolow is givon description of tho intornal arrangoraonts of 
tho Wassorfal from fore to aft« 

1# Radio and Fuzks Conipartrnont« 

A gro©t doal of work had boon dono on tho radio stooring 
dövioo J proxmity fuzas and Homing dosricas for this i,vQapon« No 
definite' dooision had boon mado rorjt^rding t}» typos to to usod for 
operational purposes, 

2* yy&r Hoad . 

DolioYod to bo about 300Kg» 

3» HJKh Prossur o G-gia Bottlua. 

Diaiiptor • 7O0111» 

Storage oapeoity » 235 litros (70Kg) nitrogon at 260 atraoisphorcta 

(gaugo)« 

191 



Ttmj hsd QxpjrinontQd with oonipixjssod &ir instead of 
ii.itEiQ>jgsiii, T3ut tlKJ rosailts -vvere not e^voiloblo, Tho nitrogon 
uKj^tlfi is oi^ippod with hand oporotod ve^lvo , prosssure gau^o and 
fllliii^ ocsEassotioii, After this is on oxplosivo oporotod stortinß 
'w^TRS, pcasufflahly aimüor in d03ign to thot usod on H,S.293« 

®30 i:eäacing "9b1"«q for this "woapon had boon spocially doaigiod 
oecmiso l^m ^s usod for tho oxpulsion of fluids at such a high rato 
im>s. s ysiy Isr^ (jiBntity, i.o, 33 litros/so.c dt tho oontrollod 
pi^^ssiuro of 25 a-toosphorcs (gau@o). Tho low pros suro oontrolling 
eoEgiartaent \;©s in a bellows and tho loading was by a long povro«7ful 
i^rixi^ wi-fe sn adjusting scrow, Tho v^/holo valv© miglit v/oight as 
EHjGh as 1CEg and also frcaa SOoa long, 

AftGr diapers»! fircsn Peenoinmido in %9hh, vrark on tho intornal 
fittings of the Uassorfsl vront on at /inklan, Tho valvo was 
msmfsctorod for PoonoK&ido by Messrs, HÜbnor , Maior of Vionna. 
UndJor test tkc vi^l-wo did not givo fully satisfactory ro suits, as tho 
CQSi"^olled prossuro apparontly foil . off -vidion tho high pro ssuro sido 
gpt'as lew && 90 atraosphoros» Thoy had apparently spent a lot of 
tiEET trying to ebIcg the i?b1vo work W0I3. botü at tho stört -whon it 
Tsss sxibjoetod to boa^ shook on tho firing. of tho initiating valvo, 
and i?t the or«! qeT oporation ^on the gas bottlo v;as noarly oxhaustod» 



3 m T hroo «"-way ¥alv0>^ 

_-AGCordiiii|5 to Eng, Tonnosson, tho gas after passing tho 
rockscing valves ^Qnt to the th3rao*'Way valvo. This valvo had four 
connPctians^ ono leading to atmosphero , ono to tho reducing valvb , 
oEß -ssiiich branüiicd to the fuol tanks and ono to a safety valvo v/hioh 
qpciiod. in tho cvtHit of tho control pressure oxcooding a certain 
ISslt during qporation« Tho throe-Tsray valvo vvas doscribod as being 
qporatod oy cartridgo .boforo tho firing valvo was firod. It 
carriod two popgpot valvos and dicing storage tho ono loading to 
afesD^jIioro was oponcd and tho ono loading to tho fuol tanks v/ss shut. 
€te firiiig übo first cartridge, this condition was reversed. If 
boforo launching the projectile ono had fired the cartridge to closo 
tfeKJ vent valvo and than decidod for qporational reasons not to firo 
tSie pxo^ctilo, a sooond cartridge could bo firod which would reset 
this tiiröe-way valvo to its storage condition. 



192 



6* Tanks . 

Tho ßas Lino branchod t'o tho t\/o liquid taris v/hi,oh fom^.od 
loart of tho skin of tho proioctilo, Tho upper tc^iüz conto ined the 
fuol, while tho lov/or tank contained tho aoid, Thoy had. 
appETGntly tried nony rnothods of raoking tho acid ts^nk in order that 
tiiG projootilo 6ould he papablo of being stored for a long pwriod, 
Tho 'f ollov/ing niothods of constinjction yjotg raontiomd. 

Dr»Palrii„ Steel v/ith alunainiinun inngr skaj.!. 

Eng» Tut a and Ho Heb rand . Manganoso steo"!» 

Eng» Tormosson. B name lied a tool. 

Eng. 3 ringer . 470 Chrome stool (Luftv/affo Specif icat ion No «1604) * 



Before entering tho taiks tlTo conprcissod nitrogen had to 
burst two diajihracyas made of aliminimur-i in Y;hich circular V grooves 
had been cut. The groove did not form a couple to circlo , tho 
diophra^ii being loft uncut for a sector of about 30^^ in order to 
form a hin^^Q when tho gas prossuro burst opon tho diapbra^jn and 
bont back tho disc« 

The forv/ard acoolcration of the projeotilo v;ith a thrust of 
8 tonnes must have boon a'lproxii'Aately 2.1g at tho start and 4»5g 
at -uno ond. It v/as designed for a lateral accolcration of 12g, 
\/ith such lateral acceleration tho meniscus of tho fluids was 
described as standing at an angle of. 20° to tho axis of the 
pro loot lie» There must have boon alternative do signs for tho 
fuel tanks because Dr. Palru said that tho swing of .tho fluid v;as 
dealt v/ith by sus}5ondihg a' doliyoQ'' pipo f rom tho roof of oach 
tank. Tho delivery pipo wa$' articulatod by irieans of a rnotal 
bolloTO, On tlx' othor hand Eng. Bingo r drow a skotöh of tloD 
tanks vfhich showod, a central passage vfay throu^'i each. tank. This 
passage Yfay was usod for the fluids and gas linos and tho lateral 
äcGcloration was apparently, counto rod by the provision of rotating 
food pipes whio^i follovrad the fluids to tho side of the tank; 

7," Jets " Combustion Charnbor, 

After loaviiig. the tanlts both- flu.ids passed throu^-jli alunidnimum 
burster diapliragnB and tho fuel passed tlrirou;^^)! a choko which 
Gompensatod for tho frictional prassurc. drop of the acid in its 
passage through, tho cool,in.g .-iocket, (UNCr* TOMIESSEN) ' The acid 
passod through tho cooling ,i achat at a iiaxiiiuim volooity of .4n/soo 
(viTidth of annulus ^•"ömiaa) ^^^^ rose in temporaturc 60°G \d.th a 



193 



prcssuro drop of i «5 atmosphoros, At arrival in tho cambus-tion 
c!;'>;rrocr li03d both fluids rx-)r<D sprayed into tho chambers üy rrßc^ns 
"^\^"-^ orranvju-v...!'; slio^Tn on BrDwinr^ No, raodo by Dr, Poln» By 
uixio o-i-^n^;o ^:ut a uiiartcr of the holes vvorc dcvotod to jots of 
fuel r.nd .^cid svriiying 8gaijist each othqr for ignition purposos, 
^/iiilo the rci:^£iining 73/^ of tho holes v/oro arrongod in pairs ^ fuol 
against fucl^ ond acid. ago inst acid- to promote atonisation. The 
pi-ossuro drop in ^tho fuol jets \ms 2 atmospheres and in the acid ^ots 
3 atnosph^rna, The ceiifDust ion chajvibor ha'd a capacity of 75 litres 
and a vonturi throat of 192m.n. The L* v.^as therefore 1«0" . O^hc 
du signed corrü.)u3tic:n chanibcr prossui^c v/as 20 atmospheres (absolute) 
./ith a thaorotical temperature of 2800*^0. Thj molecular vroit^t 
of ':iiO gas coaplö^-: in the con^iuotion chemhcr v;as about 26, the 

re aft-.r expansion 16Ü0^C« They arjsui.ied that 



a 



.re: bl 



tho^gas conpicx *'frosG" at 1Ö00'"^C« Tho co;f'.'Ustion clianiber >(/as made of 
nxlcu steol. The 3x^.1^ no surface aooliieg* 

Y/ith regard to ig/iition it was montdoned that no pair of fluids 
\<"a3 used in a combustion chamboi" if it did r.yt ignite in an. open 
cup test vat hin 0,05" 0,1 sees.. j\ chcc'iv tust was done in an. 
• t..;osph:;re of n^trcgoi.. Shortest %iitäon tine 5)r arr Ps^r of fluids \©sO£^c; 

J, v;ing3 and Fins^ ' 



Tri'; general dimensions of tlicsu con be obtainc'd from tho 
.'"mid Tuuiiols at Kochol^ bat verbal iri'or. u>tion v/as obtoindd as set 

';-u,t bülo\T* 

Eng, Daiü'n ga-/o tho span of tho \/ings as 1m, 60 and the length 
of the vmigs im. Ho stated there v/(?re no jet rudders, saying that 
thoBO cut down tho purf ormijnco ^ Ho confirrncd that tho steeriiig 
rudders oxtondod beyond tho span of tho vings. 

Sng* Hollobraml "drov/ 'S sketch of the Fassorfal, in v/hich tho 
e.riga are diiTDnsionod as tjpön 1e08m. , chord at the body 1,7m, chord 
at tho tijj s06ru section bx-convoz» Steering rudders PjO(2vi x 30cm, 
iing« ilollobrand said that gas rudders wore used. 

"'* C-enoralg 

The V/asserfal was iaurjchod voj.-'t ically. One ong'meor said that 
there %7ore no gas rudders, but Dr.Hollor confirrix.'d tixat there wuro. 
It '.mfi poasible ttet thos::) wore made nut of oal:. 



194 



I*.r, Schilling p.nd Hollor Y/crc- xritorrosatod rogardinfi ^ho 
tii.iDs of arrival of the fluids. Ono witness said tno fuel örrivod 
first bocauso of tho shorter path, but another seid tte ocid 
arrived fir^t. Ifci Schilling ss^id that for tho smoll rockots tho" 
tijiiO of arrival is 'not very importimt , hut, for the lar^^o rockets 
the nitric should orrivo first. Thorc is o double dr^ngor if 
either liquid;, is ollov/od to pccunuilato bo cause m accujinulotion 
of fuol möy ^ off suddqn]^^ whilo an accumulrxtion of öd id uißy 
nitrato tho fuol on' o^rriyal and f omi an oxplosivo oonpound» 

Tho accuracy of'.^^ho rnotol burster diapliragins is unoortain 
and thoro may bo e' variation of as much as 1 sec in tho timinri of 
thJ bursters; Dr. Helior said thot f'rom tho time j-oi f iro tho 
firing valvo to- obtain, ignition was about 5 socs^^ v/hilo from tho 
ignition time to full thi-ust v/ould bo about k soos, 

10« Touting 

InstmimOnts and valves vraro tostod for thcix behaviour ovor 
one yoars storage by ko oping thorn for 24 hours in a BIER-nVVlS 
boiiib fillod v/ith ox/gon at 25 atmosphoros (gc-^ugo). This English 
öpparatuö was roputed to give tho ccxuivalont in 21+ hours of ono 
yoars lifo iti storago. (EIC-.PASTV/.;) 

Tho Wassorfal vms tostod statically by mounting it vertically 
in a parallologran so that it vros froo to niovo against a rigidly 
hold ivIBSS-BISG-EL, This coneistod of an ov^Kl stool ring, Tho 
lainor axis contractod whon subjoctod to the thrust of tho rocket 
Tho dincnsions of an' air gap \K3\-'^. thereby altered j, modifying tlio 
induction in a coil mount od around tho bar v/hich formed tho minor 
axis of tho oval ring. This dovico. wajs opera tod at 500 cycles, 
gavo a dofloction of 7jiT!in for a thrust of tonnos and v/as reputed 
to register tho thrust to an accuracy of t 1 to 2fo» 

Most of tho instrurrjünts usod for tcstiiTf;/ tto T/assorfal were 
tho sar.ö as for ^...4, but 3tx)cial instruj-ionts had to bo niado for uso ir, 
acid, (ENa„ SGIIUI/LIilR) 

The \7as3orfal \/as firod frori a nobilo circular platform carried 
on four v;iieul3 ond pullod by tractor, Jing, Tutz saw a tost firi,ng of 
tho Wassorfal and said that tho GoirJbust'ign was rrthor Sjjaouodio, 

*It is difficult to buliovc thnt such a long tiho coulu bo 
toll ..r.' it od for an anti-aircraft v^raapon and it iii jj^^pi"'^!'-' that tho 
true tiiiu is 0*5 sees. The oidiausü :-,r.sc?j v/ero a roddi-Sh-yollow 
colour. It n-.vnyod ,'-j:ii^,ht3.y ;>s it v/»:;iit up, 

195 



This bi-liquid rodcot v/as ix-putcd to, bo firod in groups qf 65 
froii". a iauiiöhing mochino loiovm. bb the Dobgorat naracd sftor 
CrOnorFil Dornbcrgor the invontcr, Y/or head 3X)r|:with contact fuse, 
range I^ICni (can bo -vc^rtical), mcxirnum velocity i200m/.scG9 The 
proiGctilc is approxirn^^tely 2,1m long and 10cm in dionctur» 'I'ho 
creator part is taken up v/ith the fuol tanlcs v/hich oontr-in Viaol 
and acide Tho acid is housed 221 a contral aluniniinui-n tanlc,. capacity 
approxinetoly o l"i,tros ^ vrhilc tho Viaol is containod in the annula 
space botv/Gon tte- outside tank and tho sholl of thü skin* This 
has a capacity of approximately 2,75 litres. As the gravity, of tho 
acid is 1 «59 tho tank 'Vhan full would hold 9,h^g, v/hilo tho fuel tank, 
Dssuraing a gravity of 0^91«v/ould hold 2.51<:s. Tho v/allsof both tanks 
vvorc; Ion- thick» Tho acid tanlt is supported In the rocket sholl 
by .two alurAinioTMin end p3.atG;q bolted to its end flanges. The so end 
plates arc pcrforatod so aa to corinoct tho i\icl taiilzs at the upper 
ond to oho , cart ridgo pot and at the loiTor end to tho liquid sprays. 
It is probable that at both ends a rux-^turing diaphragm of aluriiinin]U];i 
covers tlio hole a in tho two ond plates ^ 

Bohind a solid stocl noso thoro io a hollovf chanibcr for tho 
300:^gn o^ oxplosivQ - tho fuse and tho igniting device for the cartridge 
vmich^ vmon burn'ing^ provides the gas to o:?q.->cl tho ligjidso 

Tlic GOi?hustio]"i chari'fc'or and venturi arc n^do of mild stool 
rostly 1o:i thick, out the thiclcAoss incix-ascs at the venturi throat 
to 2^ to 3 J'^ii* i'.t the ond of 2 soos operations tho tciTperaturo of 
tho venturi roachod 300 to ifX)0°Gs They could use a venturi 
cxperli-xmtally for 3 rtcia ^ after ^vhich it had to bo ronowcd, Tho 
sprsyor sms not found, but it v;as described os being in throo ports and 
to rascniblc the rose from © watering oan^ (iS^G SUHüET) 

It vas roportod that in the early stages of dovolopiicnt tlicy 
had repo-'tod trouble duo to tho vcntiori burning» (EIIG-. FDMZBL) 
The dosigii of tho stabilising fins r/as modified several timos, Thoy 
had triisd fins of different lengths (3I^^G, SIEFulST) 

Total fuol content is -pOB'Jibly about 12Kg or, if ono allovra 
a 10/0 ullagG space to prevent bursting of the diaphra^-'^s in storagp , 
the v-orkablc f-uol r/ould be 11kge As the firing lastod botwoon tv/o 
and thrco sees the r\ass floi; of fuols r.iust have been bctvAJon 3*7 
and 4»'V^'^.[v^soc» '2h:. thriirit is described as being beVvveon bOO and 



196 



lOOOkg, Üniuss the doat^^i of &o Jots and jot plato addod 
aX)i,u'öclabiy to tte voiuinD of thö oorabustion Chamber^ tho J_*' t^ith 
fi tliraikt of 45j?tn dia is voiy lov/, boing in tho ordur of 27*^. 
Prof #v.BröUii aaxd that thoy sacrificod tlio canbustion chavmboi- to 
get lorgcr fuol tajiks and öccoptcd a S.I* as lo^f as 160lb/l"b|/süo, 
T^hc^ oinpty wjight includirtg v/ar head and cartridgo would bo «»"feoat i'^kg^ 
so tho pro|:K3rtlon of liquids öan'iad woitld bo about 0,40; 1, With 
such a SKiall cuifibustion oliarfjoi^ conix'^i-^'to roactioii nuisfc iiavc boon 
difficult, but if tho}^ obtaitiod & S*!, of 180 the tlu'uat wo^d bo 
soiaovvtioro botvinoon 660 ond 600 kg. Mention was niado of c^rx 'iiec«»ioration 
of 60g, but this iimst hiwo boon p^t tho momont of "all burtit^l. Tho 
stertMi^ öcoolorotion possibly did -not cxoood 3.52* 

Tqstixi^ 

\7bon tsisting & Taifun on a static tost bed^ thoy often usod 
nitro{3ün foX' expulsion« Tho thrust^ vte^s moasuxxad by hydi'audlo piston« 
The it) vms no ovidonco that tho Te.it\m has piiacod hoyond tho 
oxporiiiiont^l stagp, ( DH ,t3Cm'I£/ÄJG ) 



197 



BJ.I.v7^ 

i visited tho v/orks of the Bayerichö ^H8öhinQ Werkes near 
Mimidh mth Lt.Oaol, Scid/L, E.J.A.Köruiy, Br.H.AiLoibhafsl^y (u«S. 
Oi'ananQ©^ and G-,E. Go») On tho Yroy yiq picked up Dr.Hqrflrnorsoth tha 
Ohl-Qf Ghenist« In this faotoiy they oonoontratod th^-^r rosGaroh 
oil the uso of nitric »cid. end mi^iced &cid3 es the oxidant , Thoy 
usGd l^drazim) and a nunibGr of ajnines as the fuel. Thn- aoid y/as 
knoim as Salboi and tlio fudl as Tonka. .Dr .Homme rsath;m':|.d that thoy 
had tr fed. 6 ^000 ccrabinoticns" of acid and fuels» 

I/e iaspocted 12 pairs of corfcustion t©st oharabsrs egqh pair hvWing ö 
ecmtrol roon« Each tost ohomber had tvra oxplosion proof .windows , 
Those wlndo-vTs consistod of two panss of subinDrino glss3 oach tOam, thiok. 
Each -p&m w»s i:^äQ of layers of glrss placöd alternativ ly at »ight 
BYirßßs to ach othor so as to avoid dijstortion» . Tho two panos were 
■ ^h&dt 12*» apart, the i^iter-^spaca "Doing olootria^lly heatod and 
obntam-iJiga dar^ying agouti Tho v/alls of tho tost chanibers wro 
reiji£-oTä3il -concrotö J feet thick« The in^x^'Sction waii^ov/s during a 
tost Taoro covered hy Qxg&:üßßä. natal oountoiTraightod grills which "woro 
.loiroröd into plaoo« Tho chainbcr tras lit by four f loodlairrps , ona in 
oach ooriiDr. protoctcd by n»tal grills. Tho- objöot of tho motal 
griHs in front of tho -rnjiduifä was not to protect tho obsorwr, but to 
feöp th© glass of tho irinÜDWs fi^om boing davnagod by fJ^ring fragiBonta, 
In all^thoir work on li^juM inaction cbar.ibors thoy havo had m&ny 
Bxp7t.oeiotiB ^ but havp only ^sad om casualty and tliat apparant3y was di»^ 
to Ills own fpult« 

Tlw o^SiaiJBt miä of oach oluniibcr was open to atmosphere , but f^bait 
,30 foet mmy trmx the- tast oh?*r±<^VB B-nä j)arallol to ttiem was & lar£^ 
brikjk fliso^ &% ow onä of 'MiiolV thjza-^ vma a squars brick stack ;vith a 
0aB|>rossod air in,joctoi « A Ji^obilo tolosoopio cylindrical fluo could 
M'-i^olod into pXaco o-^iOBtw tho open ond of a tost ohembor, so that 
the -pvodMcta of the reootioii coiild bo led into the brick fluo and 
h0R00.l;fct> tho staok^ In tho tost jshambors v^rc thiioat motors oariyinß 
cradlü?« , and thn^st rrcasavln^^ -gear of vorlud typos .and aiaea according 
to tli? ;}£i^id of thrust motor to bo testod« Tl'iüro" wore sriiall cradlos 
fod' the öoubXo coil X.548« V/hon tested thoso had a irjass flow of 
2 litres of fuel plus 8 lit^^s of ocid in a firing tirx' of 20 to 22 soos. 
Tlio s^roTi^:p TDtlo of orldonfcto fuel t»'os 5i1 ond the nioae flov/ about caKsj&o. 
Tho HojÄ'id fuels %A3ro oa^ollad by nitro^pn prosau^ e»t i^X) otntösphoros and 
tho- o<:^;ä-.5Uöti'.>n char±'or wor]s3d nt 35 nttiosroh^vija^ Dr,IIoi:mTursath said 
th£»t tliö^ irvuloo v/ns 1 ^CKX^/tonno/aoc ands^lso Luntionad 1200 to 1400 
^/tQ^m%J/mat It iß difficult to oollatg those- f ij^urus \rith other 

198 



knovm ;^thöcls of speoil^ing tliö iiiii,)ulsOf Dr, von Braxm at 
Peonomunde oduld tiot unde-rstand thorn, "but sug(:jQstQd th?t "tjioy 
nicht reprosont tho &tqb- of a thxiist-tiiiio curve ^ If tho ro^gss flow * 
vms Oe8k/sooB arid tho spootfio iiTimlso 1 SOlb/lb/ao c , , tte thrust v/ould 
bo WiXg, v/-hioh, oyer 21 sees. ^ would r^ivo 3000k/secs^ It is -possible 
thot in these figures thoro is soniO' factor o once rninjj' the f»ll up weight 
of the applii^ncöe A similar curious fir;arG v/as givon for tho larger 
raodol, tHo X,35ö, for v/hioh Dr Jlotaacrsath doscribod tho in^uilso as 
bo ing 1 Q ßOQ t o 1 4 ,000 k/tonrio/so c , 

Dr« HorsisBarsath sjiid that not all tho pairs of fluids used vrore 
"h^'^oorgol"' y that is »uto^-%aitanß tir^i^h oö<3h othcr'^ in, MfiUAh ooso thoy 
used indopendont fäjsiiis to 'initlst^' ifinition, Thos<? pro:- 

o) Jpirovfork (povi/üGr)« ' 

bl ,3älQctrio spsx'k» 

o) A- pair of fluids- whioh reactod yrhon broiii^t Into 
contact e 

9 

In this station besides tost inir; X«548 and X,558 they ran the 
thrust motors for tho Mo, 1 63 on acid and Tonlco ond thero is soms 
ovidoncG thr»t thdy also ron A»if conibustion chaiiibors, -Jassorfsl. and 
Ensian roaction charabors on those fuols, 

Thoro W£^s a largo test ch^iTiber for tho calibration of acid ©nd 
f-üßl jots, Thoro Yma olso facilities for testing tlix'ust motors 
in f'ny- obardbor from oo'ntrrl tonks sx^rportod on bcqiu:&-oq ■woighing 
maohino » 

E&oh control chänibor hcd two.con^lQto sots of instrumonts fnd 
control gsa^, ono for 000h test ohanibor, Tho chief instruniont 
was that v/hioh rooordod tho t;brüst (as mo»3urod by hydrsulio tiu^iAst 
piston) »nd tho ppossuixj in tho combust ion ohanibor. The control 
ohaiibor also" oonteinod a groat amc'unt of ölootrioal goar and indicators^ 
so that continuity- to sts could bo oasily carried out on units bofo3fo 
firing, in tho control ohanibors vraro olso tho higli pi-xissuro bqrbtloe 
and control goar for prossurising liquid vo 330 Is in tho rookot wiits. 
Totv^rds tho oad of tho tost chi^mborswes a largo ohv^utjor lin lahidh 
spherical stcinloss stool or alumdjiimura tanks about 12«1if foot in 
di03ii0tör, Tho 30 xiotq suspondod from tho r.?of , Thoro v/as also 
olSQwhor© saobllD tankß for tramj.jorting nitrw aoid and IfeOa» 



t99 



J. v.-ns ^,iven to midcrstand tlv^t this^.f-r-oiiory , which also jiistes 
Turbo Jet Ariern ft encines hod"T)öen fnL«^&dy».CQ veered by a G.A.P.T, 
toar.i fnd bj on invest irr- 1 ion toom, but "if this is not tho caso , 
I considor it u'c.uld bo a first class torgot which sho^uld bo 
thcrouchly ox&Lil-aQd^ This oxaminotion v/ill bo lioli^od if 
-Dr^Koraiarsath and t lie other prinoii3al nioniaer^ of tho rosearoh team, 
T/hor.i arc ap-psrontly disperaodj oxx) brou£;ht tor^othor and induood to 
part with the rolovont infümiötioR« 

wTiiSx) into rro £f a t in.g tho PooriomlkiüD staff V!«,foi.U'Kl a^Ä Sngirioor 
Johann TÜtz who bi^d Yforkcd isi 1940 to 1942 ot tho BJ\ÜV/., B©rli»« 
Thoro ho v/as cbncomed v/ith tho cjbsign of the i'ollo'Ying .roclcot -wQajjonss« 

C^) iuLÄÜs-JrÖiiSB, l.fct}\yl alcohol plus nitric acid^'fsölf« 

li^htöji^), 'Ihrust 1 toninß for 30 sqos. 
Liquids GXoölled by- £-»3 pyossurö frori a 
conibustion chcMAÜxir» ilfter uso tl» units 
YKsTfj dropped in mth a pöTö-diute« Eng« 
Tuts could not say vdiethor tho so units vvoru 
usad. o'pe r o t i cria Hy » 

^"^^ * S;ä^«i^^-2life- i'his vw'bs tho. sbit^ as tho H202iüotor for 

*^'^ Kj»2S3» "but used acid and fuel. 

(c) „§.2äS££.S, Thoy -vvoro planning to build raohots uniiic acid 

tmd .fuel öS the propellent« 



300 



.SUHm _0F lEvIILOFlCM' Ol* LIQIHB. RÜCK5TS I^ GEm i^I ' ^ 
im THGIR RJTimE PBOSBSGTS 

"by Prof, Ws von Biöun. 

Wo consider tho i; »4 stratospjricric rocicct dßveioped by us •^kno'ivn 
to tho public SS V-2) es an interniodloe te solution conditiortsd by this 
wer, a solution which still has certain inhcrünt short coniinga ^ end 
which coT.T£)OTQB v/ith tho futuro püsaibilitios of -che srt about in tto 
q&t:c WBy as a bonibor piano of tho last wer conpai^s -wäth o aü^iem. 
baiibor or largo posson^or plane e' 

yic art) oon¥friCod th«-^t a ooy%::ictc rrie-atory of tkj art of rookot& 
\Till change conditions in the world iui muoh'tho sam:- -bay as did tiio 
Eisstory of aeronautics and tl-jst this onwngo vfill "appa^ both to tbü 
civilian and tho military aspects of thair use, V/o iaiow on tte 
othor hand from our past cxporiencc th&t a oonploto Biastcry of tlis 
art is only possible if large surfB, pf m^inoj aro oxpoadod on its 
dß-TOlöpnßnt- and that sütb|oks and ä|i@rifioaa virill ocoyr^ such as rms 
m tho caso in tho develoßnpnt of ^«irBra ft„ 

. A fow private groups of invontcr-s started scriou® v/ork* on liquid 
rookot diDvolopiTßnt in Gormany in tho yoprs X929-'193Ö«l Om of tho so 
groups, oallQd "Rookot Flyinc Field Berlin" ^ located at Berlin.« 
Roinookoridorf , had Prof . Dr, von Bratm as a student, aniong its irombors« 
Siniplc fundamental tests v/ith rocket oodbustion ohant^ors v/orc carried 
out there, and a-iiall unoontl^ollod liquid rockets votq fired, isdiioh 
reached hoir;hts up to 1 ,000 ineters, and landed by hid ans of s parachute. 
At tho end of 1932 the v/ork of these groups vrero slovvod dovm by lade 
of cash, but the Am-y V/oaiions Dupartrrsnt wem interested in oar'ryinrj 
on thD v/ork, and took over tho services first of Prof, von Braun, and 
letor of most of the othor cnriinoors« 

This spooipl division of the i^rinj? V/oapons Tjo-gortmir:^ \ma put 
under the direction of Dr.Ing, h.o, DOKMBEJ^SR, and tte first roclmts 
c3x3veloped by then wore desip.nad 3olc3y for exporiiuontal puii3oses, and 
wore of no militprs-- vdIuo^ In 1934, liquid rockets o€ tho "A«2'* typo 
vrare suocossfullj^ tried out« They had o thrust of 500krf., vrare 
directly sfe^biliaed by mo^ns of a lar^jc fyi'o, rnd reaohod a height of 
öpproxiTiY^teiy 2,000 niters. In 1938 the first trials \TCrc Ow^rriod 
out with liquid rockets of tho. »A«3" and A-!?" t^^'^s, v/htoh wore fitted 
with an euton¥>tio oontrol aystei.i end ruddera in t}ie i;og stro'ara* Those 

. SO! "*? 



rookots roaohod a hoight of 12la:A whon firod vortioelly, and h£»d a 
ran:p bf . I8ian-'v*iön firod at cvu.onjlo, Thoy could land in both 
casQs. by mosns of x>c*3^ttchutoa^.r.nd»bQ usod o^ain. 

In viow of tho sucoossful re suits r^ohiovod \7tth liquid rookots, 
it \-ms dooidod: in 1956 to bo'^jin vith tho construction of o lvr[p 
oxDGrij.iontal ^.stablishi^-nt for rookot cbvolopmont nt Poonomüiido on 
tho Bolt io* It weis &lro£^cTy roGOßnxmd. at thct tl-^i^) that the 
dG\?Glqpmcnt of roolaot sho^vod 22^^"^ prov.iiso* in tho field of roronoutios 
as Trail as in that of ortillory., and. it v/ds thoroforo docidod to build 
tifo separata 03t.'^blialur!nt3 ot Poonoriundo , ono for tho Arnij'' nnd ono 
for th3 .'.ir Poraa ^ vfhich oro tv;o distinct bronchos of tho "V/ohrmooht" 
in G-cmcsT^» At PoGnorümdo-Ost , comprohonsivo tost bods ond. Y/ork-shop 
fooilitios vvurc set i:^ for tto Gonstruction and. tostinß of rookot 
oxivQS end controls, vrhilot at poonoidmdo-^Jost on c^irf iold v/os built 
for testing rookot aD^rcrnf t , ond jälotloss rocket propellod nircroft, 
as -vTOll ?3 Duxiliciry drivos for st.^ndord f^iroraft, such os rocket 
assis^gd tpko off dovicos» The oost of construction of tho contplotc 
mstrllc^tion ot PccnoHsindo tote^-Xlod ppproxijiiptoly 300/)00j000 I'larks 
after cojiplotion« This cIosg proximity of the rookot do volopmont 
work to the 8oroaa?».ütiGal dovolq>2n3nt side is ono of tho principal 
rof^sons for tho succgss of tho work-iunoo r token ot PconDid^ndo, 

The following considerations v/orc docisivG in tho choice of 
Poonojislndo , and tho so oonsideroticms v/ill olv/t^ys Bo iii\->ortant v/hon 
choosin^^ site for rookot dovolopmont v/prk« 

a) So cluclßQ.. position 5 for ü-\i[?-j from Irrjjo to%ms (Sofoty 
during l^ui^ching, nuisönoo ocusod by noiso of largo tost 

bods)# 

b) Favourable VÄ>rt!:fc:;'r conditions (during, firing pnd flicht 
trials, of rocket ond rockot ©ircraft bluo skies aro always 
dßsirablo), 

o) Ree^sonsbly satisfactory GOM-nuniort ions. The dovolqpnxjnt 
¥iroi±niQCOssitrtos consti^nt closo oontaot between 
dovoloprfDnt cnr^ajicors and certain branches of industry« 

Tho sucoossful c:cpGfin»ntal rookot "A»$" , P^^i^^sly nöntionod 
had a thrust of 1500kg lasting 45 soconds. Basing on tho result a 
obtainod vrith tho rookot, the order was givon to dovolop a ;Long 



202 



diBt&noe rookot with a röiißo of 25Ökni. , as hi^ an &.oöur&oy b& 
poaafble , and a wßrhaöd waighing l^OOOkg« This rookot^ ka&mi &ö 
"A»4" , was firat leunchod succeasfuily in O^^tober 15^4^, The 
"A,4" has a thrast of 25 tons, for confcustlon period of 63 soconds 
max* It is fired vertically from a firing toblo, withc?at f^oiidDS of 
any sort ^ as was the case v/iith'-all the previous rookota» Tho 
stQorinrj of tw rookot to ajn inolinoö. position is effoctod by means 
oi' a "progranrao" apparatus. Thp lateral dir oot ion .iiJ djc^taimiirKsd "by 
tho oxaot aottm^ of a turn«tablo on tho faa^ing table ♦ Tlw oxaot 
^^Bjiip is dötcnniried by shutting off tho propulsion ursit upon roaohing 
a prtjvioualy oaloulated speed. 

The dovQlqpnient of tho "A»V' roquirod a gixjat rmaibex' of ^roXimin&ry 
sqiomti^ib -Invostigations, tho most iiportant of v^ich bx-q hrtQfly 
outline d' bo Itüfir I 

A") Y/ind tunnol teats at all ran^os of ali^ spoods bötmion • and 
1500 imotors por sooond, IXirinf^ tho'ao toste, auoh factors 
as tto stability of the rookot, trio distributicjii of tltö &ii* 
pressure, the working; of tlio rudders and several, moves w3ro 
investigated, apart from tho drag inoasuroments, both with 
and without exhaust gas stream. Both.tlK) suporsonlc wind. 
tunnel and. tho iheasurxng rfut hods „had to bo do.w.lc^d' ovor e 
I>Grio4 of years of hard work» 

b) tuest bed investigations on tho combustion ^iiajiibor of -Üho 
rook© 1 5 and on tho coixpleto propulsion unit» This. too: 
nooos3itatef:d tho dovölopraont of appropriate tost boda and 
measuring mDthods« 

o) Investigations oonnöotod mth the steering of tho ro<dcot at 
all ranges of airspeeds pp"TOrod by tho rookot ♦ For this 
purposQ , a spooial toohnique of models, roproduclng 
•the attitude of the rocket in flight, was dc-volppod« 

d) Devolopmant of noasuring methods for plotting tho oomplotQ 

flight path of tho rocket. 

o) Investigc^tion Gonrooted with the influonoe of the" oxhauat 

gas stixsam on the wireless ooni;iunicot ion bot"woon ro<^ot äööL . 
ground, eto» 



/ / ,^- 



In view of the incroasing strength of the nwibors of flight 
aircraft in Enalanä , and the resulting incroasod losses of boiTibor.s 
ox3or0ting against Enr^land, ordors vraro given at the end of lSli2 to 
produce the "A, 4"- roofcot. in qu&ntitios« The accuracy of ajj-i \ms 
still ujis-3*t^isfoGtory,"ana'rtiiiitod the use of tte rocket to. large area 
tafigsts, foremost of f^ich was 'London. Nevertheless, soroo 60 to 
65^000 d4:^wing modifications v^irG.ro.qgjiirod- before the first oxperiinentol 
"iuV rooisst .bGcans a real Berios .production job. This indicates how 
ma By absolutely new pröblonis ■•ar.Qse'.äuring-thq trials of the "A,V , 
_jftd.Qh. ifös siÄ)jöotQd to hither^unkriov/n physical conditions^ 

MsaKWhllo the dßvelopEiönt side was attoiipting to iiiprove the 
»oöursogr of. aim of the rooket« ' To this end, radio guida beam do vices , 
WGTQ ^veiopod to äji^rovo the lateral direction, and ojiproved propulsion 
u^t out off doyioes to roduoo the "dispersion in range. These 
is|>ro"¥eQents howewr ¥joro iBoorport^tad operationally on a srnall soalo 
cmj^^ imä Y^ro in use chiefly in th3 attack on the harbour at Antwerp. 

The origiiial öbio6tl\'0 .pf further dovolapmont was to produoo 
long distsnoo rockets of greater range. It should bo: noted here that 
th0 maximrfi ran^p up to ,480kEa, worn achieved thanks to certain 
üprovojifönts «> which hoover .never oan^) into operationail use, 

Gortain LA rocfets wore' used to oa-rry out verticaLtraJoctoiy' 
trials^ anft e*. mapciraum coiling of* 172 lo-a was röaohod diAring those 

It was planned in the sprfjirf- of 194-5 ,tp firo vertically from 
an island sitn&tea no 0-1= Pocnoraliniis & fow A«4 rocket a equipped with 
spooiöl'instnjj-r'nts 'for research 'into the ^op layer of tho atmosphorQ,. 
fho'-Kßasiirii^ inst!ri:ßiX3nt3 woi^ put in watertight dontaiiior »'apablo 
of floating^'. which was- to hayp , d/3soendod by parochüto« This project, 
aH pKipsabstions for which wore oon^'letod, co\ild not löe oarriod out 
on acconsit of miXltaiy' ovontsi. It could bo done in a abort tiiro 
homsvor^ with,- soriij of the? A, 4.. rockets still ';in hand. 



problem of asicreasing the range of the A.4« after completion 
of the A*if 4ov9lopriiDnt prograrnrnD could only bo carried on. at a greet2y 
i^düöed rato ^ as tho dovölopra3nt of a guided antl-oiroraf t rocket was 
gii^n first priority and absorbed much of the personnel, in oonaoquenoo 
of the increasing aij:' superiority of tho Allies, A rocket for this 
purpose was dovolapod at peonoiinundo^ boaring the code nanx) "Vfassorfal" , 



204 



This rookot wns also prox)^ll6d by liquid fuel, ."nd could bo t^uldod 
by radio froni the ground on to flying tarßots', Vr-rtous sucoosöfi^I 
tests -mro of-ri-ied out, but sorios production of tha woax^on w&s not 

aohiOYod, 

A furthor äövolqpniont of tho "A.V lon^ distanoo rools^ t is the 
"iu9"# on vfhioh •\7ork \yös,donö es for ©s tho priority v/ork on "Wassorf^l" 
woidd d11o\?,. Tho propulsion unit was tho son» as for AA* Tho- il»9» 
rookat hovTovor had wings, v/hioh ohablod it to clido through' tho 
stratosphero. This onablss tho fli,ght path to bo inoroasod to audi 
an oxtont that tho ran^^o of tho A, 9 was noorly doublo that of tho AjSf-, 
v^Q» approx» 600ten, , notwithstanding tho faot that tho fuel oonsun5>tion 
of tho A. 9 was no croator than thot of thQ«A.4 owlng^ljo dövelopment 
oould not bo ooiTrplotod on account of tho ond of tlna war» Special ^ 
control dovidos would havo givxan tho A9 at loast tho sajiio aoouracry \ 
as tho A«49 It WAB proposod that^tbo t/oapon should ^^o into a *^' 

wrtioal divo at tho end of tho x^licb , similar to that of tho V.l. 

As a further dovolopmcnt , it was intondod to do sign tho Ä*9 
winded rockot to carry a crow. For that purpose tho rockot was to 
bo oquij^d with a rotraoting undoroarriafjo , a prossuriaed cabin for 
tho pilot, raanviBl]^ c^oratod stearin.^ .goar for uso wbon landing, and 
special aoroäynaraio aids to landtns» ^ho Landing spood of this 
piloted A»0 rockot would havo boon as low. as 160fan por hour^ as it 
would hayß oontaiHiBa vory litt So fuel on landin^^, and ifüuld 
oonsoqu(?ntly havo boon light. This pilotod A*9 rookst WDuld oowir 
a distanoe of 600iaii in approx, 17 minutos. 

Tho >angp of tho A, 9, both in tho pilotod and the püotiass 
versions, could bq inoroasod oonsidorably if tho propulsioru lanlt were 
switched on only aftor the rocket had attained a certain initial vslooity 
There \TOro t\To. possible ways of aohioving this ond, 

1) Uso of a long catapult with only a slight gradlont, whitdi 

would havo givon tho rootot an initial volooity oif apBixjox. 
350n/3QO» There was oxporionco of this type .of qatopult 
to hand at Poonoinündo, aü such a Oöto>pult dovolcpod by «n 
ijiduBtrJal f im for l^unohijig tho V,1 , xmo trajad cttt atr 
Poonor.-amdQ^ Ss^orionoo showod that oatapiilta oould Tw, 
built for launohiniß at suporsonio apood* T}«>so high spd^da 
are osaontial for rookots such as A»9, booauso tho rodoat 
Is oon^lotoS^ filled with fuel at tho start and wjuld aot 
fly if it loft the catapult at lower spQoda, 

205 



2) DövelopKfönt of o larr^a'^ässistod tslra off roclcot of 

200 tons thrust, on whioh the 'A,9 rockot would "bo rAountod, 
and ^ich would rrivo tho. lotto r an initial volooity of 1200 
mctors pej?- socOTidft 4^toiT. the assisted take off -roclsot hos 
oachaustod its fuel, tiü- /i,9. would "bGoomo SQpar&todfron it, 
and its cwn propulsion \m it, would bo sv/itohcd on,. Tho . 
maxunÄii. speed of tho A-,9 at tho ond of its po-wer divivo undor 
these ecaidition WDuXd be approx«" 2"800 motors per gooond, which 
wouM jnoan. that this oombini^tiön' could ßi?/:o tho A »9 & rsnßo 
of. a^Tprox, 5000 kra. , both dji tho piloted and tho pildtloss., 
"TOraions, The largo assisted tako of f .rockot , oallod 
A*10, w?js to be 6quir)po4 with air bra kos and a s'pooial 
porachutG^ ^Mch v/rJuld Y^vxi oniablod it to bo iisod acaiti 
aftor ali^itlilg on wstore 

It w^s proposed to launch tho A9/A10 conibinot ion- 
mi rtically this obvj^^tin^ tho necessity of crootinrj largo- 

rpDouzid launching do'^ioes. 

In läie LX3VQ da^tant fati^ro, tho dovolopnicnt of lic[aid rockots 
offer in oiir c^isiion the foXloTrfjn^^ posgibilitios^ sotitq. of which aro 
of troroandous signif tenoö j 

1) ;Dovo Ic^Kßnt of lonr^ rpngo oomncroial planes and long 
rmiQO bcsrib'jrs for ultra hich'spöoda, Tho fliglit duration 
of a fast • rodcat' eiroraf t ßoixiZ from- Suropo to Anorica would 
bo approxs 40 lidnutosj It would o\T3n bo possible to build, 
vory- long r^ngo 'baifcors ^ which would tij^?n round at suporsonio 
spoods iKf. a iroiy ■wi&.J ourvo after having roloasod their bor^s, 
©nd rotuin, in aijüglido to land at thoir T:?Qint of • doparturQ^ . 
Tho hig^j speod of- sudi airor^ft wotxld rnako dofenoe ©gainst it 
iiiöffocrtiw mth pr-osont day moans, 

2) Construction of muitistaßo piloted roQkötSjWhidh would 
roaoh e maxäimsiri spood of .qvor 7500 nctora ppr sooond outisido 
tho earth's Dtsospboro* At sudh spoods tho rockot Wo'uld- 
not retiam to earth, bs gravity and centrifugal foroo- would 
t^daoojoaoh othor out« In such ä oaso tho rookatwoulO, fly 
ßlohg a gravitational trajoqtory, without orjßr powoi;^ arounö 

■ the' O92?th,-in'th0 samD w^y fs tho rnooh, Acoordüig to the 
distunoo of the traiJootory from tho oarth, ,tho rookot i^iilö 
coE^leto bna circuit around tho oarth i^ any tiifö bot\TOön 



206 



11/2 hoüräand sevcrpl days« The v/hole of tho oarth*s surfeco oould 
1)0 ocnfinuously obsorvcd from suoh*© rock)t» Tho ovQ\r ooulcl. bo'. 
öquippod Td-fch vory povrorful telosoopos, and bo ablo to obsorvo oven 
S.W13. oBjeö-E^, suoh as ships, icoborgs, troup rnovomonts, constructional 
work o.tc% Thoy oould feiso carry out physical »nd f^stronomical roscaroh 
on.problenia whioh oould. only bo töoklod nt that altitude, duo to thö 
obsonoo cf tho atmosx^hcro, Tho iniportanoo of such txn "observation 
placform" i»i. tho scic'ntifiC', ooonomio and military 3pho3\os is obvious 
when tho orow of tho roolcot vv'ant to roturn to oarth, all thoy nood 
to do is to rc'duco tho spood of tho rocket sli^jhtly, ¥/hich can bo dono 
by rocket propulsion« Tho rook3t thon entorod tho i^^por layers of tho 
etJTi.osx:)höro tsngontiGs^lly, and its si>Qod is gradually roduood by 
f riot ion, Finally it oan land like on ordinaiy aoroplano by moans 
of \7in23 and auxiliary goar» It would also bo possiblo to rolijovc 
tho orow and xDrcvision the "obsor-'/ation platform" by .ißans of anothor 
rooloü't, v/hich" i/rould olirdb i:^ to the platf 01^:1 and pull vip bosidc it« 

3) Instead of I"iOving a rocket set -op an "observation pL^tfoira" c«itsidc 
tho oarth?^' it would bo possible later on to build a station spcoially 

. for the purpose , and sond tho oonpononts up into tho intorstollor 
spaoos by nie ans of rockots, to bo eroctod there. Tho era ot ion could 
bo oasy, as the oompononts v/ould havo no woi^t in the atato of free 
gravitation, Tho v/ork Y/o"uld bo doiaD by oon who would float in 
spaoQ-, vroaring di-vers suit, and jfho could novo at ?d.ll in space by 
moans of sraall rockot prox>ulsion units, tho nozzles of v/hich thoy 
would point in tho ro quired dirootion, 

4) According to a proposal by tho Go rraan Scientist Prof.Oborth, 

- an obsorvation station of this Typo oould be oquippod with an enormous 
mirror, consisting of a hugo not of steel wire on to Tvhich thin B^jtal 
foils could bo suspended-, A mirror of this naturo oould ha-ro dia- 
mster of rmrxy kilometers, and its ooiigx>nont faoots oould be oontrollod 
by tho'stationv/hioh would enable tho heat and li^;ht of tho sun to bo 
concentrated on.soleotod points of tho earth's surface. This "would 
enable largo to^-ms for isistanoo to get sunlight during tho evening 
hours, Tho v/oather, too, oan bo influenced by systoaatio oonc^ntratioa 
of tho sun* a rays on to certain regions. Rain could be indwöod to 
fall on rogioiis hitby drou^;ht , by ooncontrating the sun*s rays on 
to distant lakes and seas, and increasing their evaporation,. The 
clouds tiiUS f onnod oould be driven to tho required spot by inflaonoing 
tho centros of low and" high pressure througj-i radiation from other faoota 
of tho mirror. If tho mirror is ma do large enough, and it oo^ild bo 
of oxtromoly li^t ooaaHKnwrtic^^ it would evon appear possÄIo to 
. ipriorate deadly dogreos of heat »t oortain tspots of tho earth* a aujfaoo* 

207 



5) V/hcn tho ort of rookots is clovolopod further, it will ho 

possible to rjo to othor plsnots , first of all tho rAOon, Tho 
scientif io irr^^ortr>nce of suoh trips ia obvious'^ In this 
connection, v.-c soo possibilitios in tho oonbinotion of tho vrork 
done all ovor the vrorld in coiinGction ndth tho homosaino of atorj^oio 
oTKri^iy toi;^thQr vfith the dovolopniont of rookcts, tho Gonso cjjflnDQ of 
v>rhic^ 05>nnot yot be fully x^^rc^^i^^'^^i» 

To oonoludc , ¥/o thinlc after wh&t has boon s?^id abovo that a 
^gU plarmod dovolopiiiPnt of the art of rockets v/ill hovo revoXutionasy 
coäaeoquönoQS in t*iQ sciGntif io and i^idlitary spheres^ &s in that of 
c5ii?ili2ä*tion r^ix; rally, nudh in tho samo v/ay as the dcvolopraont of avistian 
has brou^^t rQVolutionaxy chants in tht last 50 yoi^Ts^ 

L prqpteoy rogarding th^ dovolopmont of aviation, niado in 1895 
and GQ-mr-mz tho iKxt ^ ^r^arJS, and corresponding to tho actual facts, 
would bavG appeared »t loast as phantastic then as doos tho proaont 
forocssst of tb© -p<^ssibilitios of rookot dovolopnionte 

In tjK! sanK) -m-y as tho dovolopmont of aviation was not the work 
of a single man, but booasus possible thaiiks to tho conibinod oxporionoo 
of lasi^ thousands of specialists, who concent rated oxclmsi-vcly on this 
one branch of sciunco for years, so tho dovolopment of tho art of 
ro«^sts will rcquiiX) a systonatio effort by all specialists who havo 
'^inod oxporäönoo on this subjoct. 



208 



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209 



/;irred B& ciuaenn 

ElÄCtrical devalopmeat ©nglneor. Cam® from T,E* B@rliii iund 
worked origlaalljr on «liainatin^j öiaturbances on tranamiaiiilün 
lin©8« AfttrwaxHä» subject was employed at Siemens -ScbucV ©it * 
eontract adainietration« Later he was with the "Reichsgrupoö 
Energiewirtschaft" on the planning of power generation 
throughout Gersany» Military Service from February 1940 until 
January 1942, participated at the Flrench campaign. Then pt 
Peenesitlnde he worked on the electrical ground installet ions 
for the test stands» 



Berbart Berj ^eler 

Viorked on auxiliary gadgets for the V-2 (A4)« Workad on sole- 
noid valve®, pneuroatio valves and propellent valves. A13 
valves had t© be conatructed at Peenemünde, could not be 
bought« For O-rings (sleeves) some type of rubber was usee, 
even for the liquid oxygun« 



Ernst Bippard 

Built the body of the V«»2* Was airplane constructor« Got all 
the data on the stretsea and had to build the proper outer 
casings for the V«g* Essentially three types of st@®l sheets 
were used (Flimgw^rkntoftB St Vll 23 )• 



Analyzed the data obtained from the survey of the path to 
determine the proper characteristics of the projectile and of 
the jet motor for the achievement of best range and smallest 
weight« (Did not work on ^9 and "Was serf all") 



210 



miBRRQGATIQN OF RUDOLF BlEWALD 

Bit H^A^I^ibhafskyt J Iballg GoT*Gollen at Garmisch 

SDg 22 Max 1945* 



Was in chaxge of motor tank» for Op 

faiüfcs, contalned 6700 litres. 

Tank insulated with 5 cms glaBs wool ( Hyporka ) and outtr 

eheet •» metal coTer. 
Loss 350 litres pexÄ obg^ 24 hour day, 
SometiEies got his X.Op from the factory and sometimes by 

pressure from rail car. 
Transfer hy portable engine driren pun^j which could be carried 

Dy 2 men« 
L^Og transferred tc A 4 rigid 7 cm® I*D* pipe coTered with 

woven insulation«. 



MBM^äM^t 



Prof, vo» B^Aim. 
Br. Stttlahof , 

Br» Mühlser 



by 

5h« Pbev* aes ii»r« Ixtimgfttca witfe a Tlwr to öbtalmiisg 

iBföra»ti®s ®B tbs riaÄl® asp®©t« ©f 4-4 aM W»»®®rfan aa w»lX na howlÄg 
«yst^n ans p^<sadm&.^ fmm» 

His MatoH-as anS ^»apoasibilitiaa of thea« am« are oovarad la 
ni|^t«Ll®iilaiiaat Blook»® r«pert. Brlafly, St®ialiaf waa aaawr-ble diraotly 
t© ¥©a Bram« lijniöiatai» «faa r^speasiM« for the »«»ge eoatrol ipparatua uadar 
StisiafesI'» fftaS ^mi«p im® im ^Ärg# @f tfe© öeffl.6r valoeitj flatamiaiag aqtüp- 



JOI ef ^e isa talkai l^^l^ aad ISicir atoKlaa wara saaarally 

eoASisftaüt« ^ ©bt®!» aeoumt® Ä®t^il®«ä Sjifoym®tioi6 It «aa «eoftaaary fe» go aowa 
to tl» IwaX ^ *-' "- - 



fbe l^lliyaieg j^gss i^tpir^aast as i»l@si^ation of the aatarial 
«tetai^iS fse&& all f^^ir »sm» Wli^sii ^moemm&rj, raferaaoa ia B»Aa to the souroa 



S^^^^iM|^.,i^jg^|^ ^9X^^ ai^^stSor maar Fr@^. iK»)ei Iram ana waa in oharga of 
iär^^^ÜM^^»» A^ mA Wasaast^aOl T^Utima to (l) Klaotrioal nyutmm (2) • 
Wll^t mmtämsdJim (S) AisloBiätte arl«H^ia^ aa& (4} »raa fll^t taatiag. fter a 
fäms^ period h» mtm iM a^iyeüa ^ statia t«stia@ alae, but «aa reliaii%a at thU 
If f^« fM^« M^i0«ii^ IUI «%iS ia d&ax^ of the^ projseta oa Vaaaarfall» ha 
msmmi^3gm'%e& »isOr ^ ^^ 4»4e.iittb« aar» i» am ftfiviaossr oapaoity to tiia poosSLa 
%Düüs> bis o» Wa^exffeOl« 

gru^^^glg. SiscdBS 1^t@ ^rljT atagaa of ^la A-4 äarrtlosmait, 
ü»§^ "^oui^t aaS tiae «as giiPtfi to tba probloH of aoeurata repga ooatrbX bf 
tiM aHmiod of steppiKg tha s^o^cat «iglna (BraaaacsBauaa) at tha approprlata tiaa 
is ^m trajaetozsr, Siaoa 

Ifissa » f (%* Vy, X» y) 

Ullas« X aa^ty az« ^sa eoordiaataa of tha trajaotozy «t 

tto «ut-^iff point» 

it ana at flTst attan^tad to aaviaa £ioaa mtliod lAiieh tmuia funotloa oa tha 
baaia of all four of ^laea ^rariablaa« Thia pipovad to ba toe dlff isult a 
IHMjb to ael^RB ia th* tla» avftüsble ae a eoa^oMNaiaa waa maAa« 9ha oonpoaaat 
^ 'velooitgr taagaatial to the tmjeeteiy at tha oizt-off point «aa uaad to 
letemina tfae eut-off point, Ä zvtfio OoffLer ayataa adapted itaelf Taxy iiell 
"^ this aaqpeoadae. A Car tranadtter of about 800 mttc power output «aa 



212 



pl-ioci !5.t ,1 ;..'ölj:it o;i ti-:Q .„TüUii . .-'höTü t.hü taifi,>'nt lUie 'i]!tt;ra«ot3. 



Antenna Patterh 




[IH 



^"1*^"^ U§pÄf)-af' 



Radjö Control 
Modulator 



rhö:."ibi0 80 pl-.ioca aboYö Uiu v^ound ihüL it-a hoi-lsöatal polo*- 
r^ization fiattora o-ut..rod about thfa uan ..Cüt liu;,-» k-ßt« .aade 

l:i,;ü3öit)lc» I'hu- r-.„wwlvcd -..TG^iUcno,,- ij|i'o- iV X*- '•■ao beuten a.-;ainsti 

oyolua/ 3©oond '-l-Gla a band '•Idth-oi about 50 ayolöa/a^olsind«. Th« 
miriao ii'^cjii oi Uiis hum as eo^-ioiiorocl on iiaporta:,t an-wt-Ja.;. 
iQaiure« .'he orivp/t -ui' -ililo ^'lltcr ■iTl.ijorQcl i-a rula,, -hlaii In 
tvxn Lrl,;.>;rQa o^'l .the •.ruiiiO'KJoiitrol ai:";;rial. xhla oöntrol alja^l 
öonalüUt^a OS a go; .bin'äX,lon oi. ..ir^i .M i^tlon i>e-ueiieie3 In k 
apv.ql,lo ti .0 aüv-..on0O ^-in -"i-m,; r.j)ört oompl^-tcl-i;. dea^jriblii •;- this 
0,, oti. ., vug |iUbll3iUid u^o^-ic ti i; ;a al« This oora-oan^ il'-nal in thun 
uacid to ■Oil::iaLc oUv/ Sa.;i4£ tranj ilütap a3©d for Vo\oolty lotor- 
miiiiition« i-.o-oirer. In thia .>;;üratio?i thy tru..'3..dct4^r output -as 
oul^' fcwO 'mtwd« 'jJliO bn^aia Ai-e-iueii«^- u^iiA -.■-us ,^0 .aa« vIwa j-oa^iulä 
i?'arljtion3 o-i « 

Cii the 4«4 tliPt^ü dl,, xi*-ruiji t,ypüti oi" oiiioiiria» •:'t*r® ütied at 
vorloue. ti ,ööö iiisoao or© 

Antenna Antenna Patte-rn Body oi{Tur /Anttnna Antenna 

(Tail) fr»^»0 






PtATSS 
iNSl/LAtSD 

FftoM Tail 




insulatjow 
Antenna 





u.> o(:Jito ,)haoG 



dipolt^a y<»d All 



ail 



on* potruding from «eeh of opposite t«il fin« (thus four «uch 
dipol«s or two bAl«ae®d «ntonnas «r® possibl«) or of tvto 
w«t»l iiia«rtc ««pftrattKi from th« tall fin by iniulating »a- 
t©rlal, Bith«r of tb«se types of «nt«mi«s glv« much th« sub« 
pattern since they ftj^srently exoite the tall to give the pat- 
tern shown above« Tbeae antennas are (the dlpole« are about 
30 em long) very desirable fro« an anti-Jam point of view 
sine® the pattern has a back to front voltage ratio of 1 to 
10 er a power ratio of 1 to 100. However, they have the dia- 
«dvantage that their proximity to the jet requires that radi» 
atlon to or from them must always pasa through the diaturbing 
Infl^ienee of the ionised Jet stream« (More on this later } • 
Tkm antenna on the forward body was aade by aetting two of 
th« fox&r aooesa doars m. insulating naterial and using Uian 
for antennas» These doora mr^ about 1 to 1^ meter« square« 
Th® ®ige sisd position (provMsi s^raetry is maintained) af» 
feots ©rnly th® ispeds^oe mmjä «lot tl» resonant fl^equency» The 
patti^ra @f tbla anteima in ImB» desirable from an anti*Jam 
point of ^lew ®lac# it has a bfe^ to f^'ont voltage ratio of 
&!&l^ about 1 t© g» but it is m-^^t® desirable because of its 
position with reapeet to th® J^t stream« At the Brennschluss 
point, it« position is mm h&ä ^m that of the tail antenna as 
far as radiation lti;i:^©ugh th«? >t «treaa i« concerned« äo« 
eording to Dr» iluhln®^^ th.m %T9tA of development was to liave 
%\m tiar antwcma serve as mti i^i^tenna for transmit and receive 
Beffler^ r@<g@iv# e©B.troI^ transmit Messgerat, and reeeive 
l^eltstrahlg sill in mm ^i^mm.A'. fhijg» sll cf the tall an- 
t@miai} eouM be r«??^#d« 

Pr* Steif^ef statM tB^-t- tb.^- wsold Ilk« to have gene to 
Mgh^r fr^u«saei@s im tfe® srIs^II^ t© simplify the antenna 
profel®® but that t'tm- w^Mll^v ■p^.^m: öiatm?.t obt«lnabi« fro« the 
«üg«> slsed t:rsasBitt€y lis &■* missile KJ.itlgated against this. 
Both t^m Hrehsttta ,ta^ Dr« Mahlfö#r stated that they were work« 
11% ©a Äe l>^ffliiT «i^'^mm up to th^ eiad of the war» The 
,©rig4jijil e©n®siptl^^. m^ä ü^r^l&^^nt of tJbe «ysteai was mp» 
ps^i^mtlj msS.^ hy IJts MixhlB^r sßä Prof« Hohlman at Dresden« 
fte filial €«veldpie^t mt f®@fmmim.&@ Csinee about 194S) In« 
volv®d & tetsl ^f SO wmxt ©f whom e&bout 8 were engineera or 



f3ie fmr anttmne w&a i^tili^ed as both a receiving arsä trans* 
adLtti£Sf ftntesma f®r th® Doffler system« Twq cresauticns were 
tftkaa t© keep the receiver fro» blocking and/or to prevent 
®yiag «FOttsd® »elf osoillatlcai« First, the receiver was 
e@ms#et®d t» the antenna at a point which wsi& 90^ out of phase 
at transiitter fr®qa§fiiqr ^ith the point at which thä trsas- 
»itt#^ w^s oonnected« fMs provided «bout a 10 to 1 isol^ts^es,* 



t«s» 1. «tt«nu8tioii of th» ti?«a8ffiltt«r jrr©qw«n®3r (&a «asy job 
eine« teranemi^Wr Is on ^fo aM roettlT«r ob fo)« Thiaii« th« 
voltftg« ÄcroBS tfe# tr«namitt®r «Bfc«na« t^Püilniil« w«« «bout 
10 v©3t» «isd timt &t th« receiver iMit®irma t«rminÄl« «boiit 0*8 

▼olt»« 

In th« mBTlj doT«lop!89nt«l stag««, 1^« dsnnans war« eon« 
sia«r8bly worried over tS^ poaaibillty of JÄSissing tfe« Bofflor 
«yatem. fo prevlö« fteJP tbi» eontingttnoy, d«T«l0pffl9nt was b«*- 
gtin along two diff6r«nt «ngl««« On« «olutlon wa« to go to « 
eonpletely non-radio system for BronnüohltiS!^^ and ths otb«r 
was to d«v9lop oount«r-e©imtesw««8Tir«» for th« radio ays torn« 
As e rasult of the former approaeh« th« gyn» and eleetrelyti« 
integrating aec«l«roinet«rs vara developed» prodtioad, and iis«d 
operationally« How«ver„ sin«« eayeral radio link«, th« XiOit» 
strahlgarat ami ths t«le«!«t@ring (oporationel tis« of this vaa 
anticipatiMl to irprove the reliability and aeetiraey standards) 
w«re neeessary for really satisfactory' operation, work on th« 
radio Doffler system was continued and anti«*Jan nathod« da- 
▼«loped • 

It was anticipated that as soon as any Jasning diffi- 
culties were eneotmtered, a panoramic saareh reoelver would 
b« incorporated in ths A»4 and its output 'tel«B9t«r«d to th« 
ground via the Doffler transadtt«r aboard th« rook«t» Sueh 
receivers had been devsloped by oth«r ag«ncl«s for eoanual^ 
cations and radar searoh purposes and war« awallabl«« Uma, 
for esasple, a SO-SO bo rme^iv^r e«uld hav« bean quiekXy 1ft- 
stalled« Sine« no janalng was «T«r reported, this proaadur« 
waa not resorted t«» 

A s«oond anti-JaH precautl«n, prevloualy meationad, was 
th« narrow band filtar on th« ground t« d«t«ct th« prop«r 
Doffler frequ«ncy for £r«nn8@hluss» 

Anoth«r antl-Ja» faatur« was under dev«lop»«&t to pre- 
vent blocking or eaptur« by enieny sisals n^loh war« etrong«r 
than the deaired signal» This aathod-lnvolvad using th« 
dlffereno« frequency b«tween th« two signals t« »odulat« th« 
transBitter« Mere details and a clrault diagra» of this ar« 
being prepared by Dr« Muhlnar and will be included whan re- 
ceived« 



SIS 



So»« of th« Iftss^r known öateiXe ©f the systmi ata s^m* 
■srifteä to«lovs 

fo s ae plus or minas 5^ 

CW grc^uBd ts'Azuiiit« pew«r ® 800 Wetts 

MoÄ ^ « ® ® s goo " 

Ct rock«* « ^ s 5-10 * 

Honket l^ffl^r receiver ««nsitlTity fe? saturation «^ 50 nLilllTolts 

Approve« si^sial i^aesiTcd across rocket astdiiaa tsminals at 

Brimissehluss » 1-2 aleroTolts 

Appro^» atrial V9^ei'7ea serosa groiaiid «ntsxma terminals at 

Brians ©Muss ^ SÖO alllivolts 

Oro^id transiEitt^r tntaima «•« rhoabie 

Polar 1 sat iosi *- 2M>rla©ntal 

Rookat tall antenna Sir<§@ti-fitj — 90^ at half power points 

Roaket tail ®at®msa Töaek to front ratio — 10:1 (V) 

Roekst T®r antenna "bmok to front ratio — » Stl (V) 

length ©f tail suateimsi Alpclc^s ■^* 30«40 em 

gast Pro©#di3y# @f B@ffl®r irst^ii involTsA tlie transnission of 
i 'tail aSgjaar^fr^i a $m&U ntfatml oontrollad test transmitter 
knom at Sieg®lsteinsandei'« ^hlm, si^al woiilä be received by 
tha red^iT^r om the rctcktt with the reanlt tbat tba transmitter 
«ottXA he t7i^#?#d ^ftm A measiirflsieet of the voltage, across 
the ant^fmn m^isM th^ii indioatt' if the entire chain was funo* 
tloisins» ' Obriömsly, this was only a ,*3re« or no" test* To make 
this t#fit^ it wa® ne@esaai^ fn^ a man to cliaib up a ladder to 



f^ #h^iii mm0 «@ilt2r%t^ l^^arlttf e^trol» • e^utmu was 
used ^hi®h wm- dewl^p^. t^ ^# midila «aOs f er blind appreaeh 
iM tilisii lm^$M§ #f ' ^iä^ieipaft» Ssr« Steifthsf stated that he 
aid mm% @f thi^ «arli^ s^i^ hiaself • This equipment is known 
®s ths £4^itstrahl 9«S9t» II iavolves set tin« up two verr 
^iJB^stiM &»^s^ iob^a ^ masiis &t tw® half wava dipeles snaeed 
m t cp£Ft« % thiü mm^Me »sk «agiOar MBtitivitar •t X/SQO^ 
M p#8ji%3.®-lE the radi® sfgtteii« fhis is about four times 
IS^ n^^itiiritr ®t the gr^ ersten« ObtaiainiE high direo* 
tiirl^ 1^ this met^d intip«dme«iu ef eenrae» the problen ef 
aassi' ahfipf side Jlehes of about S** each« Precautions acuat be 
tak^tfi that the if<oeket dees net fly up one of these other 
lobes« ft airoid this« the Leitstrehl antenna is tat 10 te 
IS fis b^hifid the XasiMhini point so that the desired lobe« 



216 



I 



are broad at this point» Tho trBna«ltt«]e* liftSA pow«r output 
of 3 KH» Du« to til» «ntonna pat torn «nd th« propogatlom 
eh«r&et«rlsties at thia fraquoney, it was äapotflibl« to pldc 
th« signal up on tho ground beyond 80 Xai* Th» Ant«n&ft for 
th» Laltfltrahl oontistod of a pair of balanoad dlpolaa la th« 
tail« but tH« plan vaa to inelud® it la %h» Tur antantut« 

WaesarfalX » . 

In tha ®arl7 woz^ on Wessarfall, it waa plaimad to ua« 
radar bai^ guiding» Talafunkan had ooaaplatad tha davalopnaitt 
of a 500 me radar for this p^irpoaa and bad undar d^alopaaant 
anothar at 1500 mc. Dr. Stainhof atatad that fraquanclaa la 
tho 3-10 mo band vora dealred for this job, but tha atrallabl« 
povara at thoaa fraquendaa were too lov« Ha 'atatad that 
aueh a ayatan used with tha A«4 ahould prorida an aoeuraer «f 
plua or »inua 150 metara at SOO Kb In both rang« axid baarlttg* 
Tha A-4 was actually teatsd with tha 600 mo radar ualag m 
7 nater dlak« These teats did net laeluda aatual staarliii« 
but rather the telenetering back of th» lafematioa aa r«» 
ealTad on the rooket« Kammlar killed this phaae ef the pre« 
jeot (l.e* radar guiding of A»4 azid «aaaarfall)« 

lealaatlofi » 

Aeoording to Stainhof, the radiation of 60 aie algnals 
through th» jet ttraam of ^he A«4 raculted la 909^ a^aorptlea« 
At 600 MC, the absorption was 10^« tat Hoat •t the taet 
flight a, ef whiah tha?e were hm&r^Am, th» fltlfl etreast^ 
was measured at the «la alia and eoatlaooualy tel«Mtas^ t« 
the ground xiii^re they ware reoorded« Dr« Urehateia etat«« 
that no reliable figures on attenuation were ebtalaed» la 
aome easea no attenuation waa recorded and la ethera« tbm 
fiald atrength waa redueed by « faetar ef S« HemäX field 
atrength meaauraraanta <l.a« without abaospUm paths) In 
thamaelTaa» mrit auffielently variable to Stelidsof« th# wari» 
ation of field atrwigth with tl»e (aeaaared frea the fivi^ 
tise) was aaatewhat aa fellafwat 



Tiia Ahtena. 







217 



Th© low Held strength st the sturt Is e:uc to tho rerrotentsm 
of th® transiuitt^r (ebout B Km) «na islso to the transmitting 
«nt@rana pattern. The Tur nntemio rises to & higher velus 
because It is not «Ladowed by the Ionised j©t »troßm until 
lat© in the flight« At the Bromisrhluss point, the field 
atr«ngth rlsss »harply besca.us® or th@ elimination of the J«t 

Inquiry tres also made Inte th® potentiAl rlie of the 
roclcet Iteolf due to the ^et stream «nd «Iso due to the 
rock©t piaaslr^ through ionised slouds« Stcinhef and Kirch- 
stein both stated that this probltm was of great ccnc«rn to 
tbem befor© they ia*d© any tsst firings. A test was mad®' ott 
tb® growsd at Peenemimd® by setting th« A -4 on Inaulating 
material on th# teiit stand» According to Klrchateln, thos© 
t«sts r©syilt@d in potential ir®lu®8 of th« order of 20,000 
Tolts* Th® polarity was soiüttimes positiv© and sometim©« 
n©gfitiv©« Th® t@sts W9T® riiith®r tmrali&ble b©cau«o of' dust 
di^tiirt»«»®«« Must of th©s© dttftils eheck «1th Vl«v9gU 
story« Kir@hjt©in stated that ?i9weg vas involved in th©8© 
tests« Steishof broisght oiit that th« pot«ntlal rise was of 
an spprsoiabl® valu® only during laimching and Brunns chluss • 
Thm pot^ätial. Pis« du« t® mn^ ^aus« wh&t«v9r appsrsntly n«T«r 
VQum to th« point irli©?« ®or«ina disehargo took plao«, sine«* 
if it bud, it womld hav« hmn d9t«ct9d in th«ir fiald str«ngtfe 
iaeas%tr«m«£its ^ieh wtr« oontiBuously rseorded ov«r at l«&st 
S/4 of th® flight (m distant© of abeut 250 Kb) • 



T#l«iii#t©£>i£g wat of gf»©at importano« In tb» d«v«lop- 
m^nt of^ tb« £«4 slfk&% it pro^d«d.rftliabl9 chsoks on the 
de^i^ aad operation « 1^« iiqmipmsnt in us« up to th« px>«««nt 
ti^« @on»ist«d of am iM syat©» vith vax^iabl« amplitud« and 
Bittltipl« audio fr«ti2«iäci«g « 6j this method , four chann«ls 
ef eontlauoma inforsiaticia wa® availabl«* In addition» four 
laor© oha@n©Xs of off «on inforsatioa waa availabla by sending^ 
at f&&r Qthmr audio f?«(iti«noi«a». short blips* Th« display 
on tb« grotmd eonsistad ef tiro «oop«s «aeh vith four para- 
xial lin« s«««pa» On« seop« would pros «at tii« four eon» 
timioua el!«im«ls^ and tb« other th« intermittant four chan- 
nel®« 1!h.«s« display a would b« phiOtograph«d continuously 
during th« flight* CM© flight vould preduo« 8 rolls of re- 
cording» «ach rell being 70 m©t«rs leng» 

A seeoßS tsXen« taring syst«« «as und«r develepnent 
vhich was oapabi« of transnittiag 12 channels continuously 
and IS channels eff«oa* Dr* JKlrchAteia had only as«» this 



218 



«quipr.. tnt one© but wae ffimlli&r with It» opeiatlon» It was 
being öeveloped hj the Institut® fui* ^-ohwingungfi Forschung 
under ProX » ^-toplein« Ihe 12 contirmoiia channel« consisted 
or 12 fcudio frequencies; th© Intelligence on each chfinnel 
being a frequency modulation» In Addition, squer« wave 
mooulation was euperiinpos&d no that for i cycle of the squfire 
wave, the ©arrier plue modulation "would be on while for the 
other i^ it would be off« Dl«creet verletlon» in th© fre- 
qiaencjr of the square wave produced the 12 off-on channel«. 

Homii-j^ Sygtetr.« and fröstln ity iuzea. 

both Dr. Steinhof and Fro!« von Braun wer*® quejstionad 
regarding the döveloptnent and use of homing «yetem« and 
proximity fuse». Steinhof knew very little about thea» but 
von Braun had e gener&l knowledge of all th© systexn« which 
were contemplated for vyaseeri'»!! plu« a few other« • 5tie de- 
sire was to develop a homing s;f8tei& which would also serre e« 
^ proximity fu«»« Present development, however, concerned 
itself with on© thing or the other end not a combination. 

Sprotte « 

This ifi a aend-receive radar homing system being de- 
veloped at Telefunkeii, Berlin, under Dr. Punge« About 8 
weeks be.for© the end of th© war, pr« Pong© left Tel©funk©n 
and went to work for rvi. Von araua did not know if h© teok 
the d©v«lopttent along. . H© can possibly b© found aoiii©wl2«i*© 
n©ar Ainring. This ©quipwent, .which is knowB as th© H and 
V Gerat operates at about S3 cm. It would have been pre- 
ferred to have it op©rat© at 6 aa, but th©r© was «till coa- 
siderable difficulty in getting suf ficlsnt pow©r out of mag» 
aetrons at this frequency. 

Further Int©rr©gation of Steinhof. Kirchs tsin, and Muhlaer « 

by 
R,H> Bleck & E.E* Kfaus© 18 May 1945 

A-4 Radio Bquipmant . 

In additian to tb© eommaad * 7©e«iv©r« tbe DoffX©p r©6«iv©r 
and the Doffler tranamittAr, a ^^sjpst© t©l«B©t©rlzig trans- 
mitt©!^ was carried in th© t©st flights. To slKpllfy this lay- 
out» there had b©«zi vuodor dsTslopaeat and was eoaplsted a 



219 



«lagl® s^e»if«x» ffey botk th© Dofn«r anö cemm«na function, 
ItDT-erer, it r*s cerrpletad too l^te to ir&jce It »^ortr. cnar«,.!!^ 
th® productloa« 

th« r«eio Doffler tj^atem iübü carried I» »31 test riii^t§ 
£& « cLeck OR other Erennschlugs aiethocis. Continuous re- 
cor&lug of th® Dofflcrfraqucncy on the ground providad « cheek 
on ^11 tbft a78t««e« Th» ««cur«cl«8 on tfcia b«il8 w«r© 

Ceffler Si^sten plu» or mintt« O.ejiJ 
Gyyo lat. «coel* plu^ or aainu« 1.0^ 
B^chhüld let* »cc«i« plus or minu« 0.5j5^ 

Sufrici»nt triclß h»e not yet been mai© on th© Buchhold d©- 
Tice to «ak© Its figure vöpy rclisbl©, Kircbstein felt that 
the reöio ayetesa w»s th© most accurat©« Ita coaplexlty was 
% t»T the greetest» was subject to Jamming end coat »bout 
ten tisids as nmeh &£ the others« 

feleaieteriBLf » 

Til» IS tftleaietÄftng system waa deaigned »laä built by 
mmr l.t, Sitsniiiä who ütay^ia Bleiöherod©. Dr» Kirchateia 
wea re<l^««te4 t# ^yaw up m eit*ou£t diegram of tbia ays ten. 
It la mhsßsn on th« following page of this report» ^e ae- 
euraey ©f tfee aystiisfi waa about SJS^. The new im ays tea under 
develop^nt ^ Frof« Stopl^r waa to be more accurate. end bare 
»or* range» f^ m myst^m suffered because eight channels 
sllerwed ®al^ ab©^t 10^ modulation f®r each channel whereas 
this wss a®t s@ in tfee FH systes» The Indicator system for 
the FK systwt was t® be the sarae es for the AK for pro« 
äuctiosi r#ae9ne« ^us, »Ik four chsainel indicators would 



220 



A-4 Ant®miaa« 

r:sTin^^ previous 1^- obtßlnöa soa®whÄ% cofefuaod atori#» 
of the A-.4 tsll sntöanas, Dr« Muhln«r isslm asked t© draw as 
Ftceuret« a plet^Jire of thess antßixnas as bs could. a*hi8 
dQEeription ts bellevod to b® more eocurate thnn thjat Äiv«n 
in the May I6th report» 



Ratjio 
Control 



Leit&trahl 
' Telemetertog ^m plene normo! to f»«ft-r; 




221 



{h 




r 



-CZH -CH 



i^.L^fe_A. 



r* I III 




222 



Thm e®pp®r strip antenna v&a eaXXed Seblalf« ant«nna aiul tha 
dipol©» Stabe ßntömia, Thd Cühlo-if© was used for the redlo 
control raceiverj two of the Stabs, wero used for the T^tt- 
atrabl ^^orat and two (ther« was one on ©ach of four fin») 
f'b^ telemetering. Contrary to Ä3uIiliior*s opinion, Klrchstein 
felt that the tail antsnnaa were; moro desirable becortfie of 
the poor st2»ucturÄl design of the doors« It was necessary 
t^ tuna tha tail antannas, Ifi&t not tha Tur to covar tha alx 
tteqviQncles of 30 mc plua os* mlniia Sj^« Thi« timing was d©na 
hj »mall variabl« caramlc condanaor« which vera marked for 
tbrae settings» The St&be were capacatlvo; the Schlalf© In- 
ductive * 

yibration» 

Kircshstaln st&tad thtt teste shewed the vibration to 
peak at certain points ae shown 
to the right« Ilere again they 
wer© v&rj much eoncernad abont 
the problam bafora »nj flight« 
were med©« 7^aa no trouble — 

was found in tha actual flights ^3 
they no longer woirlad about 
tha problem« Eaiaca» fli^t 
data on the aubjact la not 
vary C(a2ipXeta<« On the bar is 
of tests msj&e^ the equipment 
when ehock mounted, had to pa as 
the following s^ecirications s 

(a) 40 cyc/aec at 0*5 mm ©aipllt^d.® foy S ininut? 
to the teat table« 

(b) 15 cyo/seo at 2 at» amplitude for 1 minute standing 
looae on the table» 

^be actual ahoek mounting conaisted airaply of four rubber 
diaka about 3/4" diameter end J" high« Further is^foiwiatlen 
on thi a vibration mounting oan be obtained from Dipl* Xng« 
Boehn or Dip!» Xng« Horn« Dr. T^etxer ahould know about vi* 
brat ion in Waaaerfalld 

IDoppler Anti-Jaa Reoe^ver « 

On the next page ia ahcwn the a c heme tie circuit diagran 
of the Verdopplet with antl<»Ja& circuit aa drawn by Dr« liuhl» 
ner« Baaed on actual teata» thia ayatem waa auppoaed te bave 
worked through a CW Jamming aignal ten timea larger than ths 
dealred aignal and 20 timea larger if the Janming aig^aX was 




223 




Kr 

i 4 

I i 

© ® 



224 







22S 



flwanlaidd 100^. mm «ffiÄll ©hang« r«quir©<5 in s standaM 
p«e«lv«p woulä. allow such a circuit to b« quickly RddecL 
i9li®n needed • 

"y^lecity Mftasurement Equipment (Grouxiö). 

Dr» I?ah2n®r was requested to draw ß schematic diegram 
of th» TdXoeit^r a#esiii»iBg «quii^ent« It i» shown on pag« 
IS. «le reeelver and trtnamitttr portions of th© diagram 
«7« »«If explanatoxy* Th« otit|m^ of th« receiver is fed 
Mto a filter which Is centored about the I^oppler frequency 
(nsTsally about 500 ) and has a bandwidth of about 60 
Ulfs eouM be rasde narrower if a single Brannschluse ,were 
ns0&* However^ In later fir Inga, t^ cut-offs were used» 
Th^ first reduced the thrust from 25 tons to 8 tons, and 
tim seconiS cut it off entirely» !rhi» corresponded to ebout 
m Wf difference in Telocity end hence the filter had to paa« 
a br©®d@r fr^qtieiiey band« ^©filter fed into a Robinaon 
bridge *i€Ä was Edjis«ted to null for the proper frequency. 
W^m tWQ fTmiws3mi®B hmA te :be measured, tl^e first signal 
relay closing wouM b# Keaeured, the first signal relay 
el@slng Would alter tlie bridge balance, as shown. The null 
ai^aX fttsffl ^m bridge fesds -through an ajsiplifier to the 
*rlag aednlat^"« the other side of the ring modulator is 
t4^ thrmagh a $Q® phase shifter (to. balance out tt9 phasa 
ali£f^ in the bridge}» Then as' the bridge current goes 
tfapou^ a tmll,' it reTeraes it» phase i^ieh reverses the 
sw^mtt in the ring Modulator find closes the polar! «ed re» 
lay iM,di then enteimtieally eauses a eontrol »l^gnal to ba 



l^iijg^ Systems mä fT Contra . 
H asm ¥ 



Aa aquipmaat m^er deirexopiBent by Telefuidcen for 
ipiaing @f glide bombs (Ha 293 tee«) from the mother plane« 
Th9 mothtr plane wpuld track the ship in the H and V Gerat 
and llieii roa tS&e if^lde bonb down the beam» Tha trans« 
■itting %n%9atm was a rotatiag dipole* The Teceiver had 
two an^aaaas, tba outputs of at&ieh were ooapered to pre« 
▼ifia b«ariag adntval« By usias four antennae, tba boob 
«e«ld rotate (ll&e the X'4) ead still be properly steered» 
^n%9m was abandoBodi beoausa (aeao^ing to Toa Braua) the 
Job oottM be döaa bettor by inf^a^red« 

Wiadlatad« 

tbi« la a hoae oa Rotterdaa system« being an «xtenelon 
of Ifte OdlfO-IAXI» ^mwUismm%. t% was balng daTalopadl bgr 



226 



ü'ülefuilkon uu^^or Tr« Pun^©» Sorie thoi;^it Wf^s given to, but 
no work done an the application of Windhund to « proTlnity 

fU3®e 

Madrid 

An IR homing «system und«r development by th© KEPKA 
company in VISl^A« Von Broun Imew little «bout thla end 

thoiigbt veiy littlo of the firm, 

A proximity fuze b©lng developed >3y Sleraena at Hacken« 
leider near Berlin« The coisipf^ny moved aomevhere into 
i'iestevu Germeny, A trpngir.itter in the hoad of tho ?nisgll« 
sends out p-ulses while another sntonne Iti the tell racelve« 
the echo* l??hen the echo roeche« e given «trength, th« fuee 
is flrede Hfinge is supposed to b® 30 met«r« or lese» 

Mies sc > 

A pEsslv© Eccoustic proxirrity fure imder developnisnt 
by Beutshor Reichspost Forschung at Machnow noar Barlin« 
lliis some flnn al«o had under davelopwent a reäio D©ppl«r 

PF. 

t . 



An IR photo «lee trie (a«e separate report) proxlirity 
tvLz® developed by a Mr. Peucher who Is new at Kbchel» It 
transmits a scanned light beam and receives the reflect loa« 

Can operate on vlsuel or InfTa-red* 

BLAC. 

The Elect ro-AIcus tic Company had uhder development op- 
tical, acoustic and infra-red homliig systems« This company 
was first at Kiel, later moved to Haaslau, Sohleslen« Wh^n 
the HuBsians appreaehed, the personnel moved out and left 
the laboratories Intaot. Br. IDutaoher end Dr« Eeeht, two 
of tbe key peraonnel, are now probably near Bleieherode« 

Rheinland , 

fhls was thtt naae for the «round equipstent of a redsr» 
radio control system for Wasserfall under developnent by 
Telefunken» The operating frequeaey was around 600 no« 



227 




X 7«.>-gfi 



Tmnspondtr 

t 



^ H^Hrtu 4iilcYijiii. 



9^ TWA^ 



pas^fiM si 0^0^ « n# 









, f^r trft^ii^ til« tax'gttt a»d 

tf*«ac Ite r9«k#t tsr tb» trans« 

^^.^ mgXes of th« two «at«xaas «emXd 
apps^priats i^BtreX signsl sent to 
into til« bs^i« It «ss d#v«2.<^od 
%mm tfemi^t «m gii^sQ t® 



eportttlng st 23 m. 



B<» ftn^ii «tAt^a tliit all. b^ljag «^ataaia undar da« 
ta^opHüiit £1»^ WaMarflsU utilisad eoaputad aelllalon eoaraaa« 
fiia faaiis^ «»a tliat eliaaaa woat%m% Ibr «uparaonie apaa4a 
«ax>a !i#t praetiaai« ^»mi oaljr axeaptlcm «aa Xina^ot-aight 
aeniNiaa aa ol^taibia^ «ith raäar baaaa» ^ 



228 



Mt ^...U .Lull ot fUa-..i±:>ch f .7 JraiJ J.'..)4S^. 

A presBuro ..lyabji.i oi' fiidiij, r.;.uctoi:ts v/a^ ctioGen for Wasserfall 
(C-2) böcausi it is niorj econonical of space and weight thsn a pui..p 
system would iDe for tjiis si?;e of rockst» The size for v/hieh a turlDine-- 
pump syateia "boc^ins to "bo desir^able depends on sovoral factors snch as 
apeed, type^ duration of burMiig; but probably occurs in the 10-15 T 
;; metric) thrust rcmee« 

Several types of preasurizing have been tried eaqperiniontaliy 
such as I 

(a) Pressurizing with a slow burning po'>7der* This is hard to 
control since burning speed rises with pressure. Valuing excess powder 
gas to the outside hasbeen tried» In any case soiie sort of pressure 
r-efc,ulating valve inuat be used« 

(b) Pressuring by coiiibining the niain rocket reactants. This 
device is considered laost promising. A small air bottle is used to 
start the process which thencontinues with proper regulations. .Vhen 
using the Visol-Salbei combination water vapor i3 deposited in the 
Salbei Tank which promotes corrosion. This is no great trouble in 
military shots but in test rockets where several runs may be required 
difficulties arise. Three to four runs may be the life limit of the 
acid tank under these conditions. 

Another reason for the use of pressurized tanks for reasonably 
large rockets is that the stoutly constructed tanks make excellent 
airframes J pai'ticularly in rockets rjqu.iring large r-dic^l acceleratÄuas 
with consequent high stresses« i'or instance, Ö-2 is calculated for 
radical accelerations of 12 g with a safety factor of 1,5« During 
certain parts of its trajectory thisrocket can pea?foria turns of this 
value 4> 

About half of the explosive ch .rge carried by G-2 is in a form xöddk 
similar to prima cord distributed in tubes Isxxsx. through out the 
missile in order to break it up so that it will not cause damage when 
falling on home territory. This is one of the reasons for the central 
tubes thru the re.-.ctant tanks since they can be more easily "broken 
up from the center. Another excuse for central tubes is tiiat welding 
stresses are smaller with this const3?uction than with tubes near the 
'edges« 

It is possible that the flexible reactant outlet pipes may be 
hung up on these tubes but the usual course followed by G~2 would 
not permit this« It was agreed that a circling airplane ifould probably 
cause emb&rassment« 



A itoman caudle type of powder ( Ben^^al fire) is burned in 
;he air pipe on the high pressur.) side of the ^regulator valve in 
irder to reduce the amoiint of air required» The powder is confined 
Dehind gauze to prevent ash from entering the air stream. Forty five 
second burning has be3n obtain ad, A. ^Cyo saving is madj in the air flask 
3ize by means of this device. 

The two main reactant valves are mechanicsilly connected to give 
3. tine delay to the Visol so that Salbii y.lll have time to enter the 
fooling jacket, pass thr|\i it and the nozzles, and be presont in the 
coiilrastion chamber before Visol arrives in the chamber« In this v/ay 
escplosions are avoided since there is always, sufficient 'Oo carrier 
pras3nt to burn with a minimum time delay, fhe Visol as it arrives, 
/isol is admitted through its ^alve about 1/5 sec after the Salbei 
valve is opened» Visol can be admitted first but this arrangement does 
Qot start combustion as smoothly as in the previous arrangement* 
I'he two reactants must not appear in the combustion chamber simultan- 
eously öince a small ignition delay would cause an explosion. 

In the noszle design the jets are so arranged that flame is kept an 
sway from the combustion chajuber walls« In addition tv/o rows of holes, 
one just above the throat and on «pear the max, chamber diameter admit 
3-5% of the total flow of Salbei directly into the combustion chamber 
for wall cooling* I^ these msans v/all temperatures are kept dov/n to- 
50C to 4C0°0« Choosing the position of the auxiliary cooling jets is 
alwg^s an experimerital proceDdure, ^.pparantly the burning time is too 
short to- have the oxidizing atmosphere at the chamber' walls make any 
difference .in oxidation« 

Gerean 1265 or 126,5 steoi (Mn 2-5%) is used for the «rombustion 
ch&jnber® A steel is wanted v/liich can be formöd and welded easily and 
which wiljlkave high strength at 400*^0« Welding is difficult* In the 
■begijming it was nocessary to anneal the completed chambers but; as 
a progressive, syramötrical welding technique was worked out, tbe- 
anneai was?Sec3ssaj?y, 

Heat transfer at th3 tliröt.t is estimated to be 10 times that at 
the max« dia# of the combustion pot or at the exit. 

The cooling jacket space is 5*"6 ^^'^ v/ide and constant» 'i'his 
spacing is maintained by placing wires of that dia» along the eloments 
ot the geometrical body« 

ffwo pipeö lead Salbei domi to the distribution bulge at ths 
venturi exit« One had b .!en used sucessfully in tost« 

The. latest nozzle disk is reported to bo cast, then rolled and/or 
Sic-chined to shape, jfig 1 shows a radial cross-section of the nozzle 
and Fig 2 a view of one guartor of the disk as viewed from the 

tiff 4k IC 

coiclAistion chamber« Tbe dfew&a? is cast with the radical and circum- 

2je 



xjrential passages lor ;3alb o3Jcor3d in, vlia Üalbei Glots ''.r; c1üo3ö uj; 
by rolling ancufciian laacliiiiacj out to about G.c inn \vid3 or roll :;d up to a 
spacer. Visol' slots ax'e end milled to th ; G:.i.-.3 dii-Jiisicn txix-Q the 
casting, 'I'here are about 3 rin^s lor ..iJ.lbsi üjad 7 partial riiii^is lor 
Visol, 

'x'v/o ppposing scliools exist in nozzle desi^^n, p.-jLt-alljl ajad inclined. 
It is chaaper to build parallel nozzles and the turbuljnce in the 
combustion charucer soon mixes thj jets, 

Stoichiometric proportions are not used as 'higher exit velocities 
and lower Liax. tenperatures can be obtained with other proportions, 
'i'he expression for gas exit velocity follows • 



^P-^T' ■\f^^ ^ 



Where 

c= exit velocity 

• g= gravity constsjit 

k= gas STjecific heat ratio 

Pc= combustion chaiiber pressure 

Pe== exit pressure 

K=: gas const cmt = 848 

M = molecular v;3ight of exhaust gases 
T*"= combustion chamber temperature. 

Since the first radical is practically constant, exit velocity depends on 

H and I', (Two values are v/anted v;hich -^^lien multir)li3d will give the 

largest number. This mox, value doej not occur at stoichio.-.e-Gric 

proportions since und>^r these conditions the fuel will be burned to 

OO2 with a/>«. of 44, If more Salbei or Visol is added trier e will bo 

relatively more Og (/^ =^2 ) or GO pi^ =28 ) in the exhaust gases. 

Altho T will be lov/er under these conditions rt will be considerably higher 

giving a greater value to UT, Fig 3 shows this relationship for '.Vass )i-:"f all 

and i'lg 4 for A-4-« Note that 0-2 uses an excess of oxidizer c'jid a-4 

an excQsa of fuel, tho excesakn each case being the cooli^'nt. 

The exit velocity of the C-2 venturi is 1800 m/sec over about ^0,o 
of the exit diam. 

In the following e^^uaticn written for gravity free «Jacuum , \/ill 
be found thj reason for desiring nigh spociiic g'ravity in rocket 
react lint 3 J 

m d V " c d m (2) 



d V » c d m 

m 
fd 111 



(3) 

c In Mo 



114 
331 



e^o 



:^» " " oijpLv 

V » rockot velocity 
c = ijas jxit volocity 

i..;:-xi:iuu velocity' v:ill "be oütcdi:.;d wlion tlij ratio oi initial ]:;:.3S to 
:Jinal .....os is :jpeat33t or v.liin roactcmt wai^jlit to final v/oi^iit is 
h-:it::-;3.rt* 'ihis st-_.t3 car bo approach-jd by putting;; the greatest 
possible wei£;iit of reactants into lit;lit Tanks» Tanlis for hi^^-h specific 
:_,ravity reactoiits will be iixgksx lighter for a given v/jight of react:;nt3, 
sincexhey will be smaller » 

In tests of xv-4- a good burner will produce a visible gas stream 
12 - 13 n long v.-ith no side flaiie« The color is mainly yellow fron 
salts 8iid M.uidiiin oxide« 'fhe sodiura D line shov/s principally in analysis. 
About IG sets of iviach's v/aves can be S3.:n in such a jet» These lines 
are straight ^ showing, that taa ga.j velocity is constant across the jet,, 
and Lif-iintain about a corist^mt angle along the jet since as the jet 
velocity reduces the gs-s cools lov/ering the acoustic velocity thereby 
rainüainiiig a const;_u3.t Mach angle« 

There uould be parts for several couplete G - 2's in the vicinity 
of Bleicherode or in transit thereto , 

von Braun has several photograplis of Prüfst cjid No. 1 at peenemünde 
v/aich should be reproduced» Perhaps other photographs could be found 
through interrogation» 

The above report rej^resents v/hat was reported to the writer, not 
his 0¥m vievfSö 



232 



- 1/^. ■,/ 



k i' ■■* 



/>9- / 




/C7^ 



> 



333 






/ 



v 



/ ( 



/ 



/ 



i y 



\ T 
\ 

\ 

\ 



V/'so/ 










./^A7.^. 



234 



intex^bgstlon ol Von Braim, Dannenbcrg »M Slauisa, by S« H, Hull afc 
a«nöi®Q&«Part®iik5TC3h9ii on 7 Jub« 1945. 

"Bm purpes« of thie interrogation was to correot mis-stateiaant» which 
w«r« ffla<3a on 6 Jui» 1945, conoerning regulator valv» design and to amplify 
Ton Brttum statencnte of 5 Juns 1945 regarding pressurlaation of rdaot&iit 
tanks bgr mneaa of Salbel-Tiaol oombuation pot, 

fig. X »how« th« regulator valw aa redrawn« When no preaaure ia app« 
lied the apccdi^ foree» the valve spindle down against the atop« As preaeuLrs 
is applied the valve spindle is raised since the aplndle area abovd the high 
psrissur« ohamber is greater than the oorrespondlng area below« N^ flows 
past the first throttling point on the lower valve spindle then past lower 
tm whioh as« s«t store open since they act &3 valve surge dampers rather 
than thi^ottlss* I^ssur^ is taken frcn the low pressinre side up to ths 
bsXlows at ^a» top of the assembly« Fkwssure inside the bellows is the 
dstsrnining fl&etor ia the position of the valve at any instant« It is 
oXfistsd Iftiatt for a givon flow rato of regulated gas, pressure can bo 
kopt eonstant at 27 ata w^ an inlet pressure running f^om 250 down to 
30 at». If tho flow rata ohangos then the spring adjustment nust 
bo chasigod to aaintain the same pressure since the valve roquiros a 
different openiz« for a different flew rate and tho gas foroes on the Icwfey 
portion of tbs valve spindle will vary with flow rate. 

Tho uppsor portion of tho valvo spindle is grooved to for» a 
labgrintli padcLng to prevent oxooss high pressure gas leakago« A tight 
paoktng la this place would oauao faction« 

KoraAl stool Is used i& the valve constmctlon with the oxoeption of 
tiio bellos» i^bioh is bronso* 

rife 2 Indioates the force balance in t^iis va^ve for hi^ juad low 
inlet prosvuvos« Zero displaoement of the spindle is taken when ths 
spiadle is as far down« as it will go« At this point there is a definite 
downward spri2^ foree on the stop, IBien hi ,h pressure air is admitted Vm 
.not fooroo ratsisg the spindle roduoos with increasing spindlo dofleotiox% 
SiluilibriuBi is roaohed when the not upward air force in the spiadle equals 
i£o dowmsard spring pressure« This oquilibriua point will ooeur at differoat 
spisidle displa^nents for different inlet pressures as indicated ia FigA 

Fig« % indioates an auxiliary oosbustion systsa for pressurisatlon 
«f tho aaia tanltas« A snail aitrogea flask delivers regulated prossuro 
to saall voaotaixt tanks which ia tiira si^pSy the oosibustion ofaasliortt das 
fro» the ooiijbustion is earriod directly to tho aaia roaetant tanks« This 
systoa should bo self regi^ating to a eertain extent« 

ftudbi a dovloo has beoa studied esKperiaentally bat nsrver flowa« 



235 



A-18 



mw BO, 2.943 



I n » e r T i • w with mi^l.im. mwm» voa B y a n a 
Xnt«irat>^ator; t^m F« 2®i«^ 

Tdstea orgiamllr in tb« l&borttoi^ th« qta««%iea of speata&^etts 
igEdtion tlBi« of «ijr^ tvi»lu. Tbif^M that MMaXost tlior 1»^ vfts 



L'lqhi Sourc 



Fuel o^ _ 
¥ri®S irai»io^is ami^ss« 



«8® of KS£IJ 




Selen/ iim Ce// 



©f A® fi#M wto«n th@ 



,. 



87iQtb#®i« of 
of %hm f^ynthen®® 



D= Droplet 
^i^ oonslcloratioao oUainatod tho ppfUBtieol 
» Triad about 1.900 oon^iiiationa« 

with tb# 8@@teliod aipraogaean^a (darkeniiig 
ot pus SOS and brighto£tis(g fr<M tha fXesa) 
workad aa taelmioal. and ilaiaoa Ban for Ma brotba»^ 
with Prof« Hans Fiaolior in Mimi^ T»U» on 

f haaiE^9 gall bXaddor dyoa oto« Had aosa I 

in liaiidl» f 



67890 



236 



(A;9yA--10 ) 
INTafiROG.^IOy OV mor W^ ron Bream on LOHG^ DIBTAWS RQOR^T, IlKCai 

BIi B.H. Hull, W.Hata»z,R#W,Port9r on 7 ^une 1945, Partenklrclien, 

Prof ♦ von Bra» was questioned at length on the basis of his 
statement in •• Survey of Development of Liquid fiockets in Germany 
and their Future Prospects'* that the A 9 rocket conibined with the 
A 10 boost would have a rcjige of 5000Kiiu 

The A 9 rocket is essentially an A 4 with about sevon square 
meters of wing surface added« Acting alone it climbs to about 29 
kilometers a* which height it has a velocity of approximately 1300in/sec. 
It then glides to a range of 600 Km, and an altitude of 5 Km, where 
upon it dives on the target, if a military weapon, or engages in 
some sort of landing procedura if a cargo carrier* The A 10 rocket 
was to have been a booster for the A 9 having 200 tons thrust for 
50-60 seconds. With this boost th« A 9 would be"launched" at 
1200 in/sec, and would continue until it reached an altitude of 55 fi* 
and a velocity of 2800 m/see. It then begins a long gliding tra;|ectory 
lAiioh carries it to a range of 5000 Km* Prof von Braun insisted that 
this range value had been substantiated by accurate trajectory 
calculations» He pointed out läiat the centrifugal force, due to the 
curvature of the earth was an important factor as well as the changing 
adr devAities, the gradually changing velocity of the projectile etc«, 
tnd that it was important to select the best trajectory in order to 
obtain or attain the msxiamm range» 

He showed by means of energy relations that for a flat earth 
the range would be approximately psoportional to the initial velocity 
•q:aared. The difference between this result and his claim he believed 
to be due to curvature of the earth« It seems more likely to the writer 
that this difference if it actually does exist is mors likely due to 
the relation in drag coefficient at high Mach numbers« ( See Appendix) 

Prof von Braun was not able to remember sny numerical values for 
the ratio OL /OO but said they could be found for A 9 in reports at 
loohel» 

For future work, von Braun was interested In supersonic Lorln 
aotori ( ramj^itts) because of their high sffioiency« 



237 



He said ho b2kd often talked with Dr, Hermaim about the diffuser for 
such a motor and that taats had been made in the wind tunnel» These 
t23ts wore closely 2?elated to the supersonic diffuser used for pressure 
"recovery in the nind tunnsl iÄself « Considorable success was had in 
shaping the diffus 3r to reduce the onar^ry loss from the pressure 
waves» Pressure recovary of as imich as three or four to one had been 
obtained. In his exsiaplo. Prof von Braun iMicatad a velocity of 
60C ia/s<?c in the coaibustion chamber» Asked if hn thought combustion 
couldbe maintained at tliis speed ho «aid bethought it could» For example, 
some COTibustion still took place in the A ^ jet where velocities of 
over 1000 ffl/sec existed. Ho combustion chambers for Lorin motors have 
ever bsen tested by von Braun or his staff» 

Incidental Inform ation t 

T3is5)eratures in the^jet w^re measured by a standard optical method in 
which a laa^ with a variable density filter is placed on one side of 
the jet anda spectroscope is placad on the other» A trace of sodium 
salts is added to one of the reactAnts(if not already present) so that 
a strong sodium line exists in the luminosity of the flame» By varying 
the density of the filter until the line disappears in the spectroscope 
the tCTiparature can be determined according to a previous calibration» 
Velocities are than det anain 3d from the visible pressure waves in the 
jet» Pressure» are rarely aver measured in the interior of the jetj 
surface prossuras are sufficiently accurate for all purposea.cOas sanq^les 
are taken with a water cooled tube iihich is inserted directly into 
the flame« 

Prof von Braun thinks that tetranitromethane would make a very 
good oxygen carrier, For example he believes that Wasserfall could be 
loaded with tetranitromethane instead ofSalbsi and fired without any 
change* Advantages^ easier handling» higher sp.gr»» no low temperature, 
raasonably good spec« thrust* 

£»W» Poxtsr« 



29$ 



AFFi^DlX i Comparison of Kango for A 9 alone with th^t for A 9-A 10 

--.-.--.--.•.-.--.--.-----.^ -.---- 2o®>53£t3fifti 

Assum® rocket Is dalivered at a height above the target H^ with 

a yeloclty^Yo. (Ef it glides at an angle » •, its equations of motion 

(neglecting the earths curvature) will be 

Drag » m dy + m g sin Ö (1) 

dt 

Lift • m g cos © (2) 

C. dividing (1) by (2) and aasuming co»^ ■ '^ J 
By definition, 

tan» - H (where R is the range of the target) (4) 
IT 

Assuming a constant decelleration, 

§X - la ( whare T is the time of flight) (5) 
dt T 

and 

R« 1/2 7</S (6) 



.Substituting (4) ,(5) & (6) in (3)* 

cd . 1 fj^ 
cT" R I 2g 



Cd- 1 /lo! ,H ] (7) 



or 



R- Cl / VO^ . g ) 

^ [w J ^^> 

Substituting the values for the A 9 alone in (7), R« 600 taHf 
To- 1»3 IDDs/seC| H« 24Kmt 



239 



üäIj^ this value, aM the data for thsA 9 - A 10 coabinationi 
To » 28 Sa/seo^ H» 35 to. 

fi - 6 7*8^ +55 - 6 X 447 • 2680 Km. ( 10) 

•02 

Tha cantrifugal f orie on the missile as it follows a curved 
path of approx. 6,4000,000 meters radius at a velocity of 2800 m/sec '"f* 
id.ll be 

^ - 7*84 X 10^ - 1»3 i^sec or ♦13xg 
^ 6*4 X 10^ 

In the case of a missile at 1«3 Kiq/see the fproe wk would be 
less than »036» consequently over a part of the path there would be 
an advantage of 10% in the Cg/CD ratio in the case of th« higher 
spead missile because of the centrif igal force« 

A much more important factor, however is probably the fact 
that at speeds in excess of 11*1 the draz coefficient decreases with 
increasing speeds« Hence an increase of nearly 2t1 as would be 
'e quired in order to "obtain 5000 Sta range would not bd impossible. 



240 



Ma«a»iioii tdth frof • Dr» Voa Bratm« 15 Ijoy 1949 

£^#0«at2 Z^« Col« a#J« OolUn anl F/Lt» E«i^ 3tok:M» 

Aftcer introduoUig Lt« (Sol* Oallln to Prof* t» Braun aaHi 
**ro«lc«t««r*'« i*/X.t» Stoicoa asked th« iTOfeascfl» to aiapllfy azsA 
•larlfj o«riain points in the soh^dule of tho '^A** vroapon develop 
aoat imioh tli« Profeador lioA £jl70ß ierlidXl^- tlie previous day» 
^io aocount bad not ^eosa in ahrojoologioal order but dixiii^ thia 
iuterviow» v* Braun rooapitulated th© "t>rl: in the order in liThieh 
it ^ad l>een earried out and at tUe same tl{i^ handc^d over a smoo 
Twaöim &u %h!$ derelopi^nt {past aiid possible jTut^jre given as 
i#p«adlx tm It '^aa suggested on the previous day that saeh a 
iMffioraiidua sight lie pr^ared« Vaiii^ this iseiaoraridum and the 
diaeueeione as a basis the ehart in ^pendix X| has been pre 
paired • 

A sesier&l diaeueed&n followed on tloniet Hetere duriog ^bie& 
the fellovin^ point« w«re raleed« 

(a ^MSSSL^ 

lto»ing a visit to 3*ll.^» at l^enohon 4Uaoh 3)r* HoEJeaath 
aieiitioned eharaeteriatioa of rooltete 548 ttna 058 as being 1000 
Eile/ tonne see« and 10«000 ZXtQ/toimm see* What nas the usutal 
GreriBsn method of speoif ^ing thrust« and eould v» Braun e^^lain 
the above f ügurest 

Be eas not familiar ^th the mindi^a 548 and 558* 
I e explained th^xt they were nitrie aoid to^i^a M unite Hie 
speeifle thrust i« always given as ^^^usiaee/zilo.see« llms» tm? 
A 4, the thrust is 4*^9 fariuanea/Klle.see.t ©<lulvalent to a 
veleeity of SOTO metres/see« 

▼• Jlraun eeuld not ualer stand the fi^^ures ^fiven by Dr« Beoesath» 
and suMStsd that following the preeedure normally used rith 
"sew&er* roalcets» the figures rai^t represent the area of the 
tbmst tlse mam^ in^. I 

(h t% iMiS aentlODed th^it in Kngland we had run a thrust mtw 
OB Itdtl Oxygear Aleohel« v» Braim asked why this ^s* seoin£ 
that they used It0»d5 (l«i7Sa on the A 4» the stoiohioraotrle 
ratio beiiM ls0«64 (ls5d:l« Ool» Oeliin queried this ficure« 
saying that far ütOB the eteiehiometrle ritio mo S»09tU bui 
was rMiiaded that their fuel eoutaiued 98, aleohol A m, water« 



241 



f# Sraua darew tw© #uyvea ▼ RT agalnat fu#li ei^iiQn ratio ohowitM 
tfift ji«a^ tik^ tlift stoiaMo:^i4?io ratio at 0,64 for oxy^«n aM &•»% 



«her. R ' /f J?" ^= 'J21{££f i? ) 



Hight at tiw burner oape arid po3al)>|.y al^st Insid«« 
T, ^aisa a^öö4 that for ooolljag It *as dealrabld to keep tlie 
flaaa amty ifroa burner end» but poiiited aut that la dolu^ ao a 
l9S3 of «ffloleoo^ resiiltod. 11*« "eärbiirotor" byrn«r oi:^« wier« 
Mj easöiitial patent m^ fw&s^ %fm basis o£ all ^ui ""i^"* serlsa 

Hod thcj don« b«tt3r tlsan 4»79 granrass/Sil«««««! 

Oa th« t«8t bod th«^*^ «ould do 4»9 «^ICllo«»««» (SIX«« 8S2 
but for op«a*utlojaial purpoaoa 4» 75 ii^a ado^uat«* 

Had t:i«y «irer triod using gasoUn« Instoad of sl«ob«lt 

^«9« In 1935» but tho «oabuotlon wxB poor • «reriTbody 
In th« t«3t stand got dirt/ with «tirbon« but th« oiost Icsport^iut 
polut wtu that potrol iras proT«d to bo a T«ry bad «oolant* tODdlti^ 
to gAS and ^/8 ui;i«T«a oooUni;* 

Cf TUf ^m 9^ ^ftpMtf» 

ifhtt ^apblt« iras th« «am« as used for «lootrodos« As th« 
blades ixi th« ^a0«s war« moQloj&Si to ^l-v« stability until a 
su^floloBt Toloolty was rsaohod to ouabl« th« outor bladas t« 
tiS3u*a« oontrolt It had boon fouad that oak bladss «oulA last 
lon^ «iiougM# 

242 



t. np er .'tur ca. Jivoa tu.Mi o.Aj tl\o iiutt<*st m^Tt^QüQ hi4 Gurf o« 
ooollng. x'h«y had tried vcrtisrlP of vdrioua Lietalo, inoluatü^ 
laol^ddnua« 

In k 1 Bi L t thQ flixids n^ra ^as eixpollel, ho?r did he lik« 
puahtQg out ll<iuid Og T^th lUtrogoo? 

V«ry dlffioiilt and expensive with gia« In order to aroid 

eoiidengatlün jdu fljuat prevent the IL t^ö a \)ut)blin^^ thpoucjh the 
Ufuld 0®. fhia had been achieved 85^ iatroduoinjr the J!« thro^j^ 
t^^m opposed jet .-3, I'ig« 3« I'M a pr<a\^ üted. the nitrogen Jet trem 
l^inging on the Uguid Og eurfaoo. Gol# G-olllii lueiitloned 

.pi«?tOTis» biat it '^:ia poiritid oat that In thef)e e.jrl;^ nodelii the 
fluid oontainspfs revQ spherloal, d^id henoe a piston mia i poaalble« 
They had» hoir&rar^ ub96. small ^;?oodan "balla to ©ever the oz^^en 
mirfaee« ^thea the aiirfaoe ^le iievi2* r^h*} top of the adhere or 
the bottom» the balls buaohed togeth««», but t the "equator" they 
spread e'^enl^ 0T©r the mirfaoe a>:poscd« '.'he^e bills did :iüt ^^i^ejJt 
to be gcierilly nsod. (Fig» 3 • 

(i O^sabu^tion ghambgr pre^anre in 4 4» 

*mly 16 atiaoapheres ?r:ia uaed in the oner itlo lül A 4 
eombMstlon ohaiaber» v» 3paun drm? a oitTTe ahowlrc thit he ^^s 
a^rare th^it Tith hi^/h«: pr&sz^jTn c^xopa TisttaT '* Impulses 0** eoulA 
be obtained (Fig« 4 • 

<*hy did he uot Inaul ate the liquid oxygen tanlct 

Latterly at the request of the troopa it w a tried beoause 
while they normally i'lred aa aoon aa the li«iuld 0« i^aa in the 
maohine and henoe nvolded evaporation loaa, owiiig to air ralda 
aoiaetl^ea the ruachln© had to at uid filled for a period,. ":x 
perieno® shoTred th.it thu Uggln^ ir.are-...aed the ev-i.!0??a'tlon loßa 
a.ue to the ho it oap-xoity of the lading»- 

(K Did they fill by the 0« presaure or ^^ puiapt 

By pu.Tup in \t «Inutea« 0« preaainpe traaafor ^m« avoided 
beeaua« 



243 



1 1 Th« tan-: 3 ou tb© ^^ggon had to be ui?^e stroxager to 

Staat the pr#«arjar«* 

(2 C^ T€le alas th© öreaan^t a oloud of Ta^oxsr <>l^^ly 
Ylsibid isras r#X»am#d, T?M©h ^aa «^Jeötiomtjle te th« troop a» 

(S ?r#3gur0 tratisfor wag i^asteful of O^, aa at tls« eai one 
y^t«aset a «anslderalil« quÄBtlty of 0* Tapour*at Mgli presönr» 

*«itli referenot to a|r bursts» did h« tMst the akin 
te^erature reaohed tJie stagnation teases» at\a?et 



ITo, ^eeauee (1 the fila tciapercAtiare T^a only the main 
atr te^^eratiTe x factor y /^ «^/z? iihia faotor being V f «p a 

pi jte at right angles to the uir etreaia and 0,86 for a surfaee 

pi^tillel to the air atresia* (J'ig» 6 • 

Earing t'ot tha filni totiiper ttur®, one eould oalotilato the eq.uill 
brii«» metat mirfaoc tenK>ar it^xre» 



Metallurgioal exaDlmitlon of ttie metal after explosion viould gi^e 
an ex«gt<^^^«'2^ figure booau^o ai?icx the &3q?lo3lGu the plate rould 
tfQ heated on both tildes: also the Telooitj after the oq) lesion 
wo aid be hip^hes^ than, the projeotlle ▼elooity» They had aeasured 
l»|r radar the ettu toianerature as the projeetlle fell throxi^ the 
aisiosphere ^id h^id oheoked th*t It - Id not exooed Q5(rO% 
T« Bratm owed hie ilia to the faet that a rooiiot ivhleh una falling 
^aek on the launohlng «»He burst in the air« 

The orerall d^ialty of the loaded reet:et ivae very lev about 
l/2kpä, water* Had they iaprored this by using the eldn as taii]£et 

*)?hls was done for ^^asaerfall. but for ^ 4 larger taii^a eould 
be used« The uoe ot the eidln as iaui: present ed dlffloultlos 4ue 
to the high external exeeaa pressure rjien falling with enpty tanicsf 
w» ^4A%m drew a outto si20<:7ing the external pressure distribution 
e^er the prejeotlle« 



244 



Th« hii^ prwü&vre iroiyad the noae oould ttiTou^h a leak lu thm 
»kin ^uild u|) a pr«ei0irr« on tlie laaOlng ma>f«io» of tia« internal 
tattica oaudlng a resultant thruat to tha rear whloh ^^glit aauaa 
the tank to »oTa aoa a^atali» i^lg* 7« 

(^ Huary» 

On A 4 tha ratio of "^ Stoff taoJc oa|»aoity ta a: 3tofi ttüiic 
aa^aait/ iRä^a S5sß i«a« 1:E»5:l l»y Toluma« on tli^a fttlomt h^^nA^ on 
ölAi 1?#0Jl» aa& !«&• S93 tka ratio naa 25 si« 



Qm A A X% la aaeaatlal i^hat ti&a ataao tan^fo^atura to tJta 
turMua 1)« kepi» ao staut« I'ha aonaantritlon of tha HgOg aagr 
Yar^ i)ut tMa oaix h^ oonipanaatad by altklug tba aaloiui» 
pMraan^üaata aolwtlon by ptiitlng in aora or laas twiter aa ra<|uira&» 

(a Tha •A" woa )oa9 wilt, have their ran^e esetendad ioy tlia 
aftditioa of "9dn^ Cflxe4 ^ioh anafela tha rook:«t ta do a loag 

fllCla ^% aönoluaion of tha poorer «trafea« *£hay iaava &aoiCLa4 ^hat 
ha Canaity of the atittoaph^a at helghce ie &n0h that rookata 
would not ^llda aatiafaotorily ir^äm over 30 iZa lu h^jigAt (l«a« 
about XOO^OOO ft« '£h9 trajectory of the po-^er atroka of thasa 
roak;at laiumihad pro^aatilea would ba in tvro parts aiiA bant OTar 
iBiiah Xowe^r ^an tha n^iturat träiaa'tory of A 4 (Bbq aketoh J^ • 

^ha aor&blnad gUd^r A 9 plus roolcet boost A 10 la 
illuatratad (alcetah t A 10 w>uld oporata at SOO tomioa for 50 
aaaonda, and tha A t at ^ tonnea far 6d seoonds« faioalty at 
and of laiuiah IftOO a^aiN»« and at mki of power atro^^a Z&OQ m/summ 
It follows that If A 9 is \iaad alona» its Talaaity at tha and af 
tha parser stroiea vmuld ba 1600 m/s^^« 

Did tha Pro feasor thinic that tha ^ses haing ia a^iiillhri\tti 
at hii:h tevperature in tha oombustion ohamber reaoiablnacL ditrlng 
tha aaqpanalant 

fhay had sampled tha gases in the oambustlon ahafi^er by 
Oraat through hi^iil,y aooled tubas* They "üro^a" tha ^aa sixtura« 
Br thia means they ohaoked that tha gas in the aombiuitioa ahuxAar 
at high teisparature r cashed aquilihriuia state« 

ifra» tioia to tloa -v« J^aun triad ta ajqs»laln in KagUsi^ in 
whiah la^^uaga h® w^s fairly lueld* Ha ^^s vary aooparativa anA 
soaaad vsry plaaft<«d ta diaousi hi a past tsohnloal dlfXloultiaa 



245 



rith a njrIccT In the 3&i£0 jfiell« tt mis a^eed to continue 
tu« eoriTÄmatiön at & later ♦Äat«» 



246 



üm\m OF hhVE,Lon>mT of liquid roctets ik 

By Prof* W« von Braim 

!• Wo oonalder the A-4 stratosphorlc z*ookot developed 
by MS (knomi to the publle at V-2) «a lua Intermediate «o- 
lution conditioned hy thla «ar, e solution which still hsis 
certain inherent ccmlnga, and which comparea with the 
future pofialbllltlea of the art rought in the same way aa 
a bomber plane of the last war conparea with a modem 
bomber or large paasenger plane» We are convinced that a 
ec»aplete aaatery of the art of rooketa will change eon» 
dltlcna in the ^orld In wuch the aaaie way as did the 
maatery of aeronautie and that thla change will apply both 
to the clvlllaa and the mllltery aspects of their use. W« 
know on the other hand fro» our past experience that a com- 
plete mastery of the art Is only possible if ler^^e suoia of 
money are expended on it a developsent and that aetbacks and 
aacrlfices will occur^ euch as was the case in the develop- 
«lent of «ireraft* 

2« A few private groups of inventora started aerlou» 
work on liquid rocket development in Germany in the years 
1989-1950« One of these groups* called *»Hock»t Flying 
Held 5erlln% located at Berlin-Re Inickenöorf, had Prof. 
Dr» von Braun as s stud«at a&ong its mcnbers. Sinple 
fundamental teat« with rocket corobusticn chambers were 
carried out there, sad small uncontrolled liquid rockets 
were, fired, wjrdch reached heights up to 1000 ?peters, end 
landed by nesns of a parachute« At the end of 19389 th« 
work of these gro\;y?s wea slowed down by lack of cash, but 
the Anqr Weapons Depsrtment waa Intereated in carrying on 
the workf end took over the services first of Prof« von 
Brsun, and Ister of »oat of the other engineers. This 
special division of the Army T.espons Departwent waa put 
under the direction of Dr. Ing. H.C. DOHNBEROER, and the 
first rocketi developed by them were äeaigned solely for 
experinentsl purposes, snd were of ne militsry vsXue« la 
1934, liquid rockets of the *'A-.2» type were suocessfully 
tried out« They had e thrust of 2^00 kg., were directly 
stabilised by means of a large gyro, and reached s height 
of apprc;if::öjately 2000 meters. Sa 1938, the first trisle 
were osrtied out with liquid rochets of the ♦•A-S" snd 
"A-B" K'i^B, whieh were fitted with sa automatic oontrel 
syste« aM rudders in the gaa stresm* These rockets 



347 



reached « hdiijlt of 12 km. ^m Xly#d ▼«rtlOAlly, ÄnÄ hod 
a rsag« of 18 km* "idxan firad ftt aa rnogX«* fhey eould Xaad 
in both oasos hr »aazui of pa2«e1tmto, and bo used agoln. 

3« la view of the suecoasful rdaalta achiovod with 
liquid rockoto« It wa« docidod in 1936 to bogln with tho 
ccnatraction of a large experSmantal oatcbllshmant for 
rooket daTolopmeßt at Peen^Riswia on the Baltic* It waa 
already rooo^lxod at that tJfeo that the öaralopmant of 
roc^eta alanred groat prenlao in tho flold of aaronauties 
mm wmll as la that of artlUory, and It waa thoreforo do- 
eldod to l2ulld two separata ostablishaxenta at PeaaeoundOi 
one for tho Aray and on© for the Air Force, which mr^ two 
diatinot brttxchaa of the Wehrmacht in Ger«any. At Poene- 
Bmndo-Oat, oospr^ionalTe teat beda aod work-ahop faellltlea 
were set up for the eonatruetlon aad teating of rocket 
driwea and ocmtrola, whllat at PeeaeaniÄle-Weat «n airfield 
was built for tea ting rooket aircraft^ aad pi lot leas rocket 
propelled aircraft, a« well aa auxiliary drlvea for atendard 
•ireraft, auch aa rocket aaalated take-off devicea» The 
coat of oonstmctlon of the covplete inatallation at Peeae- 
vondo totalled affiproxiaiately 300,000,000 Marka after coe* 
pletien* fbia eloae proximity of the rooket dewelopneat 
work to tho aeronautical development a la one of the prln« 
eipal reaaona for the aueeeaa of the work tmdertakea at 
Fe^^ etBtmdo • 

4» ITbo foUovlng conaideratioiia vera decialve in the 
dioiee of Foenesundo, and theae eosiaideratlona will alwaya 
hm important mhma ohooalng a aita for jacket developaent 
voi%: 

a) Sooluded poaltlon, far away fkwa large towna 
(Safety daring launching, nulaanee cauaed by nolao 
of lorgo teat bade)« 

b) Fawofable weather ooziditloiia (during firing and 
flight trials of rooket and rocket aircraft, blue 
skioa are always dosirablo)» 

o) Heaaonably satlsfaetoiy ooMnmlcationa» The do- 
trolopamit work nooosaitatoa oonstant oloae oon« 
tset between dewelopnent anglneera sM . certain 
branohes of industry« 

0« Ihs snooossAil experinental rooket V^S", 
proTioosly »ontioned« had a Uaroat of 1500 kg* laating-46 
aeoonds» Based on the roaults obtained with tiio rooket. 



248 



th« order was given to develop a lotig dlatance rocket with 
a rang© of 2f>0 km«, bm high an accuracy aa ooaalbla, and a 
warhead weighing 1000 kg, abls rocket, known aa ^A-4" waa 
first launched auccees fully In October 1942. The ''/•4'' haa 
a thrust of 25 tona, for combustion period of 68 »ecoridc 
max. It la flrod verticplly frorrj a firing table, without 
guide a ol any sort, aa wes the case with all tiie prevlcaa 
rockftta. The speerln^r of th<«> rocket to en Inclined noaitlon 
la effected by means of a "pro grämte" apparatus. I'he 
lateral direction la d^^ter^ilned by the exact acttln^j of a 
tupntabla on the firing teble* *ihe exact raiAje is detsrnined 
by shutting off the propulsion unit upon reach In«^ a prev- 
iously calculated speed» 

6. The developmont of the "A-.4" required a greet nuro- 
bor of preliminary scientific investigations, the nost im- 
portant of which are briefly outlined below: 

a) Wind tunnel testa at all ranges of air speeda be- 
tween and 1500 Teeters per second. During these 
teats, auch factors as the atablllty of the rocket, 
the dio tri but ion of the air prespure, the irorkins 
of the rudders and severs! more were Investl plated, 
apart from the drs»«; weasurei^ent!?, both with And 
without exhfiust gas stream. Both the supersonic 
wirKS tunnel and the w©s curing wethods hnd to be 
developed over a period of years of b*rd work. 

b) Teat bed Invest igatlona on the conto nation chamber 

of the rocket, (*r\6 on the eomplrte propulsion unit. 
This too necessitated the development of apprep- 
rlßte test beds and »reüsurlng methods. 

c) Inve8tle;etlon8 connected with the steering of the 
rocket at all rengea of airspeeds covered ^by the 
rocket. For thie purpose, s special technloue of 
modela, reproducing the attitude of the rocket in 
flight, was developed. 

d) Development of »^eftsurlng methods for plottlnsr the 
complete fllpvt p^th of the rocket. 

a) Invastigatlon connected with the influence of the 
exhaust g;as Btr*Gtr on the wireless eoironinlcatlon 

bct^^een rocket ßnc ground, etc. 

7. In view of the increasing strength in t>ie numbers 
of light aircraft in England, end the resulting increased 



249 



loseea of bonbere operating «gftlnst Sngland« orders wero 
k.X'^&a at thtt dM of 1942: to produce ttm ^A^^ rooket In 
q\«aatitle«. Ihe «ccur«cy of «tw wms »till und at is factory, 
aiici liff:ite^ th# uae of tbe recket to large area tarnet», 
fc^^oet of which waa london. Hevortheleaa, aone 60 to 
65, ceo drciwlne modif Icatlcnö wer© required before the fir at 
experlieerital /.Hk rocket becaiue a re&l aerieua product Ian 
Job* This indicates how r^ian:^ absolutely new pi^bleme aroae 
during the. trial« of the. Ä-4, which was subjected to 
hitherto unktiown phj^sical conditions« 

8. Ifeanwhlie, the devolopirent eide was attempting to 
improve the accuracy of airs of the rocket» To this- end, 
radio guide beem devices were developed to ireprove the 

la torsi direct ion, mä improved propulsion unit cut-off 
devices to reduce the dispersion in range« 1'hese improve- 
ments, however, were incorporated operationally on a small 
scale only, and were 5-n use chiefly in the attack on the 
harbour of Antwerp» The original ^jeetive of further de- 
voir prjiant wRs to produce long distance rockets of greater 
rang»» 3[t should be noted here that the maximum ranges up 
to 48G km# were achieved thanks to certain improvements, 
fhich, hdwevsr, hewer came into operatlcmsl use* Certain 
Ä-4 rockets were used to carry out vertical trajectory 
trails^ and a »laxisium ceiling of !?£ km» was reached during 
these trials» 

9. It was plmtmed in the Spring of 1945 to give 
wertic^allj fro» an island situated near Feenemunde a few 
Ä-4 rocket« equipped with special instruments for research 
into tbe top layer of the atmosphere« I'he sieaauring in» 
»trii-nents were sot in a watertight container tsepable of 
floating^ irtiich was to have descanded by pars chute» This 
project, all preparations for which were completed, eould 
not be carried out on account of siilitary eventa» It could 
be done in a short time, howsfwer, with sons of tbe A»4 
roekets still at hand» 

10« 7he probles of Increasing the ran^e of the A*4 
after completion of the A-4 development prograüone could 
only be carried en at a greatly reduced rate» aa the de- 
velopment of a guided anti*alrcraft rocket was given first 
priorit9r tnC absorbed most of the parsonnel. in eonaeeiu«ne« 
of the increaslog air auperiority of tbe Allies« A roeket 
for this purpoae was developed at Peenenmnde» bearing th« 
cod« name 'Wasserfalle« Ihis rocket wss alao propelled by 
liquid ftiel and could be guided by radio from the ground on 
to flying; targets« Various suooessful tssts were deified 



250 



ttut» but ««rioai prodtiotlon of Uui «vapoft wmm 110t ftidii«Y«d» 

11« i furtbtr d«v«lopH«nt af th« A«-4 long dlstanoe 
rook«t U tlM *A*8*, oa whioh «orte «is don« as /Wr m ttm 
priority work on »»»»»orffill*» would allow. Tha propuliloB 
unit WW8 tbw •«!&• «fl for A*4« ?ba A»9 rockot« howovwr, 
b«d wlAga* which «nablad It to glide ttirough tba atrfito* 
aphara* TMa anablad tha flight path to ba ineraaaad to 
sueh an axtaot th«t tha ranga of tha A-e was naarly doubla 
that of tha A«>4^ v«a« approx» Ö00 km», notwithstanding tbm 
fact that tljiO fuel consumption of tha A-9 was no grastar 
than that of tha AHk* dawalopment could not ha eooplatad 
on account of tha and of tha war« Spocial control davicas 
would hava givan tha A-9 at laaat tha aasa accuracy aa tha 
A-4» It iraa proposed that tha waöpon should go into a 
▼artical diva at tha and of tha glide, aiallar to that of 
tha V-i* 

12« As a furthör fiavelopri&itg It waa Intended to da* 
sign tha A-9 winged rocket to carry a craw« For that pur« 
poee, the rocket waa to ba equipped with a retracting under* 
carriage, a presaurisad cabin for tha pilot, manually 
operated sfceorlng gerr for use ^*hen lending, cind aoaclaX 
aarodynamio aids to landing. Iha landing spaed of thla 
piloted A-9 rocköt, would have been as low as 160 Isr per 
hour, aa it would have contained vary Ilttla fual on land- 
ing, end would consequently hav@ been light. 'JThla pilotad 
A-9 rockat would cover a di stance of 600 ka« in approx* 
17 minutes. 

15. Tha rtmge of the A*e, both in tha piloted and tha 
pi lot lass versions, could ba incraased oonaidarably if tha 
propulsion iinit were switched on only after tha rocket had 
obtained a certain initial valoelty. Thar« were two poa- 
Bible ways of achieving this end« 

a) ITee of a long catapult with only a slight gradient, 
which would have given tha rockat an initial ve- 
locity of approx. ö£0 n/aec. !rhara *as experlenaa 
of this type of catapult to hand at Paana^auoda, as 
such a catspult öevelopod by sn irvdustrisl fir» foi 
launching the V-1, waa triad out at FaaAsaunda» 
EjcperJftnca ahowed that catapults could be built foi 
liunchlng at supersonic spaed. These high speeds 
are essential lor rockets such aa A«fc, because tha 
rocket is completely filled with luel st tha start 
wd would not fly if it left the catapult at lower 



3ST 



b) l«velop»ont of a l&rg« A»«lated tak«-ori rocköt 
of 200 tons thrust, on which th© A-9 rocket would 
b« mountcKJ, «nd which wouJd glv« the latttr an 
InltUl ▼elocity of 1200 nwiter« p^r •aeond. Aftar 

tha aos la tad take-off rocket has axhaa&tad Ita 
fual, tha /.-9 wovad baca-ne aapai^atad from It, and 
Its own propulelon imlt would be ffvi Itched q;i. Tha 
r^axlinur? speed of tho A-9 Rt the ond of Ita powar 
drive under these condltiona would be approx. 2800 
-eters per- second, wbloh would maah.that this com- 
binatlon cot'lc5 glv^ the /^«9 a ren^e of epprox. 
500*^ krr., both in the piloted and the pllotless 
wersiona. The large esalsted take-off rocket, 
called »A-IC*, was to be equipped with air brakaa 
and a special perechute, which would have enabled 
it to be used egain after all^^htln^j on water* 

c) It was propoaed to launch the A-©/a*10 con^inatlon 
vertically, thus obviating tho hecessity of erect- 
ing large ground launching devices. 

14. In the more diataat future, the development of 
liquid rockets offer In our opinion the follewlng ppaal* 
bill ties, soire of which are of tremendoua sisniftcance: 

a) DevelopK^nt of lon£ range commercial planes and 
long range bobber» for ultra high epeed». The 
fli^t duration of a fast rocket aircraft going 
frnm Europe to America would be appro» • 40 »inutea« 
It would even be possible to build very Ipng range 
bombers, which would turn round at sup er son Ic 
B]^'eod6 in a very wide curve after having releaaed 
their bombs, and yetum in a glide to land at 
their point of departure. The high speed of euch 
aircraft would make defence against them ineffeetive 
with present day meana. 

b. Conatruction, of multl -stage piloted rocketa, which 
would reach a maximum speed of ever 7500 netera per 
aeeori outside the earth* a atmoaphere» At auch 
apeeda, the rocket would not return to earth, aa 
gravity and centrifugal force would balance each 
other out.. In such a ease, the rooket would fly 
along e gravitational trajectory^ without any power, 
around the earth in the seme way a a tlse moon. Ao- 
cordln^ to the difference of the trajectory fraa ttm 
eei»th, the rocket could complete one circuit around 
the earth in *ny time between 1^ houra and several 



252 



I 



(Ätfiye. 7^<* whnlc of tie '»ftrtv^B »urfr^rf» coulö b* 
con tliiaousljr observdO Iüm^ ouch i« rocke i. i'ba 
ci'tw coalci bo evjuipi ü«J iwltli vcry^ poworivl ttic- 
ttccpee, wrid be sV.l«^ to cbtarve (ivdn 81 41/- object« 
euch no »hliJH, lrab«rr',ö| troop uovurrent»^ cor- 
titructicr.el wor'k, etc» 'iicy cojIc tlao ctirry o\..'t 
pi;/tlcal ftnd «Btroaoir.icol reflearcb on probl«»»» 
vrliJch. coulu only bo tiid:lou «t t>et c.ltJ.tuclc, uuo 
to tho abaence of the «tmofiphorea 'ih« lmport«nc# 
of such «n "obacrvHtlon pletlorw" In tbe •clantlilo, 
economic» ejid military spher«« Ia obvlou«. Wdi^n 
the craw oX tbo rocLet v/i;nt to return to «artb, 
»11 th«y n<i€d do Is to r-«Müaca th« «peed of tha 
rockot BlMitly, r^h.lcb can, bo don« by locket pa^o- 
pulaion« Th« rocket than entera th« uppar layara 
of the Rtmoapbere tan ii^en tic ally, and Itsapoad I0 
gradualJy reduoad by irlctlon* Fii\al2y, It can 
Innd like en ordinary aeroplana by mofina of v/inga 
and auxiliary gaar» It would alao be poaaibla-to 
relieve the crew «nd provision th« "obßorvetlon 
pletfoml by mcftna cf another rookot, i»hijch «ould 
cllptb up to tbe plRtforw find i;ull up beeide it« 

0* Instead cf bavlng a rocket set up as an "obaer» 
vat ion platform^' out* Ida the earth, it would b« 
poöcible later on to build a atetion specially 
for the purpose^ and aend tli« eomponent« up into 
the interstellar epaces by fieans of rockets, to 
be aieetM there« llräe erection ahould bo eaay, 
as the components would have no *«ight in the sta^ 
of free gravitation» The work would be done by 
m@n whc would float in space, wearing diver's suit* 
and iteo could move at will ia apace by means of 
»roll rocket propulsion units, tha nozales of whi«h 
they would point in tli« required dl sect ion. 

di. AceordlÄg to a proposal by tb» OarmaB SeientiBt, 
Prof. Oberth, an observation station of this typa 
eoald be equipped with an enormous mirror, con- 
Elating of a huge net of stael wire onto t^iich 
aatal fc^ils could be suapecded. A Mirror of thl» 
nature could have a dl ameter of many kilometers, 
and its component facets could be centpolled by th* 
ßtftiion wh5,cb would enable the hett «nc light of 
the stia to be concentrated on selected point« of tb# 
®r,rth's eurfaee. Ihls would enable Isrt^a town« for 



253 



Inatance, to jet aunUght during th« ftvanlng hour»» 
!rt}« ire^ther^ tco* c&a b« Influenced by 9f a tee« tie 
ccnc«ntyttlGn of tha sun »a ray a on to dlstAot lako» 
trjd $o»i, «nd Incrdüain^ their evepopatloa» The 

cloud« thuB fon>?ed ooulcVb«» driven to th® required 
spot by influencing th# centree of low «md hlgb. 
preaauro throu^^h raaiÄtion from oüaar facets of the 
mirror. If the ralrror 1« ^cade Iftrg© ano^j^, aad it 
cculd be of ©jrtremely. light Ccjj at ruction, it would 
even appaer possible to genörate deadly degrees of 
heat at certain spots of the earth^a surface. 

e) '-^en the ert of rocket« fs (developed further. It 
will be poEOible to go to other planets, first of 
Sil to the moon. The ? e lent! lie, !•?; port tine© of 
such trips is obvious» In thi3 coonectioa, we see 
possibilities In the eomblaafcion of the work done 
all over the .vorld in connection with the haraes* 
sing of stormlc energy together witih. the develop* 
ment of rock eta, the consequence of which cannot 
jet be fully -pred Ict^» 

15» To conclude,' we think after what boa been said 
above, that a well planned developmont of the art ef rocketa 
will h&ve revoliiti'-nKry conEoouehcea in the scientific and 
military sphere«, as in th^t of clvilisaticaj generally, such 
in the sarse way cs the developTnent of e via t ion hts brought 
revo3u,tion6ry cbances in the last 50 years. A prophecy re- 
garding the döv*5lo;:>»nent of aviation, raade in 18§5, and'oover« 
Ing the ne^t 50 years, sno correspond iii^ to the aetual lacts^ 
would have aproared ßt least as ph&ntastic th^n as does tha 
pr&sent foreceat of the possibilities of rocket development» 
In the ssTiö vey as the dev'*loprient of aviation was not the 
work of a single man, but "oecaT5e possible thanks to the cow 
bln^d exporlencö of many thousands of specialis^ts, ^rtio con- 
centrated e:Kcluaively on this one branch of science for 
year?, so the develcoment of the art of rockets will requirt 
a systematic effort by all specialists who have gained ex* 
periosnce on this subject* 



254 



aftrai«cii-Part»Dicir3hen, Majr 22, IH3 

fhiz^ ttet th« dttT«lopB»ai of th« varioud j«t devie«« «as puralj 
«eoi^iataX aflä vbl«h«T«r rut (Rille) th^ poopl« ;T&re In thay follovvd •« 
a Uoittd €^$Ht%k99* At Argns thare «as Dr. Gosslau (whoa Prof* Braua know) 
«^ «Ml aa i&iättaatiUl parson (Argus is airplane ai^ine faotorar) Br« !3o««1mi 
liad largo staff «C oollaborattars whoa Prof. Braun doos not know. 

Qb tlio t«lt itaai Prof. Brata has soon oalj ojoa Intonoittant meiner 
( »^Bort). 

SolaUit (iriMi Br««i IcDOve) clalaod that a fViol eansuaptioA of 0.6 gr/2^ z SM« 
oo«Lli te obt&imi with gasolioo as far as 3raun ronoaibor». 
(Deflnltiom ABBmLlkLy lino « UontagebanJ:. Those nmj bo of tha t^^ 
«Taktstra»s#% er »Tliossb&ad» f cr scall parts, awS «Ifiufendes Baud«* for 
largtf pasrfed)« 

Does not know If 1^ of forts to acshiovo greater range were/ iiiöd oü tiM 
basis of groator ftiol ooonoaay or on the basis of hiillrtlng Lur^er unit» ««< 
bettor dosifA« 

0» aorod««ts «indttuanol ©xperlnonts were Bade,but ^othlr^J w^s bj vv;vH«i 
to a praotl«aI ooneltialon« 

Ii«i80Kft»erg «erksd <m th» chain roaoUon proUom for U;^^. (In Bs rlia • 
DÄhl«). (mtrnm mn Hoisenborg in 19^2 dio last tin©) 

Thinks tauKi «^i^l» as a aonopropollant «ao nwfor ustd ia asay practltii 

Stit«0 «tel €: . ^t«ralttsat duot wtors, in spit« of th»lr iatportanos 
mf MLatilpaf »iglMtei. 

255 



It di* nvvw lern up bemuse It dM vx^t gat cold until filling bugat^ «nA 
then luiO. a lui^ vttfit plj^ t-o atnor.nhnro. A, iiere wn» e preo *'*re in i-J» Oa 
UaiL dcxine flU-«»^^, no mois-.ure coulf' g«t ia. The riek hc*reTt>r vas «ozn« 
In wet «eetber« Tib» rent yalve wae »ade to aerre two functloaa, it could ^ 
held »hut bx m» ^t would also act as a ralief yalre or>«nlng and »nuttlni U 
preserve a pre»»i«re of not more than two a trnoapherea . It did thia after 
3r«na«chluee oeeeuse they wanted to 'P?»intnrn a pare» «uro in the tarJf baoau«« ii 
was not strta^^^ saoagh to withstaad aa exoeso preelpro fx*om outsida du<j t« tte 
dynaalo h©»^ Trom the Telocity, V 

He iiüd .*»ea teld that he was nad to try tofise Rubber or Buna buL no 
proved that *he B»na Ptood up well to tiie low temperature« 

TAguür 

4^»d aiK^ut "^M e«pty weight and ^el carried^ won liraun aüciiod vary 
va^^u» ♦.4 as-ic ti»t the original epecificatloa called for a thruat of 900 
kilo and aa a«cel«^tion at start of COg, The^ had obtal<iid m 'Mr ail of 600 
to 650 kilo vvai a» aec, of 60g, He thcujh the all «q? woight was 13 kilo aai 
the «00. ik% »lieapt 35g and at all b»rr,t (yC^g, Then sho»-n thy Cocb. Cli^v^bex ImA. 
he did not reeos^alae it and said thit it did not rapretent an opera tioaaX mmi 
but »a» pro^»b2y- amde by th<> order of one of hi a aesist&ntc ^jhc had li]>ftrty 
to eixperlMaA» flie ring did net go in th^ Co^b, Chamber but tranaferrei tM 
thrust to tiM» I^J«eUX»« Be knew that TalthuT uaed targets but did im% lik» 
th«a. V 

DiJMuasJUss I* ♦ he ag reed that he oorii&ll.T used 250 ons or 100** and «^vmA 
that th« L * roar fADTOÄ was wery bi^bII i.e. about 30". They accopted a Im 
S.I, tft get -»«ox?« TOO« for the fuel tanks» Vaifma probably oaly-produc»» 160 S«Z« 
Yen aräim s*JU 4'nat given ccarect iiixing at the introductioa of th9 fuoJI^f tko 
roet or tfae'iTop^ olwmher did not mattw noich* 

At H e li^larg a r^ ■nit<f the failure» wez^ due to t.i# Troop» • .He wae there i^bam 
dn» t« a teBtdtf eXeefcrie eonneetion, Brennaehlu»» took place very f^erly and tfe« 
rodtei <|uid^ faU to ecrtb* Itost took the right direction but* •ojtm failed t» 
bend tholr ta^J. »rv aud wat stirai^t up. The W.H. did not explode In sooii 
easa» e« it ^äü acifc yet araed but it wäl likely to go off due to heat of tl» 
flra aftar half as hour on the grouisd. 

tlia tm %ta0t en eotreot inpaot were due to the itach wave. 



256 



Kft^us V. Brtun, Diplom« Engineer« 

Oa th« 10th of Itoy 1919, I was born In Or«lf«w«ld (Poa-narn) 
«a th» son of th« goTernment president Magnus Pr«lharr V« Braim 
«ad hla EBBBy (»««) Qulatorp« 

i ep«nt aqr youth In Berlin where I attended the Prep School 
«id the Govemiaent French High School until Äester 1934. Finally, 
I went to the Horaian Llete School in Spiekeroog, Kordaee, an 
agrieultural bearding school where I pasaed wkj final examination 
Eaater 1937. 

After the perfoming of labor aervice, Z began »t the 
Hunloh Teobnlcal High School in the fall t>f 1957, with at\2die8 
of ehealatry, especially organic chemistry. After the con- 
«luaion of the t tudiea for which I received the title of Ei- 
pl^BM-Engineer, I became the aaslstant in Organic Chemiatry 
with Prof. Hana Piacher (Mobel Priie winner in cheaiatxy) for 
J year tan til I waa called up to the Air Force in October 1949« 
After the eowpletlon of flying training and a abort «tay aa a 
flight inatruetor, I cane to the Heiaat Artillery Pax*: II, 
Karl«hag«a in July 1945. In XirlahagMi, I worked with Diploma 
Chewiat, Heller, aa a teat bend eheniat mi the aubjeet of 
hypergolle fuela for the new development "Waaaerfall" in con- 
junction with the I.O. Farben Induatrle, Ludwigahafen (Dr. 
Bauaaman). M October 1945, my brother Prof. Dr. V. Braun 
requeated me to work aa hla peraonal aaalatant« 

Signed I Mayav« V. Braun 

2S7 



MSMUUNDUat iKTiORVIEW »VKH HICF. m. TliEODCR DUCIiHOID, 

ammt. jN». SAlC/6, X3 AprU 1945 far wttat of prtllninAry lnt«Togatioa« 

Dr« Boehhold «as «&n«d to Podiwaauadt in 1939 ftloag idth th« ftoUowlt^ ptriMMli 
i^rof, Busoh» laootro-toohnlaohno» Darmtadt 
Frof, ml«h«jr» üath., Darmstadt, 
Prof. lagftWj Phgra, Chfs»,» DawMtadt, 
Prof. Houtar« l^lo^tro-Iüoh. (Uoasxirananta), Dazvatadt. 
Arof. BXaM» JiMh«» Dara8ta<H 
Prof, Thus» üaoliina Toola» Danaatadt 
Pl^. HSolMim, Sohinaohatroa Taohnlk» Draadan 
Prof. StaaUaia, « " , Barlln (oow daoaasad) 

Prof. FaaaWnter • » , Barlln 

l^raäf. Haidateii^ ttaefaioan Slaosanta, Draadaa 

(«alHann, 3tu«bl«ia, uod Faaabandar also ara oonaldarad to ba apaelallats 
InFamMiXAa ladiaik.). 

During tha aaaUiic ihas« aolantlata were told about tha larga aoala daralopMiiti 
in roekat-propalled idsailaa and wora givan apaoifio aaeigiiBaata. At that tina^ 
Dr. Staiuhcf ^ris tha individual at PaenaiauiMla in ol^i^ of all of tha alaotrloal 
control and ndsir lila Dr» Friedrichs was In charga of doTaXopaant of iha ataagrli^ 
controla (but «}ot of the Br^nnschluas control) Dr. Ing. Kirchs tain was at that 
tiBo «orkln^ ?it|i Faaabandar in Barlia« whara ha baoama assooiatad with da^loT«aat 
of tha it/T Bi-a w n ffiah Tuae aquif»ant« Ha la tar waa oallad to Paanavunda and pat la 
charge of all t^paa of Brannachlusa control. Mantion also was oada of Dir« tMal^ 
in ohar^ of all a^aaioal work at Paanaounda. Ha waa killad in ona of tk« aa^ljr 
boaihiqga* 

Dr« lag* Bnc rhhal oi aagrs that ha want to Paanamnda about thraa Unas a yaar on th« 
awvraga» Ha was giwm &a his assigisoents tha problas of doToIoping a fraqoaaay 
ragnlatiiv darvlaa for tha sotor generators which were to im usad to aupply 
500 «qpa ao to Um alaatrieal control aquipaant» and tha problaa of fixvlii^ a 
satiaftetcvy aathod for aaaaurii« ths Talooitj of tha aisaila in order to datandaa 
Hm corraot tim for ahuttiqg off tha jet (Braanaohlusa) • 



Ibm anfajaat was tiaikaA to draw a akatoh of tha circuit aoploTad in this darlM« 
Eia oireult «al «aqplaaation was aubatantially tha sana as that giwaa la r^art^ 
RAM ■»• A' Igr 0* S» BadaoB. Further questioning brought out the fact that tha 
■D-aatal aatorsÜla taaetora ware usad bacausa that t^pa was already avat labia froa 
woak oa paakiqg ^rauita. two raaotors in »«sciw were usad in order to aaaaal tha 
me oolti^aa whiali tatm Induead io tb» do eiroxaita. Die faailiar "thraa^laggad" tgrp* 
of eon aU h ie t i oa aaa not usad beoauaa of exoaaaioe leakaga. Iha raaetoa wara 
aaaofaettpaA %^ Bvaoa of Baaaa. 



iMa proj#0t waa tagasdad as of rarj great iaportanoa« Fira diffaras^ iaatitutlona 
wara at aesric aa it alaqg diffarant liaaa. 

Prof, FaMbandar^ Inst* fur Sohwii^uz^a Foraehuqg» Barlinp «as worldag aa a 
V/f aolutlo» (fardapplar) which was tha first control aotuaUj oaad. 



258 



Kr*ls»l Gt»«at«, B«rlln, dowloped th'.' cjrro»coplc typ» of Integrating 
aoooleroiMitcr« 

Frof • BuobholAf "feh» Hoohsohul»« Dftmitadt» was worklr« on an «Itotrolgrtla 
Inttgrating ao«alav«att«r. 

i'rof, HutMPi Iteoh« Hooh, DarmsUd|^f WAf alto working on an Intngratlng 
aooalaroMtar 

rinsa Ott» Kanpt^a In BaTarla, Typa of control not apaoifiad. 

ttia V/7 «aa aatlafaatorr, but complioatad and known to ba vtOnerabla t^ oounLaar 
taa&suraa, Coiis«<JtiwnUy oon«ldorabl« preaaura waa put on tha aooalaroiaatar möthoda» 
Dr. BuchlAoXd<a acntarel was eomplotad at about the same tloa aa tha Kraiaal Qaral« 
but waa not adopted laaidlataly bacauaa it aaployad oloctronic ralwa which wara 
in abort auppljr, (Ona and one-half to two year» ago). However the fact that it iu» 
conaiderably isore ae«itrata than the gyroscopic type (approx. one part p^r thou* aa 
ooBqpared to fiw parte per thou, according to aubjaot) lead to ita beii^ put into 
production about one year ago. Subject aa^ he Is certain that the controla haw9 
baaa ■anufaotared .hut canrjot aay whethor or not they have buen uaad operationaligr» 
'Am deriae waa dirldad into two parta for Banufacturing, namely tha Maaakopf 
(aooaleratlon aeaanring inatruiaent) and the Netatoil (electronic circuita). fb» 
faraer wa» aanafaetwpik! by Plrraa Stota in Kberbach and waa to be aade in larger 
quaatltgr by Slemana^ Vienna« THe latter waa given to Lorena of Berlin, and waa 
paaaad on by 6ben ta Pulanits near TTreeden« 

B» syatam deviaad ly Dr, Buohhold conaiata of an ao bridge which ia unbalanoed 
by a copper van« «mmtm^ on a pivot in such a way that rotational torque ia 
produced by aoeelenition« ihe output of the brid^je ia aniFlifled by a coAventlonal 
aoQpt of valve as^^li/ier «mo then rectified by a copper-oxide bridge, ihe 
rectified outputt «»xrrant ia paaaad through an integrating cell (electrolytic) eaA 
also through tha eail of a torque aaotor on the chaf t of the integration inaimaent, 
Thia latter ooiiöe«tion Is' in «le nature of a feedback circuit which improve the 
accuracy of the devlaa. The electrolytic cell operatea in the followii^ wayj Whea 
the curreaty whi^ ia proportional to acceleration is passed through the cell It 
tranafera ailvar «feliwpide from one electrode to the othar at a rate which accurately 
«Njrreaponda to the aagnltude of the current, mien the chloride 1« entirely 
reooved fro« the eathode, a sudden chPi^© In voltage across the cell occura whloh, 
acting tiarough a aaeond valve, actuates a relay ane shut» off the Jet. A circuit 
diagram la ahowa ia Ref. S&1C/6 and a mechanical aketch of the Meaakopf made by 
the aubjaat la attaabtd« 

Coapanaatlon fey mwam 

Tim preaant tgnpa of «eealaration integratora oan be aade to give an anawer whicto 
la aaaantially 

TaV-^kt 
Plrof . either ia mtppoaed to have nada extenaiv» caleulAtiona on trajootorita of 
thia ro€k9t and to hmm prepared flrii« tablea fron which the value of "T la 
dataraiaad. 

Tha aubjaot atatod fMt m atill aora aoourato way of eoapanaaU^ for tha affaat 
of other faotooM Ih^ ^looitgr on range had baaa oontenplated. Thia idea involvad 
tha ua« «f two latap ?iioB aooalaroaetera mounted on a atabiliaod platfona ia auch 
a way aa to aaaaura * s v^rUcal and horiaontal ooapounda of valooity. Za thia 
^aa» tha BraaBMli3& . to ba dataininiid by tha oorreot value of _ 

where m baUava thut a ia tha diataaoa along tha path. 

259 



Sil»« iilm ccsailatioa of this davlc«, the s\ibj©öt hßs been working with Dipl, Ii^« 
Mullar of Goteiihö:fea (for about aix months ai^rway) on th9 tevelopiBent of « 
frequency regulates? tor the current supply on torpedoes, IMs was almost 
idenUcal with that for the A-4 rocket, he «ays. In addition, and thie 1« belie^vd 
to have boen hie leajor effort, he haa bees working on a regulating device to 
maintain cor/.^Unt field strength on the magnets of the cyclotron at the Kftleer 
WilheliB Inst, at Eeidelburg, Prof. Bothe and his assistant did nost of the work 
at the Inatitute, and the subject claims that he was only consulted in oonneotion 
with the regulating derioe, and does not know what experiments were being carrlid 
©n. He was only there twice, he says. Before his device was finished his labor« twry 
was destjroyed, ia^ the device was never used. He b<jliev©d, .however that there were 
•eiveral other trouble« with the cyclotron, and that satisfactory operation was not 
obtained« 



260 



MEaCRANDüMi PUÄ'IHBE INIKmüGATION QF PROF. BÜCHHOIi) 21 April 19ii5. 

Additional question^ wer© ask^d of Prof, Buchhold to dear tip certain point» 
ftroa th« prrrloas interrogation« 

1^ radio mothod of range control was worked out by Prof, WOUIAI^* 
Prof« HUSTIS and Prof, faaabeader were working on method« that did not differ 
■uoli« The prizioiple used waa qoupled tuned olrcuits 'srl'tti and iron weight that is 
moved ay the «ooeleration. Motion change« the frequency, iJie frequency ia 
integrated by a motor irtiich gears to the ▼elooity indicating device, 

ftrof, OTi was working ^m a mai^wd tiai!^ a weight awi spring. The weight carried 
A di»e ihtagrat<»p which bore against a dla« which rotated at constant velocity. The 
integrating disc bore against the driver disc at a radius deterrainad by the acäoler-^ 
atioa. Revolution» of the integrating disc were counted to giv« velocity , 

Subject was questioned further aoout the proposed improvements in his systoa 
with the eleotrolyü« «ell. First improvoaent mentioned was the addition of a 
second winding to tl» ooil of the Mosskopf , This second wincUng was to carry a 
constant current to o&noel out the effect of gravity. Turning the current orf 
permitted the devio« t© be dallbrated by gravity, as the missile turna during 
flight, gravity eannot always be cancelled unless the Messkopf is on a gyro stabillaed 
platfMflB, The next improvement contemplated but not carried out n&a to mount two 
Itosskopf t» oa a gyro stabilised-platform. Gravity is perfectly cancelled out In 
•aoh. The axis of the two «re not vertical however. One is at what he celled 
angle alpha. This measurts the total velocity of this direction. The other is at 
aa «ngl« neared the vertical which he called epsl3on. Double integration of this 
M«8«kopf output gives distance travelled in that direction. The double integration 
■ay b« performed either by k capacitor - resistor circuit and another electronic 
valve added to the circuit ^a previously gav«, or by adding a circuit using two 
•lectrolytlo oells back to back with a reversing circuit to change the direction 
of current flow «ach tim« the «nd point of either cell is reached, ihe finite 
delta V»s are counted and give the doubl« integral or distance to a close 
•pproxlaation. Prof* mlthar apparently worked out th« optimum angles alpha and 
«p«lIoa t« giv« best measurement of th« four coordinates affecting range, namely 
th« two eoordlnat«« of position and the two components of velocity at arennsohluss. 
They were ai^)arent3y chosen to giv» the best cancellation of small error» possibl« 
with two Uesskopf <« instead of four. In aumrüÄry then, arhat is measured' and mad« i 
to operate the final electrolyiiic cell which controls Brennschluss Is 
^alpha P^ ® %p3llon» "^^^^ ^ *^* ^""P*' constant, 

Sabjdot worked at Brown-üoveri before 1934, on electric railways for Bavaria, 
Stuttgart, oto. In 1934-9 he taught at Dw^stadt and ?/roto books »♦Elektrisch« 
Kraftwerk« vaA Mstsd"» 



261 



Dr« laic» UMBRICH 

'^3pioy«d uikUl rtcantl^ as leador of the dovelopaiönt depirtment WCL-O (WaffÄn Konßtnlk>i 
lion lAil't) en w»apcm' for ttso «gainst 8«a targeta - at Rholnn» tall-Bora ig, Marlanftldt, 
d!«riln, i}äBörtod r^conily to Allies w5 i.h I.U aaaistant olnoo he thlnka it seneelaa« 
vo fijh^ Oil. !Tor'<:* 1^ prlw-rlly on foliaiwlne prcjocta» 

"^* i>B HOP 1Ü» (cQi3 iia2>3 "Kiirt") - a woajxjn agaiixst öea tart^dta (proferably not on 
hi^h doao) Shi .J i. 1.,!*,^ w^Ur«, "'«■ctt ^atos otc Concists of anbrtriofll boiub^ 
ßvcel c-aalf.^ IC r:: \Mnk, sphere fUHm<^l/»r 75 en, filling w^di^-jht 300 i^j of H.ril« 
icoiapo3l+>ioü Tifr 50 J WJTjp^ iS. 20), Rock^at attachment as tail unit, vary 
sisilar In aiae s.nd cone traction to theit used on PC 1000 RS (known) liomb, Solid 
f*-*l lücka.., tliri:^t 12^0 Ic^i see, wtart« 0,6 sqcb after dropping, burn« for 1.8 ■•«•« 
After buniiiiä finislHy^, rocket tail unit jel.tiBon, bcmb continues aa in akip bonbing* 
aoMb toatad at LPbp uxiü ?ravc»imde, laroppod from Me 109, height 25»30 met«r«, at 
rsnge of e,g, k^ kja XVom eliJ.p and speed of 250 krn/hr. I'ound that if rocket tall 
«ait eould be tii.xd doKjawarcIs aiiglo of Sjmpact on sea could he reduced from 5^ to 
2 « 'Xhlu »eaiii. ti*t.i, u ^yi-o lit.''! ix "ho uoed, Pow<?er-drivon gyro employed • roaches 
10»i2CXX) rp3i in .},^ r-i-jcr, Ta^'o 1.^- T,ojfn\-J, Dresden. 

Bcaab has two hycii»o^< L&tic fuase rnnr.lri;^ towards center anci. one time fuze, I^droetatle 
iU2© Operating dopth tn approK. 3 ».olors. 

2« R 100 ^S - dov-;li:.wioiit cf R 100 f', sine? It hat? boen decided that blast effeet 
of thin oaaec H.i",, .'.uj'u'.rtd 1h not >3tifficient to bring down enough bcmbera ia • 
foruatlou« 

flS 460 Brandsplitiey of 55 g. each (th cylinders, length 1.54 diaa.) Oaleulattd 

to haire aufficiont e lep^jy \o p^ne träte fuel tanks and thus set aircraft on fire« 
Burniiig tliae of each ivjÄ^^ndiary la 0,8 sees (fuaing time?) 

E 100 BS wlgbM 100 kg. Used from fighters. (Calibre 21 am, length about 1.8 ■) 
Veloci^ of rockst &t noBisnt of disruption - about 500 m/sec, 

Lauziohiiig rail for K 100 B£ • length approx 5 om. Fin atabllized rocket. 

Rooket oa R 100 BS • thruct 4P00 Kg sec, burning tine 0,9 «ec, range 1500 m. but 
nonailly for special Oberon Verfahien about 1200 m. 

Intended to use 4 x; K 100 BS on Vjd 262. 

3. Ctoeron Verf aba^ejp . 

* 

For use with K 100 3S. Corjponents - Fua 217 or 21S (depeiyJing on eirenlabllitgr) 
E242 • gyr© gunsl^ht made by Askunia, Friedenau. Slf e - an "ijtpuiegeber" (by 
Sieaene, «emwöi-k) , An'Jioll'J/intel.irar - altiiivle an;:; la (by Zaisa Ikon, Dresden) 
Oberon ühr - cloebTork device (1^ Goesty, Vienna). JG7 at Lechfeld about 4 weeks ago 
wars thinking of larj-li-^ out R 100 B3 without Oberon. 

Lasibricb 4 jveeki a^o vi^s told U> be generally reapouaible for putting into operation« 

itrado developed U^e Idäa. but didu*t push on with it. 



1. TkC 217 OB! 218 feeds range oontinuously into Slfe. 

2. Slfe «Implies iapvlt^ triien prMet dittAnoe it rea(^ed. This goes to 

262 



3* Oberon Uhr, «hloH € tarts* ht eoocnd dlstanoe proaet on iliVo seoorjd Avpul:^«» 
g09« from Äife t© ObaroB Uh« whlnh then revorn«« until rw'inhos flrlry/ fi#i*:t!n'^, 

Aiiß weil.v.I.iikMlt;ftV^r "• wacJi feed ^hülr vuluo in'jo c^ioaJiAtJiri^,, i>jch. of o'ciook. 
Third vulva • Tub« eeifcing - fed into oäIo. ixjch by piiota uecthi^, 

IiBj.a.l«(» 3fti,vt IroBi clock oporat-eß relny to fir« «heil, 2 rocKo ta firo'l ;i ; ^rM?«f 

ftQCOIkd« 



263 



9f^ 





264 




.r _.i 




265 



Dipl* Ing» Jöaef Böhm. 

PTaonal I>ata > 

X, Jo««f BohKi, was born on Aiigust 7, 1908 1a IBkiterhiitaMl 
no&r Steyr» Uppar JkvmtviA, as son of ths coraserolal «oiploy»*» 
Jos of Böhm and his vlfo Maria« noo Valtor» 0& S^ptombor 1^, 
1941, I married Iron« Arnold« Ths first child, ülrlko, «as 
bom In Swlnsmunds on Juno 15, 1945* IQr wlfo «as oacpoctlag 
another ohlld In Ubj 1945* Her last residence «as Treba lo. 
49 near Blelcherode/Sudhars (Thixrlngla) at «the home of Herrn 
Herman Wlegand* i^ parents live In Broz, Am Pressfeld Ke» 
17 In Korthem Boheoila. 
Education « 

After attending the public aehool In Steyr and the Staats- 
saberrealgyKnaslua In Bruz (Diploma 1928), I began stxidylng 
general machine construction at the Tecimlcal High School, 
Dresden« I completed my stiidles by passing the final diploma 
ejcamlnatlon 6 February 1935. My main subject «as that of 
gearing tedinlques, especially In the research of Intermit- 
tently «oziElng transmissions« 
Industrial Occupation « 

Already during my studies (lesTs of absence) X «oxiced for 
several firms as a fitter, assembler, draftsman sad desl^oier« 
Furthermor«, I siaperrlsed the erection of Industrial trial 
models or patterns IsvwKted by me on «hleh patents are peaäing« 



267 



put! eg at the High Sidiool « 

Wrcm February 1Ö35 till Havembor 1959, I worked as as- 
sist ant. to Prof« Dr» H. Alt In th« braaeh for gearing tsch* 
nlqi£»s at ths T^efanlcal High School, Dresden* 1!here, I 
picked tqp a vast amount of special knowledge and Infotrmatlon 
emicemlng the newest methods for ascertaining gear couplings« 
Duties at the Slektromechanlsehen Werke« Karlshaigen * 

In lovfiBber 1939^ I was ordered to the Heeresversucha- 
anstalt, Pe«EiflaBTUid# • At first, I took over the designing of 
testing devices • lAter, I was put In charge of tht designing 
office in the section for electro-technical apparatus under 
the leadership of Dr. Steinhoff • 

Signed] Dipl* Ing* J* Bohn* 



268 



Josqf BöhmM Dipl«- la^ 

Worked on the Mounting of the control device» in the A4, «e 
well as the mounting of the graphite rudderi. Made the vib- 
ration safeboxe» for the transport of all of the electrical 
apparatus. The instruments were mounted on two big wooden 
boards (Holzkreuz) with the idea in mind of having all inatru»' 
ments readily accessible and readily exchangeable« 

Before coming to Peenemünde M. Böhm built packing machines 
for dried soups, conserves tins etc. 



269 



k 



IKTJ-IBRGGATIOH OF BRING3R 

BXt H.A«Iüebliafsky, G.T. Gollen, J, Iball^ at Ganaisch 

BÄi^ö5Di 22 May 1945« 

Worked on Wasserfall • 

Tanks laade of 4% chrome steel, 

Luftwaffe Ho« 1604 model - layout telowi 




2hey aimed at getting Wasserfall good for storage for 1/2 year 

l>efopt» firing, 

Every Wasserfall shot had the central pipe duct through the tanks» 



270 



Koarad Dannenberg attended a teohnioal sohool in Hanovor, 
tvhero he toolc his degree. He left sohool in 19i>8, and heoame 
assistant to i?rof« lleTOnann at Hanover. He was in the ^irmy 
from Aug 1939 to Oot 1940, after i^ioh he was chief designer 
at Peenesundja - 

While there J)annenl5erg "worked in on A-Ö, and A-6 oom- 
hustion ohamherSj hut the majority of his work was on the A-4. 
He knows praotioally nothing of »msserfall orTaifiin. 

He stated that he did not know the'oause of airbnrsts. 
Dannenherg said that the 08 Steam Heat Exchange was designeji 
hy "Bedurjftig" » and further stated that the reduoing valve 
Wots heated to avoid oooling due to the expansion of the xf2. 



Interviewed 19 iiay 1945 



271 



Chimf Englft««r, Dipl. Ing. Konrad Danntnberg, 16 May 1945 

I w«8 bom August 5, 1912 in W«it««nf«l» ••(!• S««l«, 

tha 80Q of th« postal Inap^ctor Hermann Dannanbarg and hia 

wife Klara Dannanbarg (bom Kit tier) • 

Couree of education : 

April 1918 - April 1922 — Public School Hannover» 

April 1922 - lüareh 1931 — Luther secondary school for hi^er 

education (prep school) Hannover* 
Orede of final examination ^Oood". 

April 1931 - October 1937 -« Technical High School, Hannover, 

specializing in the field of general 
machine construction. These for 
which diplwna was granted: "Ato- 
miEing the stream and preparing 
fuels for the process of combustion 
in an engine* Grade for final 
examination '*I/istlnguished'** 

October 1937 - Mar eh 1939 -- Asaistant to Professor for com- 
bustion power engines. Professor 
tT» Ing* Keuman at the Technical 
High School, Hannover« Worked on 
liquid Propane, Butane, etc« in con- 
junction with Deurag, Misburg« 



272 



March 1Ö3S - Auj,u3t V}'69 — /_M#"ull?!..; ,1-cturas ana pv<... llM,'. 

at the Jobann Woli'j*>ri^ vocftiie UrJl- 
vcrilty with tha intention nt t«- 
coming a Doctor of Pol. l.conomy. 
^'Till© studying, I we« also working 
St th® \/X'0*T« Chora ©t^^r i\G, wh«) 6 I 
v/ork«d BS t«chnlc«l a«a5 8tant In 
tha a&les dep«rtn®nt* 
S«pt^ber 1939 - Saptember 1940 — Draft«a Into W«brm«cht. 

October 1940 Moved job for VEO-T»rhr.>f^e frer AG, 

shortly thereafter on duty »tatua 
to Army Exp^rlrr^ntal *^tatlon, 
P@ an ©munde. 
Previous work in the field of "H ", 

Enthused by the Opel-Viiiier experlTantel trip« (1929) on 
the railroad line Hannover - Burgdorf, X decided to join Eng. 
Albert Puellenberg who wes ©Iready working in that field. Our 
work w«s done in our free time in the Hannover work shops and 
later carried out at the **Rakentenaugi)l©te (Bocket Airfield) 
Vahrenwalder-Helde", but really effective development» could 
-not be carried out since tbe ©mount of money on hand did not 
allow MB to go spending it on » large scale for such work. E«- 
peclally difficult to obtain w®r® the necessßsry amount« of oxy- 
gen and the suitable materi»! a® well as the use of asms. A 
apecial success was the presence at DVL Air Kxhibltiosi st 
Hannover where the 5-to-te«tlng stand was shown as it was later 



273 



.^ratröct^ «t th© ?,ock3t Airilälö.^ Th® best p^tatwmce wag 
&^%mw%ä with a atsbl« asraB, locket which to 1934 p®®cb«d a^i 
slttt^i!® ©r r.^arly lOOO i!»®t®fii« Thm plmskeä paraehute lanäling 

Bmemnm ©f i-^s^as VEK^mown to m®» «11 ¥oxk was stoppod by 
tli® IKCiaF Clasi Itoty) i® 193Vl®SS, Stog. P«Äll«ib©rg went t© 
Bi'WB^g «^^^ ha cforrieS ©iß vitli bis work with a «aaai group &f 



sppliieatiojis foi» s®r^ieii witfe*e«¥*P* @«si@ througb ähö I waa aa- 
a^@rlJite»4<»t t@r thm dav@lojpsiaiit of power imlta» 
te «irk mm sp#eiallat for ofadbuatioB quoationa 
witli M.pl« m^.m H®11@F^ J'o^mthmr» wo da^alopaö tha atosisixig 
ms^mtmm Hir tisa msaiatad t&%®»off ääirioaa 3-7 and B»8 aa wkU aa 
tlaa lg 4«^ta«'m^mkmlsm^ mm tmv®mmnm!p to ^m äavalopB^it of ttaa 
»-t®-oiF®ia* M fetmt ti^^^ ttoa following war« workii^ In coa» 

ly Tmnsf t#iiefe^r f^^f., Br^ mg* Mummk of tb« Taehnioal 



mBBlmtmntm f^pon ttoa faebnieal Eigh Sobool 



l0 Unäanbarg^ Pr» Img« Marts* 

Siiie# Bipl« €^«m0 Ballar bagan apaoia Using mora and «ora 
OD f^irii «is^gstiona^ I took ovar^ aftar a abort tiaa« tha fiald 
ot ^«Baliaaltasr* (E-otanka) a^aalf«» and da^alopad at tba tast 

baiB^ im. I^mmmmtm^ff m aariaa of SII«to<>K-emtainara wMisb want 
int# «la« @a.. t|g# il«4* 



174 



C©ul4 not go .to «xt«n»iv« troubl-s to öevelo;^ t- jirst i''.o- 
pulffiio^ \mit «ultftbl« for masa production bectu^© of tlri® mtü 
laeklisg ®»p«clty of work »hop» and tsstlM^ bench«»©. 'Ihe coeI" 
tinuation of d»irelopm»nt» wer» don» irainly by th® Tecbnic«! 
High Sd^oola, Dre»<2»Ki|, Prof. Dr* Ing. P«v»r with »«fociat»» 
a» atet«d abov» and by tb» Teehnioal High School, Berlin, 
Prof» tr« I»g« Beck «dth »«varal associates« 

Wh®n th© A-4 went Into e^riea proißuctionj, I was trans- 
ferred to the praparation of call» and anginas for th® A «•4» 
As a result of mj axparianee, I wa% ab la to ba of great as» 
aistanoa to my co^norker», £^« Sehulse and Eng« Zoike. 

Aa rapraaont&tlte of the director for developraent and 
eonstruetion, I undertook the post of chief conatruetor be- 
aidea similar work attending to the project department under 
its director, Dipl. E^» Both, th» static» department under 
Dr» Eng« Raithel, aa well as the e^^periaental department under 
Dr. Eng. Bomachauer. Constructional work groups were also 
conducted tif Bng. Schulde for A-4, by Eng. Patt for "Wasserfall* 
and by Dipl. Eäig. Schienfeien for "Taifun** All question» of 
fuel were delegated to Dipl. Chsm. Heller and problems of the 
testing of material® to Dr. Ing. Stenser, in close cooperation 
with German industry and various hig|i schools. For problems 
of representation, the graphiat, de Seek with a team of out- 
standing artists and technicians was at our disposal» 

For the specific problems, a woJ*:ing group or other com- 
posite team ktiew the best prelteinary conditions, as through 
the long year» of experience of the leading co»workers and 



275 



Um Itmj^ -jmrs cf «xp#ri#iie« of th« l€i«ding c^«ircrke,ra ^vA their 
iate;€»t In th« «ork a* m^U &a their lov« tor tls© subject- The 
b^ct -mnl-'ii^ cn^iuitlcnB t»er#> crent^d. On tbi« besls, t^e t©ch- 
aScItrB ^.mn hm eonsläsrs^ &b th« baat «xpgrts ir th«ir o^ field 

©f UreTlt. 



Signed: Konrad Dmnucnberg, 



2ri> 



Interrogation of I)-. Phjo, i.'.J.IU i;\;.l), J 3 Maj 19'+5i l^J "^r. R.'w. Port«p 
and J^/Lt, Stokes, at i'artenklrchan. 

Dr. David came to Karlsha^tin about 7 J'lnuary 19^.^' at wiilch tlae prelim« 
lu.xry Inveütlgatlons on Wasaerfall wete Just afcartino;. At Xlä this time 
the effect of Allied eIt' attaclca was becoming increasingly important, and 
a frantic effort waa being made to find crfective counter meaau es» ihe 
Waanerfall was an attempt to apply the techniquoü of the A 4 tp this problem. 

At about the time Dr. David cqme to K; rlahagcn, hi» father was arretted 
and eventually put to death for «xp esGing critical opinions« Conseqmently 
Dr. David was not particularly concerned about the success of the pro;)ect. 
He felt that it did not appear to be proaiXsinc anyhow because he did not 
believs it oould be completed in time. They were ordered to adopt existing 
devices such as standard aircraft gyroscopes, the A-4 Kischgcrät, and the 
A-^ rudder servo mechanism, and the remote control of the existing Sehlger^t 
(used on Ha 295») Most of the equipment was not ideally suited to the .Vasser- 
fall application, particularly the servo mechanism which Dr. David says was 
not fast enough or powerful enough to follow the rapid iffitkyi motions 
required» 

A number of rockets were fired with remote c -ntrol but none using a 
target. According to Dr. David, the joystick control w s used simply to 

jst whether or not the socket could be made to follow a p escribed course 
with ¥lBitfH[ observation« 

Dr. Slfers was the nan, ac-ording to Dr. David, who was largely resp- 
onsible for- the servo control and overall stability problems at '.Tasserfall. 

The special work of Dr. David was the design of an electrical model of 
the control system for Wasserfall» The differential equations on r/hich this 
model was based are giwen in Pig', 1. Using this model, ^>hich v/aa at that 
time essentially complete, he had started to work out the trajectories for 
various assumptions regarding the kotion of the target etc», when the 
Americana approached Neue Bleicherode and he had to quit. 

Th« cii'cuit oC the basic electrical integrator is shown in Pig. 2. Its 
operation is as follor/s; An XES AC signal is fed into the first valve, 
amplified, and rectified either by means of diodes or dry rectifiers. The 
resulting d.c. voltage, which is of rather large magnitude, is connected 
across a resistor and capacitor in series. If the resistance and the capac- 
ity are both large, the resulting voltage across the condenser will approx- 
imate the value of the integral. This voltage is modulated by the rectifier 
oircuit shown, and again amplified. Part of the output is coupled baok into 
the input circuit in order to compensate for the voltage across the conden- 
ser. In this way a very accurate integration can be obtained. Over a 
period of fifteen second« it Is believed that any reasonable function can 
be integrated with an accuracy of the order of one percent. 



177 



Sota« t@si; firing® war© aade using a different eoatrol Byat«a, 
aaplojing rate gyros» according to Dr. ©avid. W©rk oa thi« systaa was cair-. 
1 I oiat by Dipl. Ins. Hein» 

H.W, Sorter« 



278 






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*>crkt ^ Q- '^ t ^ j /'y,^ f^^ d r t ? J 



p 



- (yA '^ T VV^>. . .w-t-..4^iiu /^ .^"5 - 



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1- -"^ ,äh^ 






B is agrodynamie ^,;s,^-as 
moaemt or ln«rtla 

is ftfi^d yaamic moaeat 
aom«3at of Inertia 

S.2f » ar® eonatants depending os amount of X voltag« whtek i« Imtroducad» 

oa the «ff«©t of aarodynamio unbilaac« ©f tlMi ruddaj?»» 
Ö is a gravitatioaal correction conatante 



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s 

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2S0 



Pr»* ln^4 ^öPt ""-©btis 

1# 3«aeral particulars: 

Bom £9 T?ov» 1908» at ^Taultfürt ( aln^ aa the son of th© 
mez^tiaat Selarloh Debua iiiid his -Ife elly» (noe aroulloh)» 
i*;arrl#d on «iO ^unei X9ö?, to Tr-r.-^^-ird Helend, nee ijruo-:;.iT;ai.:U 
3Mld Ut« Iwra 1^ ::Äy lö40, ohill Sl^ld born iu. üov 11^4-'. 
T?o»idono«: Barmata&tt Eohlerwag £1« it p2»#aei^t farjllv iivaa in 
Uoi loh n«ar O«lahaudon« 
£« Sohoollnc^t 

B«gaa £att«tr X01^ at Hlln^or'» Obörrealoohule at l^aakiurt ( /:itn\ 
lalkfi* Liobig» Oberroalaohule, Klnlahed aaoonäary sobool In 19^8 
3« Praotloat taralnln^? for studies: 

Kalter till fall 1926 and in bet-^cn varioua aciüö9tör,3 
totalllnif one year praotioal training In the " vldör^erkcr; ..J, 
i?ranJcfUPt# liÄOhlae fittlnf^, lathe, .;.llllu,j .i^ohl. e, xtoal.iuiik;» 
and erfcotlxiiä» eto« ^"a3tör tili fall 1951 als ontha prü.oclo:il ■ ori: 
at *'7olf5t k Haeffiior -i.O.*' FroüHfart» .■at'Uö."u ....Uclii,^, roundr^" t 
eraetla'^ of flxturti atid apparatus Inalde and out, taatlnt field» 
4* otudleet 

^eglnülHf; Inter aoixiator E0/i:9 TöonloH ilir: School, 
Dar istadt» Tralnliv: oouroo in lootro- t-oh. liUca, 'all WöA >aln 
exjAßjlitatlon i:or dlplomA In hl:h to:;9loii t©uhnlii\.c3» ai.a subjoota: 
Thoorotloai KloOtro toshuliuoa looi-» -ae iaiirl..;- tooh.)», hi :h tonaian 
technique, oonatruotlon ox eloot» laohlnoa, olcotrlo iieta toud 
Ir.at^allatlou, toohnloal tneory of heat* 
?5, '.'Tf^otloal aotlvltyt 

281 



Begl»jiliS£ ot 19-Ü till toajiy Äa«i8t4uat %o Professor for 

I5r««lag« '^« Hueiiter (a^m^aoÄ) at tM feolmiöal High a^nool 
In Dap?33t«(it« Chios r.ii^rl.ieer sinoe I0ö9, 

1» *^@mition of prootloal -^rk. and exerolsas, ß^a^vat 
Pupation mirk« 

£« --jxaoutios of ijiaauring in tndustirlal i natal lationa ^i4 
aet'^fk a» w®ii as \4¥i3#i* ta färlous I'irias« 

;,-« i)®T#löpuieat an! taatis,-? of speolal app-aratu9 for various 
1 1-^.3®^ -iiUtary surrla^a and authorities», 

4« "^eaearoh ^^t}c £u t&o fl©14 of .'sonauratioa. In tlicop» 

■■ie^«lopmeiit of a proaßsa for iioaanrla^ hl.'h-teaaioa-^ihools 
o3oi2rF0ne©s v:l%,h zm usudi aöasx:a"l]-^.i? IrmtruD&nt» Published ^:T« 1940, 
riatiuguisht-d M::iSelf aiid fead dogrö© oaMsrred ou him in Fall .19.>9tt 
5, .»ötiYities •'.•iiil« iü^yruetia-i: aM at thQ :>■■% 

B«g4iuiin,i :'all 19'>'ö bcaidi^s öäueatiorial ^mv^^ '??orKed on 
dofelopaoBt» f ©r I:. ® spsöially dsTSlopaönt of aaall proauro gau^a 
ro^' ;r.^ ^roFiri^ ^odol^-} In ^ •*=rlM tumiel, auitÄfels for dl^iSBisito 
'rj€ä»M2*i3«0ts iii th@ rsaoh froa 1 "ata"* to a few^H^s'*« 

Boiilnniag Oot 1943 03?aör®d to :^ « -^t fiyat exp^iiaoatal 
eru^naep on tost atanO. .^«4 C" leotrloal söotor a^id oontipola)« lator 
orraini^iii.^ öhlof for crsotion and oleakriui; for aotion oi* tho flrat 
motori«od TOuM iristallatlOii» 'itartln^ aj^ah 1944 Q©@-Slaa loader fluid 
auporrlsin.': expsrii-jontal ori-'lnoer foroui;trol latooria^/ ^A 
alootrio<4l ^kyatla.^s -^v tost stai:d far /i«-4 aiial «'^Ixull^ sup^rlntojdant 
01" tjfeia .-4 tost 3tarid aiid the test firing atsusd of th« a«-4 
«;..., lo -.%' 1043 

282 :iisa«Ä|.:urtBf?ttS 



lÄtarrogatlGii of lug« Dhom, 21 Siay Vr^')^ by ''"'"'* r:-toi:aa and Dr. Fortei- . 
at PortöisJytiroiiöa. 

lug» Dhom caine to t'eeneEiunde In August 19^0. Ät lirst he -worked 
xu this "iViesshaus", where values firoui all the teut; staiidb v/ere wired » to be 
measured and recorded. His particu3,ar ,iob was to install jmeasuring api)ar- 
&tus, such as devices for recording the operation of valves, etc. ATter 
19^0 he went to the li,F. center where he workoci on varioua p. ojects fos- Dr« 
Wolmanii (presumably coririected r^ith the " Verdopplet" BrennschluöS control). 

About the beginning of 19^2 lie started work on de2.iüietex^ traiitüni- 
tterö and receivers. His principal project was an oscillator which waö 
used in connection ;vith some receiver on the Ä-4. (He would not be moi^e 
specific) The oscillator used a l-watt triode Ll^-i Telefunken. Testa were 
carried out according to Ing. Dhom in an aircraft, the frequency of the 
oscillator being picked up and measured on the ground. This work ?/as done 
under the direction of Dr. Lange* 

Asked about difficulties /.'ith the "Yerdroppen"., Dhom replied that 
there were difficulties^ but they were always traced to the equipment itself 
and not to any unusual phenomen. 

Recently he was assigned to work on the "Scholtuhr", a constant 
speed motor with a contactor which accurately iteasur-es the reo^uired charging 

ime for the I-gerat, It operates from a frequency- stabilized 50 cycle/sec 
source. Other than these generalities, he claiiaed to know nothing about 
the electrical Brenschluss controls. 

R.W. Porter, 



233 



Interrogation of i £oai'*-d Dsaiüenberg, Kurt Patt, Qoddf vied 
Äosenthal (interpreter), Heinz Gi-iiso, Biirhose— — ——By 1«B. Hull, 
at Qainisch-Part^nkirchen en 6 Jvns 1945. 

These mea are Uhe designc j-C-rai'c-iiig 'type so tend to give a more 
practical story than Yo^ Bra^ir. ^bo confuE«^ what he hopes to do, v/ith 
those things w;iicli have bevn reduced to ,ractice. The purpose of this 
interrogation na^ to di,t;or3iae the detailu of piping and valving in 
C-2. 

I2 is used in the spherical pressure flask siace it can easily be 
obtained dry as a by-product of liquid oxygen plants. Ai^' could probablj , 
be used as well but it would have to be dried and there might be some 
trouble due to tha contained Op. 

These sen did not know any details of the Ifp heating scheme, or the 
&o£zle design described by von Braun on 5 Juna 19^5 as these devices had 
not «iRsrged fraa the eipDrliaental stuga, 

Fig, 1 »hows a schenatic diagram 01 bhe plurabing system of 0-3« 
Part no* 4 is a powder opera t;*d diaphragm valve oketched in fig, 2* An 
•l«ctrically ignited powder charge forces dorm the piston tearing opea th« 
üaphrag» allowing high pressure I2 to flotf to the regulatoi 5 0^ ?ig» 1» 
(For details of the pressure re«?ulator see the interrogation of Ton 
iraasg Daimanbarg and Hausz oa 7 June 19^5 which clears up »iMtate- 
aant^i made during this iaterrogationa) 

The regulated air supi^ly is led to the two reactant tanks past a 
safety valve 6 (fig* 1) and thr'j tv/o bv.rstable diaphragme 7 to prevent 
aay possible riixing of reactants during storae«. These diaphragms bu-st 
at 10 atSs. T&nk pressure is 25 atii. 

Flexible tubes 10 insure that the tank outlet will always be sub- 
aerged during radial accelerations of the piiRsile, The pipes art mads 
flexibl® by ineans of a stainless steel bsliowß section which allows angula 
mov<5Äent8 but is stiff artally, A low nafcurfl.l frequency is obtained with- 
out adding weight to the bovtom of the pips. Olearanct betwtca the tank 
bottom PJ16. pip« is about 20 isam which is 3uf eicient to make the eatranct 
area at least equal to the pipe area« 

These interrogatees claii" that th^re i« no raechanically opt ated, 
iate connected valve vith t.-tt delay for tht-^ Visol in the reactant pipts 
at 12, Instead they would put there two independent diaphragm« burst 
.by taak pressure» 

The expansion joint 16 of Fig. 1 is Hhowa in greater detail in Fig. 
3. Holts are placed in the circuwf e-tin;iai ring to reduce resistanct to 
Salbti flow. 

ä section thra the venture at the exit is shown in Fig. 4.. 



334 



Th« coabustioD. chamber and venturi, whose principle diaeßsions are XI 
hoim in Pig» 5» i« raade in two halves and welded along the ieagthwise 
seaaii« 

Pig 6 shows what ±a peported to be the -nozzle design int«jSG«d for 
production when the move to Bleicherode wag made. In flight test a these 
nozzles were aluminum but ateel was intended for production. Pair« of 
Jets squirting the sane fluid impinged a short distance from the plate 
where the strea*« fanned out at ight angles» This f aa mixed with a siailar 
fan from a pair of jets placed nearbj, delivering the other reactamt. 
There were about 400-500 holes in all, each 1.5-2,5 urn. in diameter. All 
holes were drilled. 



285 







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C Q^ £as f^^y ^ c^QmM ^r 



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'W<9 



te* Ines» 0«H* W&l%<t^ B«äimb«rger 17 Mar 19^5 

Ma;|or Qtmoral 

Life History 

^^?^ ?L2®^«^?^? ^^ Grissen as son of the drug ist Hei-raann Doiiibeivi 
S©p aoad his wife Hedwig, nee Roltach. 

Married 5 Sep 1942 to Alice Reeder. Childless. 
^ * Äfefejaded Realgymnaaium Grissen, Volunteered ^rd Foot Artillery Regi 
Kt^^ i?-**^» aetive officer fro» 1 May 1915 on, prisoner of war 3 Oct 1911 

arter the war an officer in the Reichswehr ^After the war (1926-1929) 

studxed as active officer in the Technische Hochschule, Berlin (Hochschü] 
Offizer), ?inal examination Üipi-Ing "with distinction". Prom Jon 1930 
on, in the War XJepartment, first as expert on rockets, and, upon later 
expansion» as group leader and section head and, simultaneously, as 
cosaaaader of the Eteresversuchsstille Peenemiinde. 

195**- Dr* « Ing. C.H,,, I?echnische Hochschule Berlin. 1 June 19A3 
appointed Major General. From Jan 1944 on charged with the special uae 
of the army for the preparation and introduction of A-^. From Jan 1945, 
siumltaneously leader of the '»Aröeits stub Donaberger" in the Reichs 
Minists^ headed bj Speer for all IT-Weapons and /lA rockets. 

"mn^u t was placed in the War Ministry after the completion of m^ 
school work in 1950, I was given the assignment of developing rockets for 
Tor war po^rposes by Major General Dr. Becker, who was then in charge of 
the Amstgruppe Profile sen. 

At that time, a small factory in Wesermünde making black powder 
rockets for sea rescue work represented the only Gernian aotivity in the 
rleia of powder rockets. Ther-e was no factory making rockets for war 
purposes* I had at first to do my own building and to place orders with 
^ riotts firms for individual parts. Assembly and testing were carried 
out at a proving field or ground near Berlin. After initial dif f ioulties 
the results wei^ so favorable that the first large scaletrial with troops 
could fee carried out in 1934f 10 cm rockets with a range of 6 km being 
usied. t^ith a weapon of lightest eonstruction, it proved possible to 
saturat® a definite area with highly brisant ammunition. In this way, 
part of the norsEal field artillery assigniaent could be carried out by the 
simplest means imaginable. a?here was next a transition to s-iokeless 
powder and ignition, and temperature-sensitivity probleas had to be 
solved. ThoBf after the construction of simple launching devices, the 
following were developed in rapid successioni 

15 Cm Hebelwerfer (Do-werfer) 

21 

Heavy iVutf ger'it 

28 cm heavy Werfer 

52 cm ** 

55 cm ** 

Panzerwerfer 

Panzerschreck 

Motive power for the Panzerfaust and many other weapons. 

In th^se developments, the construction of weapons and munitions 
was always in my departiient while the production was in the hands of 
Industry 

67915 

MO 



Th$ first VLM9 we made of those new weapons anly gt the beginning 
if tbelnvaslon of Russia even though their developaent had heenctoclsdad 
1& 1939 • sufficient munitions were avail abel. and trained troops were 
reada^« The spectacular success of the 13 cm Hebelwerfer on all easteni^ 
fronts in spite of the relatively small explosive charge of a slnele 
rocket is due namely to my introduction of a new instrument »that of the 
so called **DOy projectile^, whcih in contrast to all power rockets had 
the pay load at the base of the pro;] motile« The following firms were 
active in the development of fuels for powder rockets thatleave little 
«Meet WASAa, Ma (fonoaly ALFRED KOfiSSL), WOLFF & SC» in Walsrode« 

In the field of liquid rockets « there were in Germany from 193X) 
to 1932 onlyviolently feuding groups of inventors, when efforts were 
doomed to failure because of a shortage of money and an absence of 
fundamental scientific work« These were as follows! 
Max Vallier 

Friedricb-Wilhelm, Sander 
Heyland AtQ* Berlin<-Srietz 
Winkler 

Hocket Flying Field with Prof» CfbsthyHebel| v.Braim andofthers« 

All the groups of inventors dreamed and talked of travel to the 
moon» All of them» however lacked sceintific background* exact tech- 
nical keaearch and alldevelopmental activity» I was well acquainted with 
the signifiance of the liquid rocket as the revolutionary teclmleal 
discovery of the 20th century« In order to make progressj^ the foundatlöaü 
had first to be laid« An attempt at the beginning of 193^ to obtain 
agreement amoung the inventors or to intereat industry missed fire« 
I therefore decided in the siunmer of 1932 to take a hand in this field 
mysdlf • After the neoessary approvals« a small trial field was set up 
on the Kammersdorf proving ground and several engineers such as von 
Braun« EAedel snd fiudolf were enlisted in the fall of 1932« In 1932 
and 1933» the proff ot the functioning and the reproducibilitv of 
liquid rocketopropulaion were established through tedious fundamental 
scientific rosoarch and devolopment activity« The choice of fuels 
was on the basis of performance diagrams and of availability in 
Germany« Standing day end night at the construction bench mä in the 
workshop« we calculated « drafted and finished the first combustion 
chambers for 300 kg« thrust« The work progressed so that already in 
the sunimer of 193^ a start could be made in Bozicum to a height of 2 km« 
with a small rocket(A2} of 300 kg« thrust and stabilized by a rotating 
payload« In the interitua« px^pulsion units with thrusts of 1000 and 
I3OO kg« ( eschaust velocities 2000-2100 m(T) /sec snd spetieijt fuel 
consumption of 4« 3 g«Ag« sec« ) had bgfiA developed at cummersdorf 
and tested on special teat stands«^ !o8n became oVfious that Auanars» 
dorf was too small for large rockets; and that furthur development wo\ilid 
have to be on an appreciably broader basis and require much mora 
Bonsy and mors people if a liquid fuel rocket of long ranse t«are to 
be successful in a resonable time* It proved possible to interest 
the High Gommandi General Fritschi the Air llinistry« General KesselrlRS« 
Peenei[£nde on the outset %^u select od aa an ei^erimental station 
because here alone it was possible to have in Gexmsny a range along t>:a 
coast of 300 km with suitable observation posts« Construction was 
begun in the i&iddle of 1936« At a total cost of approximately 300^000 
gold marks I there was constructed in PeenemUnde in a few years a 
coxqpletsly but most modem and technically Interesting installation 
even though ground eonditiona were unfavorable« After 

6791(r 



-Ifter tha ooceaaury f aciliti -3 ( hi^-hvelocity wind tunnol, work shops, 
electrical facilitioa, t.st st(mda, ships, plane», and transport 
xacilltles ) had been install9d,tiie dovelopoant made groat stridös* 
It soon becaae obvious that too great ;juiflps initially would lead to 
sat backs» Conme quently, A 4 had for the moaent to be relagated to 
the background. The snaller A 5 was inserted as an intermediate 
in order to study control, aerodynamics and stabilization. Hundreds 
of A 5»« ^Jere fired in the period 1936-.1942. Only with this experience 
and with tha results of wind tunnel investigations available was it 
possible to proceed with the ccnfstruction of A 4. 

The requisites for success were through prolonged and productive 
combustion experiments for the propulsion .experiments for pumps 
end valves^i controlled sjcperiments and direction beam eiperiments, 
experiments on matea:rials, developments tests on all partsby thousands 
of engineers land experts« On the 3rd. of Oct 1942, the first range 
trial succeeded with satisfactory accuracy. Half of 1943 expired 
before sufficieaat experience was available so that the order to begin 
the manufacture could be given. The air attack on Peenemiinde on the 
nieht of 17Afl/-ö-45 did not essentially hinder the work. The develop*dl3 
Bsat was complete» The manufacturing proceeded in any case at another 
location^ only the settlement had been destroyed. Even though approx. 
65,000 changes were made on V-2 during manufacture, still by and large 
the weapon introduced in 1944 was the weapon completed in the middle 
of 1943« 

The develqp®ößt of th&s difficult device necessitated the 
#:]qploration of a new technical field, and it consequently encountered 
mnonmus difficulties. These difficulties were similar to those which 
would h&vm faced Wilbur Wright ifoiie had demanded of him in 19o2 
that he build in three y^ars a con^letely automatilj flying fortress. 
In addition to the technical difficulties , I had to overcome in Wf 
^ob, the lack of faith and the skepticism of inqportant people in tne 
governments and of my collegues. After the program was reduced in 
priority in 1939 and a a part of the civil employes were withdrawn, 
progress could be jK.de in the next years only with the help of 
Field Marshall Von Braachitsck, who placed soldiers from the front 
at our disposal as engineers and workers, and with the help of 
Generalbau-inspefctoi's Speer who carried out constructicn for us. 
If I had had coiaplete backing from th3 bd^ inning of the war, A-4 
could have been introduc3d 1-1/2 to 2 years earlier. 

After the first development was conipleted, I also had to ecrry 
out testing, organization and training of troops. This proceeded 
until the idddle of 1944. In these trials, many difficulties arose 
which had not been observed in Peenemünde, In the first place there 
appeared a weakness in A-4 such that 30-40 % of tho devices disinte^pc-* 
grated in air at a height of 500-3000 meters before striking the earth. 
Saqperiments to eleninate this weakness took monthn. An Improvei^Gnt 
seemed to occure In tho laiddle of 1944, 'ihn 5 % diaperaion was 
4x4.5 km, which v/a» difinitely better than the lonpost r«niv^ f^ns 
ganfirBhnhff which liad only hyir th.^ rcJi^'i of A-4. ::'vo.ri tho tho dovolop- 
aent could be considered as no n«3-ai3 closed and I ob,jocted to 
immediate intDoduction of the weapon, toUal roeponaibllity cind the 
time of. introduction wrire plHC'jd in the hands o-r the SB ^aftor events 
of 20 Juiy 1944. I ftnB I'jft in t].e ] monition oi' tociinical advisor 
and in oti&Tf/-i of hoiae organization. 

A large number of iuterestod groups of tochnicnl and scientific 
institutep were conanlted and reprea .-ntatives of industrial groups were 
concentrated at PeeneiaUnde vrhore thecloaest ^»xc hange of ideas was kh 
contlaov.sly possible and wh«re in tho vf>ry lavishly-equipped Inb- 
oratorios. It i'svr>til^/ du© ^oth^se actions and i/tio famaiic cooperation 

67:) 17 

212 



■ ork of till v^hcij staff of Posnemunde, which did not allow itself 
i:;- discotir3£;od b'- Tc^ilurea that the droairs of huiaanity to 
ex: lore interstells^' ^paco was realized in its first stage» 

3ven tho tho iirrst step of advan^ into space owes its 
'?xistance to Milit.-v^'j' coramandS| ^^ot the proof has been obtain jd 
contrary to all oppojsir^g thecri .- that ßpiice mrty he mastered for 
peaceful purposes J that it is o.ily nece83£ü:y tc mako certain that 
the experience once gained is not lost» That state will he first 
in space which has first the courage to naka a clear.' aecisicn» 
The stratisphore travel rocket will coma ais certainly as the 
modern locomotive followed the first Stevenson locomotive» 

Apiij t from the long range rocket which v/as my principle and 
favorate assi^m^ient there vjere dGVöloj>ed in PeGnemiinde the follov/ings 

Liquid Rocket ATO units for Bombers A,.r 

Rocket Aircraft si?^^'^^ ^/h' 

Controlled and Uncontrolled AA Eockots '^^o^iais 



:;:^ven tho these developments «sxx for vax'-ious reasons wi^re 
not introduced in this w.ar, yet the work on tlio long rrmre rocket 
and the work on the stabilisation & control shc^ied that these 
developments will have many uses! 

Inspired by what ha» been achlieved| oui? thoug^:hts Tjere 
occupied from the beginning with furthur possibilities« Our 
experience showed clearly that it Wöuld hav^ been futile to lay 
out imiiediatly rocket travel to the moon and to the stars« 
Development csn^ as in ail technically revolutionary discoveries 
proceed only stepwise if decisive setbacks ore to be avoided« ' 

After Ä«^,A-9^A««10 were designed aoad planned as; the firist pro^ject, Ä 
the necessary intermediate steps bein{r considered« This was to be 
a travel rocket in which one could travel tn about 40 mine from 
Berlin to Sew York and land there» The perliniinary work was for 
the large part sei completed and wind tunnel lor 500 m/sec velocity 
had been projected and the construction provided for. Purthur v/oz^k 
was hindered by the war« 

The furthur possibilities for the future ai"e available! 
scientific high altitude rockets, a statiori in space i, travel 
to the moon and to the stars, ilven if the greawest distances in 
space can be r3achod after atocdc disintegration is available as 
a fuel« assuispticns ccnorning this are bein^c reali|E;ed- still 
it is possible v/ith the r.resent fuels it is porisible to reach 
distanc ?s hitherf or considered unattainable»' 

Th« forcoiiif* developments and projects v/ere carried out under ny 

direct- OS in Ui'i y^ars 1930*1935 "bj ^ f-roup of distintraished 
faaaxi-ca^ sci^nii^t^s and experts «, 'i'hereby new regions were opened 
to hurnKJiityg where scope and meaning cannot be highly enough 
evaluüt -jd ® 



Lornbei 



67918 



29'j 



Iin?:!:HRQGATIOK Cg G]Sl lX>mB^RGm AT PART 'JfKIKCH':» - 15 May 1945# 

By J Dr. •::.H« Krause 

I.t.(;J.g.) P.A. WilkiMon, Ü3NR 
Gen. Dornberger wa» interrogated concerning his knowledge of the 

German giiided missile program. He was associatod primstily with the 

A-4- and Wasserfall projects but did display a considerable knowledge 

of most of the other ground to ground^ air to air and ground to air 

pro;Jects which were underway. 

In» January 19^5 he was placod in charge of all projects falling 
in the catagories listed above* These were at that time some 48 ground 
to air projects alone in various stages betr^veen proposal and development. 
He reduced this to fiwe projects» namely, £>chmetterling (Hs li?), 
SnziscBg X-4j Hheintochter and Wasserfall. The X-4 was chosen over the 
Hs 298 because it was lighter, Wasserfall was included because it was 
the only supersonic missile I During February the development of these 
reE^ining five was also stopped and all effort v/as concontrated on the 
R 4 M and Taifun rockets« 

During the entire interrogation Gen. Dornberger was very obliging 
and answered all questions freely. He was questioned in some detail on 
information which had previously been obtained from the Osonberg files . 
in order to cheek his reliability. His statements were in general 
agreement with these files* As a matter of fact he continually cautioned 
us that his figures were approximate and that we should obtain the 
exact figures from Yon Braun« 

WASS lEPALL 

This is a ground to air guided missile patterned after the V-2 
and was the only missile for this use which operated at supersonic 
velocities. It's characteristics were approximately as follows i 

Length 6m 

DisjB. 75 cm 
. JBax Altitude X61Qa 

294 



'wASS;:avFALL (■ continued) 

Range 20 Km Max Velocity 600 m/«ec 

Fuel Visol Burning Time 45 sec 

Oxygsn ffi^'Ox Launching Angle 90^ 

33q)lo»ive 100 iCg 

Jmpty Weight 1.5 'fon 

AS a first step in the developmant b± a radio control system 
of guiding was used. Thirty-five model» of this type were teat fired 
of which 60 - 70 % failed. Launching and «tabilization were the same 
as in the A-4# "Line of sight" flight path was usedi 

Because of the limitations of clear daylight operations several 
programs ^ere initiated to provide homing in the V7as serf all # Also a 
proximity fuse was to be added» The general idea wag to use a cm» 
radar to track the target and by laoans of second similar radar bring 
the missile into the beam of the first radar. The missile would then 
automatically ride the becim to iraithin 3000 meters or less at which 
point the honing system would take over. In actual test no' homing 
system has operated beyond 200 meters» The homing system under develop- 
ment and the firms working on them were as follows« 

Infra-red /^LAK-Oberschleswig Captured by the Russians 

Optical Keichspost-Forschung, Berlin 

Acoustic 0,LAK «- Vienna 

Doppler(Äadio) Siemens 

The radar was a 3 - 6 cm ^job completely devsloped by Telefunken 
but never produced « Prof, Yon Braun and Ober Lt, Hetzer can give 
more details on this« 

Although Wasserfall, because of its supersonic speed, was one of 
the most hopeful of the a A missiles its development was stopped in 
March 194-5 along with the rest of the few remaining guided AA projeöts 
inorder to put more effort on simplo non^guided AA rooke1?s« 



29S 



R 4 M 

Air to air rocket carried and launched from under tho ^ngs of 
fighter aircraft, Devolopment started in Jan, 19^5 and wd.B in operational 
use «in March 19^5« During the month of March 76 forays were laade 
"using thaae i-ockots and 72 allied bombers wGj:'e brought down (M-, 262 ) 
3sf or3 letinching, the rocket has the shape .of an ordinary shell 
haTing no v-dngs or fins protuding« After laimching a ring releases 
fo'ar tail fin^ T^hich snap outv/ard into place* 

Th':i general characteristics are as f ollo7<'s i 

Lejarbh 70 cm V max « M-30 m/sec 

Diaa 5 cm Fuel di~glykol (powder) 

Weight 5-^<> Kg SffeetiTe Range 800m 



'£)0 g©. of e:Ä»losiTe are usedif tho use of e large 
miisaer^_ f/l"^icii ^j-ill naturally disperse over giiito a vlouma, makes 
than ve.r-^j effeeti-^s« A single* fighter can carry and firo 42 of 
th^ma mlmältQz<.ecua,lj0 Becottge of the «mall mer^ht oönly contact 
fv.m&:m ars used® 



Four at age, long raiijre, ground to ground solid fuel rocket 
built and devraoped by Rheinmetal Borsig» It looka about as follewsi 






I ^v yc < -»/ 



< 



i 



\ f 



i 



^-U 



Length 
KaxLge 



6m 
160 Koi 



Total V.eif=-ht 



1-1/2 Ton 



l»t, 2nd, 5rd Staga --6 v.inr:Sj;-.^ucii 



12 v^in»;^ 



5uel(total) 50C Sg; (powder) 4th Stag -3 

: 'Explosive 20 Kg 

The operation consists of firing; tho first sta^o in Ir.uncliing- 
and >iach successive stage by moan» of a tine fuse, ^he ataceo ar-j 
puah-fix ass entlad in aucii a way that wh^n a £SV'2n stc-, e is lirec^,- 
the sta[:,8 behind it is blown off. , 

These w ts ue.c oporatioaaliy r-.grainst /kntv/erp last Koveaber or • 
»eceaiber b<£)ing firod from Zv/olle» ^pproxinat -^»ly twenty -ssraro fir:; 
from ei^ht firing xtodLSSEit positions« Gen» Dornbergör state» th.^t'.; 
« the disp'-jrsal for a l^oKm ran^ie is about 160 Km and that in generic! 
the deTice is iffii:r;'ctical because of too ntuch gear for to little 
payload» It wa» used operationally only because of the insiatpjic . of G 
Gen» Karimler® 






2»7 



T,, A 1 F V B 

A GT-ound to air liauid rocket, the developraant of which is not 
coii^lote» LaucchiKg takes place from a rock vory aimilar to the "Do 
gerät" ( najBsd after Gen« Domherger) . It consist« of a framework of 
rails capable of launching 65 rockot« sioAltanoously, It was plannod 
to fire these with tho aid of a standard optical fire control system. 
Operational use was planned for July Ist» 
(The characteristics arej 

Length 220cm Vmax 1200 m/sec 

Diam 10 cm^ -ilxplosive 5006m 

Max Alt« 12 Km ?uel Visol 

•if fee. Hange 12 Km Oxygen HNO, 

Gen. Dornherger gave two reasons for using liguid rather than 
er fuel in this ^rocket, 

1» Powder was very scarce and badly ne3ded ela^wh-^re, 
2« Bec?-rase of the more uniform burning of the liquid 

fuel a smaller dispersion resulted. He quoted the accuracy 
of the liquid joba® 1?1000 as ag-ainst lilOO for the 
powder» 



298 



■r. N Z I A N 

A pround to 5iir radio controlled airplane-like missile. The 
development waa "by the Deutsche Versuch* AnstaÄt fiir Luftfahrtrorschung 
(DVL) and the firm Holzbau-Kissing at Sonthofenl 

The general details are as follows» 

Length 3ia Vmax 280iü/s3c. 

Span ^•^■ßi Intelligence- Hadio Control 

&§SSxplo3ive 50-5C Kg Construction Wood 

Fuel Visol 

Oxygen l-QTO, 
§§§ The Osenberg figure was 500 Kg but General Domberger stat-js 
this could not have boon correct» 

Gen, Domberger stated that since this was a two-winged nissile 
»and turned by neans of ail aerLerons in the wings , requiring a bank, 
only a prusuit course was practicall When he took over in January, 
this project was the first of the five active aa projects to be 
dripped because of the turning complications» 

A .. 4 

Gen Domborger made various general remarks concerning the A-J»- 
which may or may not be known but are included here for cor:5)leteness8 

Development v/ork on the Ä««4 has been going on for the past 12 years* 
The site at Peenemünde was chosen because it was the only place in 
Gei^any where en all water path of 500 km could bo obtained within 
Gerisan territory. The path was from Peenemünde into East Prussia with 
ob®er jitj.on stations dispersed all along the Baltic coast» Construction 
of PeeneiBunde was begun in 1956 and was operating by 1937« The total 
cost of Peenomiinde to date has been about JOO million goldmaxks» It 
W^as completely blown up before the Russian« moved in« 

A total of 5^0 A-4'» were built of whioh g600 war« fired sgainiit 
the Allies, The cost of the first production A-4 was about l~l/2 million 
marks but the final cost was reduced to 37^000 marks» fhis oost was 

a99 



fv^ ( continued) 

oontrasted to tliat of a German "bomber costing 1.8 million marks 

and having a life of about threa trip» ag&inst Ingl&nd, 

Radio was almost always used during teat firings "both for 
telemeterinf^ (24 channels) as well as for flight path dotorminstion 
with the aid of D F stations« 

In later aodels of the A-4 more accurate bearing cohtrol was 
obtainöd by the ase of the YIITORIA LilITSTfiOHLGSJRla?, He did not 
knew the fre^i^uancy nor the exact operation of this system but did 
state that it v70-8 a lobe switched system on the ground. On the 
missile were two dipoles on either side of the ^at lying in a 
plane t>irough the ;u;is of the missile, The accuracy of the A-4- at 
SaO miles was such that 50 55 fell in a squai^e 18 ßa on a side whön 
radar '.ma not used« With aadlo bearing control the accuracy in 
becring wus reduced to 4 Km» Their original calculations had 
anticipated a 4 Km SQuare but it was never realized • 'xhe r:.dio 
metiiod was used only against Antwerp but not agcdnst liondon sincj 
such great accuracy was" not necessary against as bit a t arg -it, as 
London, More djtjils will be obtained from otaiahof« 

Jince December about 60f5 of all ä-4*s fired used Buchold'o 
electrolytic inte.^rrtint; acceleromeiter. 



300 



K A T 'i? rt K 

The followinr: information was obtained durint; a discuööion of 
the u»Q of pilota in rockets for A4 work» 
L A »mall airx'lane is leunched vertically with a piolet in it# 
By ffieana of pro-set controls similar to those in the Ä«4^ the device 
Is rocket propelled in a curve auch that plane aoxtomatically winds tip 
hohind the "bomber it is chasing» At this point the piolet takes over 
and möjQeuvers into a firing position* He then fires his 24,3#7cm 
rockets in one burst« To release himaalf he presses another button 
ai'.d the plane falls into parts such that ho is automatically ejected 
ai d parachutes to earth» 

G3n» Dombererer claimed this device was improperly designed snd 
as a result 7/as unstable in launching» It had a tendency to moye 
from a vertical launching position to an upside down horizontal 
position which was fatal to the pilot« 



301 



9amlsch-Fapt«»ltlrGlMm May 21 1946 



Short Iat»rvi#w with Q»ii«ral Poi^nbtyi^tr . 



Interrogator; Dr. P. Zwleky CIOS 183 



On th« "Taifun" rocket work was dona by Dr.von Holt at 
the W A S A G. 

l>r. Scheuflin (who is not aTailable) was the inventor 
at PeeneHflnde» Intarrogate Dipl.Ing« Danneaberg, who is 
here, on the Talfim* 

Taifun at Peenea^de was done with liqtiid propellanta 
(optoline and Mixed acid and powder charge gas generator 
for preaanrisation) • At WASAO the same rocket was Bade 
with solid propellent charge« 

It was intended to fire 46 rockets fro» a rack. 
CSiKilar to the Russian Katusha of General Rostinko)* 

Bo»b was not guided* Length 230 oa, diameter 10 «a, 
warhead 500 grass* Duration of burning 4 seconds* 



302 



General (Er. iuC.) Welter i:ombers©r« 

(Sine© January 194Ö In charge of mil tb« «tetion« afc Peane- 

munde) 

!• Th* genorfS ms first asV;ee. tc iRvif© Ms --en, cc^r to 
the position cf section leseers, to write s currictjlviisi Tltfe 
In ftcccrcerce with Instruct lens fivers, wMch 5r:c3r.ö«?d ce- 
tells of both peri5cnrl nn^ professions! cereers. 
2 • iBterrlttgnt tuet l>^:3t org (/.croregc-ng torsi . 

Pornberger»s section rt Peerv-'wunde 7.sf not eppsrently 
invol^td in the. r1av©3cp^ent of rescnsitln^ duct -voters, but 
fTom Indirect eontßcta, he has ®offie kncwleclge of the blstory 
of these development«, as follows; 

m* Dr.- Paul 8chmlßt (?^echenlcal Engineer) who^- t^rn- 
berger know« pereonelly started work on th's ae3*ore?!on8tor In 
1928 in Munich (on the Flixrplatz :°?le®enfelci) . He, at that 
time, bad alrefidy made proposal« to th© '^affenawt of the 
Belchgwebr« Schmidt experimented with e tube ©s shrwn te . 
the fuel« 




6^^"^ ' EXHAUST 



A 
iNJECTiOH ÖP rTMER^ 

According to Oeneral Dornberger, Schmidt 1« the typical in- 



303 



vent or typ« who hae a hard tlrne to carry ciit Ylu liiventT.-^nB 
!r. si: bitter döteil»« Po only succeeöod in ^«ttln^ hi« 
tube tf^ roscr.Äie for «beut on« tdnut© at ft time, after 
wh!rh the ccretoustion ftputterecl and got chok«d. Th« exporl» 
Btent« r«re negativ© for a long tlma as fßr as practice 1 
«^plications ere coiic«meä, and they were very costly. 
Froc 192£ until 1954, the liecreswaiTenamt and the I luß- 
vreff» ah^red the coats while after 1938, the Luftwaffe aub- 
fldirfHl tJie whole of i:chfflidt»a develcpmenta. In l&4ß, 
f chmldt wa? requeatec to tum Ma reaulta and patents for 
c*evolor?rent of practic«! ^otora over to tha "Argua" flrtn In 
Berlin, ^ecc^sse no could rot finance the production of hi» 

b» lomberger doe» not know, who, at the Argus Company 
»Implified the injection system and «tre«»llnod the final 
rod el of tlm burz bomb jrotcr. 

c. Cberaebalngenleur Br«e ahould be able to give in- 
form st ion on the developnmit of th« buEs bo«b »otor« 

d- romberger has not heard of the work of danger on 
relveless a#rodttet# (lorln tubes} • 

e* fbe busz boob irotor was flovn on piloted planea 
(He 111) in 1942, with either two tubes mounted syioretri-' 
cf^lly cm th0 wings or with one no tor« On the test stands, 
Dombei^er has seen only the buss bomb swtora of rei^lar dl-> 



304 



««ruiona« There wtre, '^«©vara, -itwo version« of th« bus 2 
boaai* Th© first moA^l hsö e tboor®tical rsng« of ß60 k» 
with ft wftrh«ftd ©f 970 kg, while tb» second moo«! which va« 
fir©ö fro» Ro11äu4 (and on« of ^aMch tpp«r®ntly l«nd«d In 
Bristol) h&ö ft theoratlcftl rftng© of 370 km «t a »acrifio« of 
220 kg in thft w*rhfted» (W«rh®«a of thi« sjooftl w«s 760 kg) 
f • I^opnbftrgor thought that enly Argix« swade biigg bomb 
BiotoPtt» Howovftr, ha »uggoat« that Mr. Sborowaki at Bmf «^o 
woiked €« tfea propulaiire powor plant« for tha aohsiat tar Xing 
msA tba Sasiaa ahould aI@o ba queationad. 

§• Solid Cponaar propaXlimta) for Xonj^ar daratlona « 

i» Piglrkolpulvor, aanufaetured h^ Waaag (taatlah- 
lisdba AjOialtiaeli« Sprangatoff A.Oj Cynwait A.©., votwal® 
A» lobal CKr«s5®«l bai Hamburg) and Otto Wolff (talaroda bai 
l^meburg) • 

2m Eiahaltapulvar, waKufaotttrad or davalopad by 
tb« aforaaia&tioaed faetoria». (Dopiibargar did not know that 
doth pernor» gawa aaOiauat fiaaiai tm& ^er^ saioky» Tha Oarv^ana 
apparaotJy hava no «olid propallaat without fla»a and with- 
©ttt moke« Gen^TAl Dombargar think«, Ineorraetly, that ouoh 
a «olid propaUant^ aon-emoky and wit^hout aathauat flato«, ia 
not poaaibla) • 

All of tho propallant« war« moulded with a 
•tar«>lika isylindrieal hoi© through their length (and ware 
lateral buiming)* The tomperature range for aafe firing i« 
t^m adsua f^ty degraea Centigrade to Plus «ixty degree«» 



305 



wMsb ipai5g® was iiec©ss©iy for tbt ssf^ opoi-atton of iif?iiBi 
t®ls««ofl ^e%QT9 In Ruasla« «rb® specific fuel ©onsujaptio® 
for «sslst^d t&km'-Qft prcpellants i@ felwsjs of the order of 
5-e grAs/s®©« wfeil« for ahort öur&tioni, srtill®ry roek®t®^ 
it 1« möT® lik« 4«»§ grAg/s«c* 

Oo!ic#raifig tfe® whole solid propellent dav®lop!H®ist^ Er» 
Fopl wss ®tst®d to b® r-ornberger * s b®st informed r&n» Br« 
Popl 1« ftt tb« pr®s@nt at ©itbsr Bed Toll or ©t Kosbel^ fits- 
, 3erbsi?versiich8anst«lt (which is an '*Aus««lch8t®lI@") o 

b, According to Donsberger^ Kitler wsnteö to stop the 
V-2 de¥s3ef»»:eat Sn 1939 a«S ®v®n in 1943 eltlasad tbat it 
e©^l«5 tmrBT fly te#eeu9e h^ bed örst^t^t thet it coijld not» 
Th© ^-2 h®d no priority ©f sn/ kiad (kaiis« Dring lis chk#itft8tuf©) 
tornb©rger in 1939 went to von Brsuchltech who put ®t his 
disposal 40-00 soldiors with whom b# built & large part of 
the Feendsmsd« «taticns, (vinisttr Speer also supported 
tomherger wfcll® T®dt weg sgfelnst feia}« Dornbergar ssy» 
Udf^t co^sitfed suicide bee«-iJ6e of hÄvlng ordered large 
•©yi*»» of eirplene rnotors which proved to be no good fend 
for t?hlch b® bad to t&ke the blewe» 

i« At the bo^.bing of Peene»unde i^ugust 16 to 18, 1945« 
the living quarters were mostly destroyed» There woro 732 
äe&d altogether, mmon^ tbew the best fuel chemist Dr» Thiel» 
Of these 732, only 120 were of the regular G®rn®n stsff whilt 
the rest ecmslsted of Huesisns, Poles, etc« Although 
l,aOD,000 k^ of bi»ab0 were dropped, the t««t etatione «ere 



306 



\iadiH8Ä^©ä b«CÄua« all of thrai were öoiible floor, co-jr.le i'-ccf 
construction ftnd onlx the uprer structuros w^re c'oEtroyed. 
Later f9llo«®ä four bombings by the AsaericsD Air Torce of 
wfcldi tb® result® w«r« ee follows: 

Pirat atteck 2 6ee^d sinä d in^yxr&C 

Second ** d©?^d injured 

Third *" ci®£d injured 

Fourth " dead injur®ö 

^ttie oirerell daa:eg© to the instaliaticns wiis so iriFl^r,lfic»nt 
that tb» work wont on aliso^t to th© @nc^. of the w®r. 

3* In January 1944^ th@ C£ steppQö in and, for tha sek© 
of greater effleiency^ combined the staticüf si Peenc-r^uncle 
of th© .Äray and th© Air Fores» Pombarger was then ra\t is 
ovarall charge^ in January 1945. Under bis Jurirc-iction s-t 
that tiB» cam© Fllegeroborat Stabeini^onieur Broo wbo wtc fro^si 
tb® PIS (PaugÄOugentwickltir.g) and who had worked on the Ha 
29S, 208, Frits X^ X4^ ©tc« Alao Ob«raliautn^.nt Haider (of 
Flak E^ Flugabwahrkanonanentwlcklung wJ:« had worked on the 
aati-aircyaft rock@t^ cam® under Ecrnb^rger^a jurisdiction)* 
Pombergar rolata» how im possible it war in peace ti-^e 
aaveral year» before the wsr to interest any private concarna 
in the rocket woyk» He approached at that time, riar.ens, 
Krupp, and othera rho would ha^e none of it« The military 
took it up half heartedly, but later when Teenemunde wts «uc- 



30^ 



b®eiiir@ ^€rj iat«r®@ted for p#6c© ttrre publication* fsea«« 
muunoe was stmrted In ^\i^:i5 8t 1936 • Tiie first V«2 ri@w »uo- 
cösrföllj mlen^ its course on 3 October 1942, Inöiciktiag it« 
position Ijy r®aiö. 

k» Ä©ut nuclear reactions, tor^bergor has Hoard littl«« 
Be thinks, howmrer, tBat nothing sssential hös been found, 
otherwise, he thinks fc@ would hsve been informod« Professor 
Werner H#l»#!!ife®rg wss^ however^ sciieäuled to rsport to hi® 
^Hilt® F@eÄit23" ®n the progress in that lin«, but the report 
was never m^® before the collapse of Clerniany* Dorriberger 
ms^m that Heisenberg h&s & little house in Sochi st the 
K®ehls®e anö thst be '^♦Igbt still be thore-. 

Domberger oonfirras tbat 11 war technicftl project« la 
09Tm»nf were kept sfaor^^t Bn6 very little informst ion w«« ex- 
ehsÄo^ec between the various groups in conformity with the 

Order Jfl 
M Is coR^Mer^ l^probeble that anyone shoulö know of any 
fwrtfmr w©rlc scca«pllshed unless it was in his specifically 
«s«igiied duties •. 

^^Itegether, 8600 ^«g»e wore shot over to England, plus 
1000 test shets «long, the Baltic Coast anc^ in Poland« 

Interviewed 16 May 1946. 



30« 



Interrogation of General Dr, Dornberger, of K.,V Poenomünde, now 
at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, on 29 June 19''+5« 

PresentiF/Lt. H.M. Stokes, Capt. W.H. Ismay, of CiOS !Eoam 185 and Air Def- 
ense Division, SHAJ3F, respectively, 

vject of Interrogation. 

Primarily, to obtain information neces.iary to assesn the risks to life 
involved in Operation "BackfirS", During the interrogation, Dombcrger 
revealed that it was usual, especially towards the final stages, to fire 
the rockets within four days of final assembly, and that the proportion of 
failures increased rapidly with the time of storage, e.p:, 4% failures after 
four days 5 17% failures after 6 to 8 wooks» (Hhe reasons for the increase 
in the number of f ailu es is being investigated by Dr. Liebhaf sky and B/Lt» 
Stokes and will be reported in a separate paper. 

Appended, is gdist of 50 people, now held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen^ 
who would be qualified to take part in the various stages of firing proced- 
ure« 

(A) FUELS 

1. Storage« 

(a) Alcohols Precautions as for storage of petrol« 
(B) Liquid Oxygens 

(1) To be stored at a safe distance frOiTi alcohol« 

t2i Hot to be stored in closed rooms. 

(3) Not to be stored near open fires« 

(4) To be stored in meticulously clean containers 
free of organic matter« 

(5) Containers to be properly vented« 

(c) Hydrogen Peroxide (TStoff)s Precaution, as far storage of 

liquid oxygen» 

(d) Permanganate Solution (CStoff)? No particular precautions. 

2, Transport 

The precautions to be observed during transport are identical with 
those for storage, providing that the approved transport containers arc' 
used. None of the substances is particularly sensitive to shock or vibrat- 
ion. 

In rail transport, the oxygen wagon must be separated from the alcohol 
and peroxide wagons by at least three "safe'* wagons. It is preferable for 
the alcohol and pe-* oxide wagons also to be separated in a similar manner» 

If a live warhead is involved in a fire, it may ejpqplode due to the heat 
in one incident, a warhead exploded five hours after the incident ocurred» 

3» gilling the Rocket . 

(a) Provided the approved equipment is used, no particular tech- 
nical precautions are necessary» 

(b) Asbestos suits should be worn when handling luquid oxygen, 

(c) '*Mipolam" (Resin impregnated fabÖft^ clothing and protective 
goggles should be v^orn when handling Hydrogen Peroxide, Oxidisable material 
must not be worn. 

309 



(d) No protective clothing is necessary when handling Permanganate 
solutions« 

(e) All open f lanes are to be avoiled diring the filling operation, 

4. Accidents with Puels 

(1) In opening a ooint, an operator sustained the well-known 
"Coid-'jurns'*, when a large amount of liquid oxygen poured over his hands. 

(2) After an appreciable stay in oxygen-rich surroundings, 
the clothing may become so impregnated that combustion may occur even 
half an hour after exposure if the operator is in proximity to open flames. 
Operators have been injured through smoking a short time after leaving 

the oxygen source • 

C5) With T Stoff (Hydrogen Peroxide), the precautions abserved 
with liquid oxggen apply to a greater degree. Organic material must not 
oe allowed to come into contact vvith T Stoff. Accidents with T Stoff were 
almost coxapletely avoaded by observance of the necessary precautions« 
5* Accidents in Pilling the Rocket . 

If the prescribed regulations are observed, and trained personnel 
are used, there a e no risks. If otherwise, the risks cannot be estimated. 

(B) gIBIKG 

1. Choice of giring Site . 

(1) There are no particular limitations on the type of ground. 
Gently iindulating, over-grown ground is particuliarly good from both the 
sanrey and foundation aspects. If the firing platform cannot be mounted 
OB fina ground, a concrete or railway-sleeper, bed-plate should be const- 
ructed« Fire figlhting equipment must be available. 

(2) A sketch of a typical firing site is attached, 
2- Mounting of the Firing Platform. 

(1) The platf o m should be mounted on a firm base 

(2) There should be no clearance between the blftst deflector 
plate and the ground, otherwise the vacuiim produced under the plate may 
'•esove soil etc, and cause the platform to topple over, 

5. Condition of the Site after Firing, 

(1) ©le area directly affected by the blast is shown in the 
attached sketch, Stoses etc, may be th own to distances up to 200 metree. 

(2) Hollows were formed by firings from sandy ground. Firings 
froBi hard ground produced very little effect apart from slight distarbanoe 
of the su-face and singeing of trees in the vicinity, 

(5) 'She f i ing platform is rarely id own away by the blast» the 
maxiEma distance recorded was 20 metres, The lubricating greases etc, 
for the ball bearings are, of course, melted and washed away. If the 
piatforKi in properly maintained, i.e., cleared and lubricated between 
each ound, up to 25 rounds may be fired from a single platform. Without 
correct saintenance, the platform may only last for three rounds, 

310 



■*>. Accident3 and .Failures during girinp; . 

Failures may be divided into two categories; failure of the 
control mechanism and failure of rocket moto", 
(1) Failure of the Rocket Motor«. 

(a) men using the T and C Stoff igniter, explosions in • 
the combustion chancer have ocurred due to non-unifoim ignition at the 
burner cups. Explosions in the combustion chamber may also occur through 
the presence of foreign bodies, oil etc, in the burnei cups and 
inlet pipes* 

Explosions in the combustion chamber are not usually dangerous to 
personnel although Tragments may be thrown up to 200 metres« After an 
explosion, the Fueld sapply is cut-off , but the fueld between the valve 
and the combustion chamber will drain off and feed a fire, but this can 
be extinguished by injecting water into the chamber» 

(b) In cases where the thruslj ceases after the rocket has 
risin about one metre, M one round usually topples over the the fuels mix 
slowly causing a fire over an area of then to twenty metres radius« The 
fire may burn for five hours if it is not attacked by a fire-fighting unit, 

(c) In cases where the thrust ceases after the rocket has 
risin 5 metres or more, there is usually an explosion dure to rapid mixing 
of the fuels. Such an ^ixplosion results in fragments being thrown up to 



(2) If the turning programme does not operate, the rocket con- 
tinues in vertical flighi: and subsegaently returns to earth, Vertical 
firings were carried out from an island 1 km long and 100 metrei- wide, off 
Peenemunde, ffone äf the rounds fell on the island i the nearest was 1 km 
and the furthest 8 km. There is of course, no gaerantes as to where rounds 
may fall, but the danger zone used by the Bxperimental Establishment it 
Peenemunde is shown inthe attached Sketch- 
Considerable damge may be caused by an inert round falling to earth 

after rising vertically e.g. craters formed in hard ground will be approx. 

16 metres deep and 20 metrefc in diameteri in soft ground, 10 metres deep 

and 30 metres in diameter. 



I 



311 



CAUSES Ol? ¥-a FAILURES 
In coaneotion with the investigation by Gapt» Ismay into the hazards 
associated with ?~2 launohings (see his attached report), General Dornber- 
8®r re^^^aled that it had proved necessary to fire Y--2*s as soon as poss- 
ble after assembly if a large proportion of failures was to be avoided» 
:?irins was to be within 5 days after assembly; when this was done» only M% 
failures were encountered. If on the other hand^ the assembled rocket was 
stored for 2 months, there were 1?% failures «ven after careful tests and 
replacesasat of all parts found defective, W© accordingly interviewed Dipl. 
Ing. Gbea Gerhard Heller and Ing, Hftlmut Zoike concerning the causes of these 
failures« Heller was chief chemist at Peenemünde and Soike studied failures 
of valves. 
Boldi men substantiated General Dornberger's story. Failures did decreaea 
markedly when time between assembly and firing was reduced, but no scientific 
studiy of the causes fo failure could be made in the field« Zoike estimates 
that of the f ailu es, 30% were due to plugging of the burner nozzles, 4055 to 
valve faulures, and 3C^ were due to iES^HiXlEC difficulties with electri- 
cal eqalpiBent« 

Apparently the proportion (say 20%) of failures encountered upon the 
operational introduction of V--2 was unexpectedly^ high. An experiment was 
dose soae 2 years ago at Peenemünde in which a rocket complfbe without warhead 
r 1 a c(»ilNistlon chamber were stored and examined moniiMyj the conclusion 
tiisa was 'tbat corrosion was no great hazard, and this conclustion was borne 
mat Igr ecsamnation of the parts after dissection. The discrepancy between 
tMs ccBOfciusion and subsequent operational experience is believed due to 
c«sBBä±t±02is being more favorable to corrosion at the front. Obviously an 
IjOTPeslfisatlon ia the laboratory of all the corossion conditions ennountered 
Im psac^ce «ould b€ most complex« 

Co3Cgosl<ML of Iron , It was established that rust from the cooling envelope 
plugged tRXExier nozzles (0.8 to Immdla,) It was considered impractical to 
seal oCf this envelope. Dipping in an oil-water emulsion (a red oil called 
Staodopla^) was adoptied as a preventive measu e. This proved successful as 
r^pacds corrosion, Imt it introduced the following new difficulty. Upon sta- 
ndings **® oil coalesced and gathered at various places to cause occasional 
oil-axgFgen ei^losioxis when liquid oxygen flow was started« 

Cogrogjon of Al*»BiiTOim, The formation of aluminum oxide "sprouts" was 
dbserveö expecially on castings such as those in the pumps« Sobs J^BOL 
eßaes&k corrosion of the alumimira was also to be expected« All these aluminum 
'•orro^on products could contribute to the plugging of the burner nozzles« 
xja addition^ aliMlnum showed intergranular corrosion at the welds, of which 
there was a great number. Welding often caused grain growXthj atmospheric 
corrosion of tiie grain boundaries subsequently weakened the metal; when 



312 



tue metal wa& subsequently strained as in the filling of the alcohol 
tank, mipture occurred and the alcohol leaked through. Beads of the alcohol 
yere occasionally seen to form in this way$ a special inspection of the rear 
o-' the rocket was always made before firaing to see whether such leaks were 
present. 

The presence of alcohol where it was not wanted often gave rise to 
wxygen-alcohol explosions. Such explosions are one explanation for the 
"Luf t-Zer leger •* • 

Anodic processes for producing protective films on the aliuainum 
were . contemplated but were never applied »wing to the size of the job. 
A green organic lacquer was applied to the aluminum surfaces before the 
welding, and the welds were prepainted afterward. 

Ho penetration of the 1.5 to 2 mm. Aluminum walls was ever observed 
at a distance from a weld. 

GloKKing of Burners. When the nozzles of burners were clogged, as 
by corro.^ion products, the burners usually showed heat damage. Such 
damage occurred more often with the alcohol nozzles, but the oxygen nozzles 
also suffered. The explanation advanced was that the plugging upset the 
oxygen-alcohol ratiojfiin the neighborhood of the nofczlegfeCf ected, and that 
this would lead to unduly high temperatures in the neighborhood. 
-^ Failure of Valves . Valves could fail because of corrosion. For example, 
^virrosion products could jam magnets so as to make tLam immovable, iäius 
making magnetic valves inoperable. Although chrome plating was resorted 
to for protecting steel parts, the plate often failed to protect, which 
Is not surprising in view of t;he diffuculty of the plating job; in one case 
for example, the walls of a hole 4 mm wide and 20 mm, deep had to be plated. 

Valves often failed because rubber (or erstitz) gaskets seized. Sometimes 
rubber (or ersata) parts became brittle. Rubber bonded to metal often sep- 
arated fvom it, which caused leaks. 

Electrical DiffAoulties. The V-2 had a multitude of places (contacts, 
aoldtred connections, clamp connections) at which corrosion could produce 
circuit dif-Piculties, Failure at one of these could cause failure of the 
rocket. Deterioration of rectifiers and of other electrical devices 
occurred on storage» Much of the electrical apparatus contained ersata 
materials. Hydraulic oil occasionally thickened. 

Because of these many potential souraes of trouble, a careful check-up 
as complete as possible was always made of the electrical aystem before 
a >ooket was launched. Even such a test often failed of its object because 
circuits that passed a static test successfully ran into trouble owing to 
vibration incidental to the launching and flight of the rocket. 



319 



Ltion. IPwo methods of ignition, pyrotechnic and chemical (TO) were 
la conaaon use, the latter being more popular at the front. Each has its 
<i3f8.wb&ok8, and no final decision as to relative merit has yet been possible. 

Th% pyrotechnic method consists of a rotating (Oetherine)wheel driven 
b^ ^% ©laitted jets of fire. The resin framework used was supposed to be 
>xompldtely consumed. Nevertheless, chunks of resin carried along by the rock-r 
et jet often damaged the carbon vanes, and this difficulty was serious enough 
to warrant the introduction of another ignition method. 

In the TO method, (T^Stoff (hydrogen peroxide) and 0-Stoff (hydrazine 
bydrate »presumably with a catalyst) are mixed, whereupon an eilmost immediate 
flame results. The chief drawback of the method was the complexity of the 
mechanical system, which led to frequent failures, Thesff^ailures, unlike XK 
those of =the preceding paragraph, in no way damaged the rocket; it was only 
aeeessaxy to replace the defective ignition unit with a good on.e. 

BecoMLegidatloBs for Firing» Zoike and Heller recommend that all 
captured rockets be carefully tested before firing, and that all defective 
parts be ireplaced« They suggest mechanical cleaning to remove corrosion 
p3x>dUicts« ^ey point out that disassembling, cleaning and reassembling, if 
too tSioroug^ may introduce more troubles than they cure, 

^he testing £alls into three main catagories; (1) electrical testing, 
iBCligaing testing of the controls (2) low-pressure leak-test of the entire 

^^i&l^r ahfy^we the pujqe^i the high pressure side below the puarp cannot be 
leek-tested. 

Ooslnistlon tests cannot be made on the assembled rocket. Motors can 
be remotred from the rocket for static tests. 

¥-2 mas always fired with the tanks full, the oxygen tank being topped • 
1^ after mailts ocC more than 20 minutes. With full tanks, the initial accel- 
eraction was one g. The rocket will stand accelerations up to 4 or 4 1/2 g. 
C%vlo>iiflly, startixi^ with the tanks mearly empty would daage the rocket. 
66SU Boimberger considers firing with reduced loads possible but too riskj 
to acttesgpt. 

Comclpgito General Domberger expressed the opinion that not more than one 
out of 20 or 30 captured rockets could be launched sudcessfully in their 
pxesent cosidition« Zoike, perhaps less pessimistic, thought we might expect 
2556 failures on captured rockets carefully tested, with parts replaced where 
necessary» In any ease, careful testing by trained (German) personnel would 
seal to be in order before launchiag is attempted. 

We believe that the German experience with V-2, as demcribed herein, 
werwes eareful consideration in connection with any attempt to fire the 

«aptored rockets« 

H.A.Liebhaf sjpy & H.M Stokes (OIOS 183) 

Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 30 June 19^5 

314 



IIvV iia^OG -Tlc;^ 0.:'' Dli, Wilhelm ;LF :R3 

Bl'j F/Lt, (itckea, Or« Portor at Garxuißch- P^rt uikirchen« 

DAT.:D J 21 foy 1945. 

concem'jd 
Dr, ilf er» wt«a j rimarily/v/ith tho at- bill ty of the control 

eujuipmftnt of the^'Wasaorrall", and with tha " -iiilink-Hechnyr", 

He worked undar Dr. Wetz or, both &t Paaaafaiinde aod at Aeye 

Bleicherode and waa to a cert&in extact rasponaible for Dr David's 

work on the electricel modjl, Sea report ( which ia separata) for 

details* 

ßy piscine togettier the various idaa» obtained froia Dr. olfers, 
©Dd othtsrs a scheaatic diagram of the ground control egcoipHiint 
intandüd for Wasserfall wag drawn. This dia^rram, ahovm in Fig* 1., 
iM bolievcjdby the ii^tarvi^jwera to b3 essentially the systaia plaased 
for Äassorfall. It should be rjalizod that no system of this kind h;;.s 
actually bo en tgstad and thora was a certain ajnount of d4mwfe ! a mk-Ksrbrki^ 
dlsorganizaLion anoun?^ the various individuals v/orKii.|c on thj daijfelopaaa 
as to what would bo satisfactory and what would not« 

ITwo radar systems of tiie "Mannheim" type are ua 3d for d .^termininp 
tho present position ofth^ targ:it and 01 xna rocket, reapictlwöly» 
Because radar units cannot be located cloaa tog^tiior^ a parallax comp»t 
is used to convert the data from one of the systc^ms to tha coordinate 
syatea of ths otAer. 

For tha first six saconds of flight, tharockat rises verticaJLly 
under its owx control. At the end of this tine thi operator take« 
control and flies the rocket in accordance with inforiLation pros^ntod 
on an indicator ( cathode~rey tube )• This inforiMtion includjs the 
difference in azimuth o^frlf erably the slant-plane angle between thvj 
rocket end tho tj^rgot, which is p'resantod on thi horizontal platis, 
and tho difference in elevation angle, which is j.ros mtad on th» 
vertical plates, thus movinfr a spot in such a way as to indic^ite the 
anj^iular position of %hi rockJt with respact to the lino of sight. 

During thj trrnsition period, wh^in thi rock .t is to be ^ided 
from its vorticsl path into th? Unas of sight, a second spot is shown 
on the indicator, which j^ivas on s^dclc artificial ol^vation position 
for the rockot, dicpl.ci-.i frow thj real position by an amount e^iual 
to th© displacsmant of a theoratical transit ioij path from tha line 
of sight» Thus it is nnly necoaaary for tii<t operator to koep this 
second spot in the center of the tuba in order to n»ide the rockot 
•mootlily into tho re luirsd tra;| :?ctory. 



31S 



Xli« diaplacoiajEt of the sacond spot is ooaputad by ^ djvl.c ; known as 
ti» '*:ilüiink:-^x9chner '' 9 soaecinQs refarr^ to as "ouaaiband". It contain« 
two Intagr.-itors which a-e arrang-d in &. f«ied-back syst-^a so a» to 
piodace the a^cond derivativ© of th® «leTation angl^ between tha rookot 
aaa th® -fcarg-it. rhe difffjronce sni-le i« brousbt to jgero as quickly jiA 
poa&lbla J 1>^ "Guxäaiband" without exceeding carti^in axbitraxy valu9» of 
tbs aocjlaraticm« 

it tlilrd coapöting aloisant known as the" 2?- Hechnsr" is alao roquired 
fcr this coKt2?ol system» us can beai a^an in j^ig 1» the laotion oa the 
jpockst i» coatrollöd by c ";Joy-stick" which C£i2kny;es the kiying of four 
«Bäio ttmea oa tha trsnsnittar " JEraJi", one pin of tone» corresponding 
t© aotlGii of eafih pair of control surface«« However tha rocket is not 
flr^ tTOü, a rotating platform end conssqusintly the relation between tbd 
Goatrol sutlacam -;rid tho vertical will deper.d on the aziiauth cm^lG of 
th® targert« FiyrtlaiKaore the rilatiga of the control surfaces to the x 
-vertical will change dnring flight depending on the exact nature of 
lai© trvLJectoiry, as sho^sn ia ^Ig. 2. It is true that the arr&ngeaent of 
fch© gyPGscopss in the rock -.t is Buch a* to prevent rotation about the 
aadü of tlie rocket, but the type of motion «hown in Fig» 2 doea not 
iaclwde roi:ation about the axis and consequently can occur» The **T'* 
e€SS^ätes ke3ps traek of the position of the control surfaces and vasolTes 
til® wmtltm of the control stick in such « way as to send the proper signal 
to ®ash pair» TMs reaoloing aetion can be accomplished in several ^yo, 
Vb0 siaplest si^lj beii^ a rotation of tha whole control-stick assaably 
«Itli ^asp3Ct to taäe operatAv. 

Tb» A # •nUscligerät'* was used but had to be changed because of ths 
dI£f«9?«sEt 3?oll Stabilisation* All four rudders are used for roll correction 
instead cf osay two as in the A 4« I'he same kind of stabilisation E-C 
»etapssiE wc» Bsad in Äaassrfall as in A-4« lliirty-five rockets were fir ad 
«sijig tisß £-12 Servo and fivs using tha new electriacal Servo« Of these 
tma^ flv@ only one xeaM wm^ked as it should» Position feed-back was used 
ts€m tha rudder« 

Er..^lfiis was asked abotrt testing the stability of a rccki^t systom, 
and gacva ^ tadjf description of Dr« Davids aodel. He beliaves that 
"'anrids al^ctrical äswtee is very vmoh bett»-»» than Dr» Haussaman's 
pandfilua f csracctir.At j work« 



316 



I 




317 



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t'r^^. 






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ST. 










319 



4® -x^f^Söüal details üm\ ^t^ nsaa*a ear^t^ m-c giv^ü iu *aü 

ioiÄ et## in» til« fi,:.^^@is sstö .lü b© öli^akcjd iTraei otiiar »6ui*«öa» 
Hwr« ««r9 %lr0« r^oaels ©f tli® ''njt0iataolit©r" -Möü as»® r^tt^rr^ 
te Aft I^ lit ^^ y^J* *# ^rina© oöuld give u@ 13Ö laror^^^tloa 
rsflcrtl^ III« 111« li^^pii^tloa ^ I 4ad II is tabiiUt^^ hf^lnfr^ 

m& msm 00 %^pm «f !# aoä 3 o? 4 of t^^p^« II ^^i*« /..ade for t«(it3« 
impi«« of III «üfT« meii«« 

l>«t«il« of ^iMlUStö^t^^ 

in 

500 «a) 

9ia2s»;i1NBr 00 «» r;o «m 

^»»IcW l#0 «M l.*^ - l»6 ton 

fi$«l Is^la« y-^^^M r^ '^m v^^^^'^o^) r^. «•«« . 

i£«K« B9l^a$, $^^yjO äk i%|3äp«x) 14 «'^>o m* lepros) 

flM «f lnQ|tsdUlg««t«^ 

i^«lo«it;sr «i latx^t^ to « 50 a/««« £S0 • SO iVmo 



a20 



rails 






5QS 

30 lid prop®! laut 
solid or Uq[uld 

Z meters 



Z ctötora It) I 

Hadio prosoinitj. !16 hoadiig 
4^id@ ^aa «0i:it4i;.iplat©d# 
5» l^* :>iajteö wa« ^ueatiom^ ree1«r4ia: the imtwt^ of the aotid 
prnp©l\aiitf Imt he O0til4 :ive iio de trails» Ee said that this -^aa 
a matt<ir tor the üanufasturea aixd roferr«d -^s to the LfS» Dept# 
Oi* I?l:^iiiisstatl*^r8ig (Bi Ta^» ..ullos?')» H^^tattd tliat hiB did 
not fejaot? thö jpressuro la the aoiahustlon Qhaafeers te# said th&t 
thö Trails ^-er# 0HO a^2 thio)£# 



321 



Imtjprogatioa of Dipl ing J^lualer - ÄW 22 aad Dipl Ing Johann ELein BW 22. 
re iVasserfaai, Present B/L Sharp and ?/L HW Stokeg. ' 

1. Qei88l«r confirmed that the difference» between th» four 
Waaaerfall type» resided mainly in the diaensiona and form of the rudders 
and the design of the "Tleck" or rear section of the aissile, also the 
statring mechanism. 

2. fhe steering mechanism used were as follows! 

W 1 — iskanla servo gear as used in the A-4 

W 2 — lot known 

W 3 — I 12 

W 4 «- Two types of servo devices were projected for 
thist 

(a) An hydraulic nechaaism termed Trimitive Hydraulik" specially 
desigaad by LOW for use in Wasserfall, This has a limiting factor of 

70 »«OS in which time the hydraulic content is used up. The preasui e is 
darivad from a nitrogen bottle especiaUy fitted for this purpose. Accord- 
la« to Oeisslar, the pressure of the I-bottle is 60 ata and this reduced 
to 3K) atm for operation* 

(b) At Peenamünda, work waa in progress on air Electric »ervo 
ohamism by Oeiaaler.Jlein and likla». This was still very far from com- 

plataAt work was still in progress, This was substantially confirmed by 
Dipl lag Johann dein. 

Both subjects confirmed that Wasserfall was far from a state of oomp- 
latioa and that basically the state of the weapon could be called fully 
davalopad as far as the aissile itself was concerned, whereas the c ntrol 
problems had baly been partly solved. Bo single trial against a target 
has so far been made. 



322 



WASSBBFALL 'A „ The e s . 

Team 3^^■ 
Control S:- stem - - Dr, Klein, Dr. GeiE'ler 

'/asserfall, at least in the ea iier models had tLret- Tree gyros 
mounted so as to measure pitch, yam and roll separately. Each had a 
double potentiometer |bick off on the outer ring, wired as a bridge circuit 
so that a movement of the outer L-ing with respect to the case unbalanced 
the bridge. The latter was fed with D.G. so tnat a D.G. output was 
obtained from the pick off» This D.G» output was fed into a ring modulator 
which produced a proportional 50O c/s AC output. This was then amplified 
rectified and fed to the rudder servos» There were four separate rudders 
servos which each drove a linked aerodynamic and jet rudder assembly. 
The servos, used were the LGW 6il type iäߣ as used in the later models of 
U2. A pure electrical servo of smaller size had been designed and was 
to replace the oil servo. The output from the pitch gyro came from the 
ring modulator as a balanced output and this was fed to the two amplifier 
valves operating the two horizontal rudder servos. The output of these 
JüODfÄX valves was so arranged that a balanced out put v/orked the two 
rudders in the same direction, and so produced pitch. In the same 
manner a SäHjQQEX balanced output from the valves operating the vertical 
rudders moved them in the same direction and gave yam. The balanced 
xoll output was fed to the centre TftYMYK points of the balanced pitch 
and jam pufcputs. This caused an opposite motion of the horizontal and 
vertical rudders and produced roll. A potentiometer in the rudder 
servo provided a feed-back signal which was fed back into the ring 
modulat r inputs, i'or a given gyro insalignamment and therefore the 

^udders took up a given deflection ß given by ß»K«( The motion 

of the rudders in taking up this deflection by internal servo damping 
being damped. The constant k was determined both by calculation froni 
wind tunnel measurements and by trial in test flights, in order to 
obtain self -stability of the missile. It was varied as a function of 
time by alterinf^ the potential applied to the gyro pickoff . In this 
way stability was maintained as the speed varied. Radio control was by 
means of the st;indard Kehl - Strasbourg gerat as used SM in HS 293, 
The system used OW on ^<-9.5 infs modulated with two pairs of tones, one 
for L/R and one for U/D. The output from either command channel wa s 
an equal space to mark square wave when no command was being given, a 
cor:mand :i;iviri;^ an increase o • decrease in the space to mark ratio, so 
thüt the moan DC level of the sv^uare wave was proportional to the 
cxmount of cent -ol stick motion. The command information was fed back 
in'co the stabilizing circuit in either of two ways. In one way the 
rnceivor output was fed through a relay amplifier called the "Ita-regler" 
to a srrail DO rnoto-- '.vhich then T-otated the gyro fick-off potentiometer 
at speed proportionea to the mean DC level of the command signal. 



323 



When this method was used, the::exore, the change of direction of flight 
was proportional to the time- integral of the air.ount of control stick 
movement away from neutral postion. In the second cec,° the receiver out- 
put was rectified and the resulting D.C. signal was fed into the approp- 
riate ling modulator in series with the gjTO putput. fhis then produced 
a change of flight direction proportional to the stick motion, and on 
returning the stick to its neutral position the missile flew again in the 
original direction. Apparently the rate method of control was preferred. 

The receiver aerial system consisted of two crossed dipoles, each 
element of which was mounted on an insulax^ing support on the trailing 
edges of an air rudder« 
METHOD TO TRAgSCTöRY CONTROL 

The weapon was, in the first instance for use in daytime against 
day bombers -and an optical method of control was to be used. The setup 
on the ground consisted of a firing platform, a telescope for observing 
the target, a telescope fo-^ observing the missile, the observer for this 
telescope being in control of the missile, a computer called the "Einlenk 
Gerat" and the Kehl transmitter. In the set-up at Peenemunde these 
various postions were grouped together within a few metres of one another« 

The missile was controlled so as to fly on a line of sight course 
with respect to the controlling observer and the target. The method of 
launching the Wasserfall however vecessitated some increased complexity 
over the simple line of sight procedure. The missile was launded verti- 
cally and flew in this direction for six seconds up to a height of 150 
metres. It was then necessary to control the missile so that its direc- 
tion as seen by "he controlling observer was l he same as that of the tar- 
get. If theses directions are defined in terms of elev^ation and azimuth 
the met cd may be described as follwws. Apart from parallei corrections, 
the observers telescope started by looking vertically. After six second», 
its azimuth was controlled by the aircraft viewing telescope so that the 
two were equal. Its elevation was also controlled so that if target 
elevation was X and the observers telescope ele^Ebion was ß xe have the 
differential equation; f (t) ^ -s- k(ö-t) ♦ g (;j-bX -0 

K is a calculated damping constant, f (t) xs a function of time after 

leAinch such that: ^/*.\ 12 . . j /-V i.\ • *" ^ • 

f(t) = t m sees, and g (• - b) is lunction 

of the elevation insalignmenta^KioflKlEUM which is approximately linear 

for small insalignments but becomes consttnt at large values. If the 

controlling observer kept the inside central on the crossed wires in his 

field of view then it flew on a course which app. cached the correct line 

of sight asymptotically and when it was actu-^lly on the line 01 sight 

lie held it there as closely as possible. A diffx- Ity arose since the 

control axes of the missile did not coincide with the control axis of the 

observer. 

324 



The relative rotation of the two systems arose because the missile could 
be directed on to any azimuth, and since it couldngt roll about its own 
longitudinal axis a roll with respect to space'was produced. This effect 
was to be measured with some form of radio gear on the back of the proj- 
ectile. Since roll is to be determined, some form of polaritation method 
was necessary, the 180° ambiguity being resolved by a knowledge of the 
control applied. The component of roll with respect to the line of sight 
was then fed into the control system, as for example by rotating the cont- 
rol stick pick-off column, so thjit the observers axes became those of the 
■issile. The whole correcting device was called the "Tau-rechner"» TiPor 
use when visibility was not good enough for optical control radio methods 
had been thought about. The use of the Wurtyburg equipment for target 
position measurement, assisted by Doppler effect methods to overcome the 
use of window was considered, the idea being to use, the azimuth and elev- 
ation firom this äet for feeding into the Einlent gerat* A second Wurtyb- 
urg was used for the missile positioning, the aerial being rotated maima- 
lly so as to move the control line in accordpince with the Einlent gerat 
output and the missile misalignment with respect to this aerial being 
kept at zero by the control stick operator. The initial control from 
the vertical position into the Wurtyburg beam was by optical methods j 
by observing the ilumination from the jet throu^i a telescope, 
HOMIHG - Dr. ffeiss 

Dr, Veiss had worked on the design of an infra-red ho$ing eye for Wasser» 
fall. The first idea was to use an eye which was mounted rigidly along 
the axis of the projectile and which gavd proportional indications of 
target misalignment off this axis. This method «uffered fromlwo di»- 
advantages. Firstly that pitch and yaw of the missile gave false indic- 
ations of the angle between the tangent to the flight path and the direc- 
tion of the |>arget, and secondly that if a predicted collision course 
was being flown, the direction of the 'target might make a large angle 
with the axis of the eye, thus necessitating a la ge field of view, and 
consequent decrease in range sensitivity. It was therefore decided to 
use an eye mounted on a stabilized platfrom which was so steerid , during 
the initial ground control of the missile, that n the eye looked always 
along the line of sight and therefore at the target. This was to be 
done by means of the "Krücke gerät" for which two forms had been sugges- 
ted. In one scheme, the eye was rotated on the platform by signals from 
a backward looking receiver which D/F»ed a ground transmitter, and in the 
other scheme, the eye was turned by signals from the ground in dirtotion 
which was determined from a measurement of the rockt dl3?eotioa, Iä stth«]? 
caae, when the missile came within the operating range of the homing 
device control was handed over to th« eye which from ithea oa reaaiaed with 
its axis looking in a direction fixed in space. The iaaoeuraey of tht 
"Krücke Gerät" in pointing the «ye in the oor3?eQt dirtotioa would Isnd 



to an initial misalignment B i>f the target with respect to the eye axis 
"being measured* This was iised to produce a rudder angular motion B such 

B- f (3) 

The ideal ^trajectory would be one for which E-G, this leading in the case 
of a straight flying target to a straight line collision course and in the 
case of a non-linear taiget motion to a sideways acceleration of the inside 
^aich was not greater than the sideways acceleration of the tirget. In 
order to produce a stable hosiacing trajectory the funttion f(3) had to contain 
other time derivative of S but its form had not been determined. 

The homing device consisted of a mimrDr with a rotating shutter at 
the focus. The light passing through the shutter was f if fused on to the 
surface of an Blac infra red cell, the output of which was amplified. 
Weiss produced a shutter with stips giving square wave chopping of the 
radiation, the chopping being at constant frequency for an image on the 
axLSy "bat having an increasing frequency modulation deviation frr a source 
at increasing angular misalignments. The output of the amplifier was 
therefore connedted to a frequency discrimminator giving a vine wave output 
T'^se aii^jlitude was a linear function of radial unsaligniaaat and whose 
phase, on coarpsirison with a reference commutator gave insaligment components 
fd.th respect, to the eye axes« The use of frequency modulation as an 
measure of proportional unsalignment was said to give the direction of the 
brightest spot in a distributed target rather than the centre of gravity 
ofthe radiation, but this does not appear to be true if normal amplitude 
liaitting is carried out before passing the signal into the discrimminator« 
TbSjt method however seams to lead to a very simple circuit for sorting 
out proportional insaligment. The beam width necessary for a homing 
device used in this maimer was determined by the accuracy of the "Kaftke 
Gerät* and also how far the manoverability of the missile could keep 
B»0« Beam widths actually used were from 6° to 12°, Weiss said he had 
a scheme for using a much an narrower beam but refused to discuss it. 
It is presumed that be was considering a locked follow eye with initial 
scanning in order to find the target« 

The Blnlenk Gerät - Dr.iSlven 

The Sinlenk gerät was for sclvirig the equation 

f 
The circuit was as follows t> 



S26 



The values of g B and go are obtained from non-linear potentioaeters 
n the missile and target telescope axoa. was obtained from, a 
generator on the target telescope axis « 
We have from the equation ( 1 ) 



2 ) 
J. 3 ) 



The terms - —KYff (^^jf3 ) , ^Ith. jf ffjted. in ; 

as over-all amplitude control j were integrated, witn feed back of K /3 
and the resulting output was i3 , This was again integrated and the output 
ip was used to drive tte observers telescope servo. 

The Taurechner - Dr. Lanse . 

One method proposed by Dr. Lange but not actually constructed was 
CO follow the target with a scanning Wurtyburg beam smd to have a responder 
in the missile. Since the polarization of the Wurybui-g beam was rotating 
the signal picked up ^rjnnry had a dipole on the missile / sine / modulation. 
The phase of this modulation with respect to the totation of the Wurtyburg 
dipole gave the required angle of roll, Tau. The signal picked up by the 
missile was repeated joc tJBs back tothe ground where it was received, end 
the second harmonic compent was picked opt« This was used to lock 
an oscillator of frequency equal to the rotation frequency of laie dipol© 
and the output of this was compared in a phase sensitive rectifier with a 
sine wave generated on the dipole shaft iSiself . To avoid ambiguity it iß 
necessary that a continuous measurement of Tau be made. 

Proximity Fuses - Dipl. Jng, Smück 

Proximity fuses for Wasserfall were being developed by several firms, 
üJlectrical P.F's were:- 

Marabou - made by Siemens-Halske- Berlin, 

This had Tx and I^ with separate aerials. It worked on & 
frequency of 375 Mc/s and the transmitter had a saw-tooth frequency of 
deviation several Lc/s with a 1 kc/s repetition rate. There «as 1180 an 
amplitude modulation of 100 kc/s. Signals reflected from a target wer« 
picked up by tha recaiver and mixed with some of the transmitter signal, 
'i'his r»roduced in the mixer a 100 kc/s gignalwith an amplitude modulation 
of frequency equal to the difference of fraquenay between direct and 
reflected signals* 



Aft«r passing through d 100 kc/s filter this was rectified and the 

*Stat was passe into a furthar filter which could be s^t to pass 
signals "below a certain valwe, depending on the range at which the 
fuse was to operate« Switching in the last stage was by means of a 
äyn&tion circuit last filter had a rising frequency characteristic ä£ 
up to the cut off point so that within the pass band the sensitivity 
of the device -was approximately constant «Its max, range was 50-60 m. 

The 100 Ic/s mod provides security against «m ■* ■■ ■! » «■■■gut v w»- 
^iltififta i nigHMtiiiga : jamming« 
kakadou — made by Donag, •SHen 

This device was similar to Marabon in that it used separate TX and 
fiXg but it had no frequency modulation and worked by means of the Doppler 
effect. The TX frequency was 30^ M/Gs. This device also had the 100 kc/s 
modulation for security. 
JSxiRel bllt j ) . Made by Pat^nt-Werkungs Gessellshaft-Salzsburg 

This was a Aiaqple system consisting of a TX/RX working into a simgle 
erial. Its method of operation can be envisaged either from the Doppler 
effect or from iaipedance changas. Its sensitivity was such that imped- 
ance changes caused by rudder movements or by ribrations of the missile 
skin could give false operation of the fuse and so its use for Wasserfall 
was not seriouily considered, 

Fox - made by A»M,G, and Triditer made by Blau-Prinkl worked on the same 
principle as BSugelblitz, 
Optical F-F«s were 
Aassermans - made at the fieseorcfe -institute at Kochel, 

This consisted of a light source whichteus used to feed a system of 
rotating lenses. These projected light beams in a forward direction, 
BeflectM light from a target was received by a photocell from a limited 
forward field of view and apmlified in a J-stage amplifier, tuned to the 
scanning frequency of tho light beams. This provided a safeguBSd against 
interference from constant light backgrounds 
Pttplity - made by Slac at Kiel 

This device consisted of a lead sulphide cell having a forward looking 
cone of view with a central atop« Radiation from the target was received 
by a cell, and Itsl inicensity increased up to the point of the, eclipse by 
the stop, when it fell rapidly. This rapid fall ttt was used to detonate 
the missile« 

Some work on P«7.ffc was also dona by Dr. Brinkmann at ths Reiohpost 
Forselnmg« Anstelle« His device consist ad of a combination of photooalll 
and infra^^ed call arranged so that a decoy which would give light as well 
«s beet radiation did sot opar&ta tha fuse. 

321 



Was ooiMienMd frith i mm^y— mt oi «»3 th« oemtvol of **^fa«Knv 
Mil*' «i«M 194S. The aoroayamde data tw« supplied ^ «» witt3 tiomel paopla« 

A% f mt a f iriag rauQga «jT 20 ka SJt tel||xl «aS 50 km 
iMtlJBQVtaa aifltme« WM pro4«ot«ä« Hecjiilranmts in»:« t«dus«d to IS ai^ to km 
MqpMtiiPidjr» iacdsm target pUj^e vvlocltj of 250 Vwse «as assored. Aoeal- 
aaratlMI of tariert was assuaed 3 gs Uaad«» aooalaratiaa taJcaa l»to aoömmt imi 
10 c (XastHalftolies lO). Final sbapa oT Wn«s«rfail was lioawer aovor aat«^ 
liAaa. 

'»^^«awfall*' «aa ^tm first slssils oaf its kind« 

¥1» amnoa^grwndo fmsa of this adesil« «as i^wpad ftro-» te» 
f«ri»MMHi eiisjoa oa tlia A4* 

Saiaalar aaaljRMiA A» aarodijMnM» sttt^iolraBBBta mA th« 
•taPtaa «lAXjrsis» tlH» ^axvetciristiea of tte niläsr*, eta. Sleatrlaal aaS 
%S^tPK£Lij9 oewtffals nti^t^ V 1i»«ittarias im?« usaä« bitt WasaaK«aU eoatrola 

. fiaisbftd. 



tm tasta tba adasilas wkhs f iz^ ai^ dlmotad with fttSio 
ea«teola ^l»*' ^la purpoao of taatiaiü : 



&• <te aaP ii HiiiM i il i n staMlitj of f ii^ «id tli» eoateolability 
of «la path. 

2« to tast ttm pwfQrmmfi of tha Jei aoftora duxiag tl» flij^t. 
S«. to taat tlw »aSaffini aaS ooatrol sssfaoas* 



A gmtL^ HHter of diff ieultiaa wara aaooueatarad whie^ at 
«» wr«» aaA tea aot yat baaa aXiaiaatad, 

lÜBdLauet TSloeily raaolMd «aa 000 i%^aao. (Pmjact^a 700 
Wwm ma tha fXi^i^t ^ukri^ th» traaaoaio ragioa was irattj ^'aU masta»^. 

AXao taatad duriag ^« flirht wara tha gyroB, tha «mnm 
tilw iastiaiatioii» 4at rnator f aad a^ataa» «to, 

m» iaft^iad hoMiarr davioa with a aafnoiaatly larj^a 
fialA of Tiar (save»! dasraaa ootiH aot bona at mrm thMi 8 lai diataaoa). 

9ha first Mia Mthod aaa to diraot tha aia»iles eXaotzlaally 
ttm tha gfmm&m VimiU «as raXoased tartlaaXly nwl thvooi^ taXasaopic db»- 
«watS« alaeMaaXlir tlraotad atmiii^ taw^ tha «laaiXa» &la ^«Vm ft «e 

329 



tewrSlMd mmK*rw ft» relf<ft«e tram the el««tPlo stwiHag aid thc;)tr8aisltlMi 

to ^M ct^leftl ImdJiB «ss in the dvmlopBAat &U^. (tTbaoretlB^M»' ma TiPlTozwifMlfl» 

AH oaatrol problems tnre rirst i«atadl o» Xabomtory nodel«» 



330 



Ix;'i^.!iixi^GGATICN Ob' DIPL. liCGo G.iJIÖ3L:irt; 13 Jime 194b. 

Jmith Sc V/ilkinson 
Gaimsch. 

Goisslar -aö int irroj^ratec. for thy ])U2?i)0s :• ol coivii)lotin£; the 
information iij regard to tbe tie-itp equip, .ent ljetv/9en tlie Ixomin^^ 
Liead of the automatic t<-r^;.:)t-s6 3kir:<:' device and t:,.e control surfaces, 
--iis work in tiiic resrj jct ii^is beori clii':/rr^; ibhaorctical. i'ho i'undöa.iontal 
problem consists of utilising tlie error inform/iticn from the output 
of the homing device and, in th :) Gi...plest approach, converting this 
information to the form a^+ ]Sjflf|- • a^ctuall-;/, xor thj problem in 
thr J 'J dimensions, the error vail a/rce-jr in tli.) form oi two componets, 
£l smd ^2, which must be operated on separately and trassf erred to 
the proper control surfaces. In an actual projoctile the*'oTOi stcbility*^ 
of the projectile must be combined with this information in order 
that theprojectile will be able to flly a stable course. :?igure 1 
indicatas the schematic arrangement of the combination of the tuo 
essential factors« epsilon, the-error information, and phi, the stabil 
information. As shown in the diagram, the outputs of the two 
similar computing devices R^ and R . . are additively combined 
and transferred to the input of an amplifier which operates the 
control surfaces. 

The error information obtained from the honing head consists of 
two components which ma:y appear in th^ form of polar or Cartesian 
coordinates. If the information is in the form of Cartesian coordinate 

it is applied direstly to the computer. If in the form of polar 
coordinates it must be converted bj? some device to Cartesian co- 
ordinates« Also the an[_ular information of the relative position of 
the puoijectile frame to the gyros must be obtained in the .foria oif 
Cartesian coordinates phi^ and phi p. These tv/o sets of information, 
which appear as DC voltages of variable amplitude and either polarity, 
are fed to the computingdevice . 3ach component, E^j^tPhiy. phip, is 
treated independently in the comxiutor and by circuits similar to 
figure 2 is converted to the corresponding form: 
Y/ TV A^phi^+B^phi^ 

V'ä r-i> A2Phi2+E2Phi2 



• 



331 



These conrponents were to be added electrically- as per figure 1 to 
yield the following« ^ 

fflie electrical sum of each set of components is fed into an amplifier 
the output of Y/hich operates the corresponding control surface. It 
Eoist be stated here that tids particular arrangenjnt was never assembledl 
wherein both homing system and "own stability'*were conjunctively used, 
A-4 used the "o^m stability", or phi portion, alone p Both magnetic 
amplifier and vacuum tube amplifier were considered, but no definite 
decision was made» It was hoped that a megnetic amplifier would be 
possible 9 

More detailed information of the two-gyro s^^stem of KUücke B 
described in the previous report of Dr. Weiss ( 11 June 45) (and i2) 
was obtained and is as follows? figure 3 shov/s diagrommatically 
the stabilized platform in the missile whose perpendicular is always 
directed to¥/ard the tai'getj and the arrangement of the two gyros* A 
similar arrangement is provided on the ground, where the platform follow 

exactly the postion of the target- tracking radar. When theplatform 
is moved, gyro pick-off s Pyy and Pxx measure the angle through which 
the platform has been moved, This information is transÄBOcnt mitted by 
radio and applied to motors My and Mx* For the sake of simplicity the 
action of gyro Gy only v/ill be considered. The action of Gx is similar* 
Motor My exerts a torque on the gyro axis yy-yy« This causes the gyro 
Gy toprecess about the axis yx-yx» Pick-off Pyx in turn drives the 
motor My to turn the platform relative to the missile to a new position 
compatible with the information received by the radio link* Actually 
the gyro does not appreciably change the position of its spin axis in 
space. The perpendicular to the platform, which is id^ntiaal with the 
axis of the homing head, does, move tothe new position, directed toward 
the target, as called for by the information transmitted from the 
ground* '^en the missile has come within range of the target so that 
the homing device can take over, the axis of the homing head will thus 
point very nearly in the direction of the target, and the radio 
information to motors My and Mx ceases. Very soon thereafter the target 
will not be exactly in the canter of the homing device, and. error 
voltages will exist which are fed to the 'motors My and Ztv 

992 



Thus tiie platform is driven to a new position with respect to tn^ 
missile :ärame and pick-off s P_ and, P may be used to steer the 
missile through the computer» It will be noted that in this system 
the axis of the homingpead was notjrigidly fixed in space. However, 
the same type of constant bearing course results as in the previos 
system described in the report of Dr, Wea^s • In this case the g^J^ros 
maintain the fixed reference in space and, after the correction has 
baen made by the change in flight path of the missile, the- axis of 
the homingyiead again returns to the same direction with reference 
to the gs^ro orientation. 



333 




\ 



334 



u 



-1- 








- 


^^ 


^ 


.^ 



"^ 




335 







336 



INa?SRHPGATION QJ? DR> Bmest Qeissler - 25 May 19^5« 
By F/Lt. Stokes, Dr. Porter at Partenkirchen 

Dr. Geissler was asked certain specific questions about th^ 
control SYstem of Wasserfall and gave the following inf ormationt 

1. The gyro arrangement shown in the report on Dr» Elfers is 
probably incorrect. Dr. Geissler thinks the plan was to. use the x 
arrangenent in Pig 1 of this report. ( A more logical arrangement 
in our opinion) . 

2» Our idea that the direction of flight of the missile is con- 
trolled by rotating the stators of the gyroscope by pick-off pot ©nt- . 
ioTüeters was confirmed. This rotation is accomplished by means of 
a squall Tiotor which runs at a spÄÄJd(i. proportional to the magnitude 
of the control signal. Stabilization of the local system consisting 
of gyroscopes, amplifiers, rudder servomechanism and rudder* together 
T'iththe feed-back through the movement of the missile iscaÜed an 
" jligendampfung", and is accomplished by known methods of feed back 
and anticipation. Intellegune is fed in to this system in th© manner 
described above, v*rhether it be from ground control or from a hoJiing 
device. Stability of the over-all system must be studied in each case 
and appropriate measures taken, i.e. the rate term in the control 
signal mentioned by Dr. David^ 

3. A new system using rate gyroscopes was being studied theoretical- 
ly for use in Wasserfall. Twotypes of amplifiers consiered, namolrly 
a magnetic amplifier, and a relay amplifSer. The magnetic d^vio« was 
considered most likely to be used, but' it had certain disadvantagfiii, 
not the least oftmicn was tne fact it mignt not be available tTXim—/, 
the manufacturer. The relay system was considered in som® ways liait^ft 
by the availability of gyroscopes with pick-off devices having 
sufficiently strong current aapacity. 

4« For homing control a system was planned whioh is knbfqa. as 
the parallel-line or constant-bearing system. 1% makes use of a flex- 
ibly mounted infra-red ( or radar) homing device called a "^sl- 
suchkopf'*, ^hich can be made topoint in a constant direction with, 
respect to fixed co-ordinates by means of three gyroscopes and app- • 
ropriate servo mechanisms. The operation of such a system' is illustratec 
by Pig 2. The first and mostdiff icult problem is tp bring the' ratker 
narrow field of the homing device to bear on the target« This can ' 
be accomplished in cither of tY/o ways? (a) by transmitting the angiilar 
position of the line of si::ht(x) to the rocket bv radio and ' measuring 
it off , by means of the servo motors, with respect to a f iied coordJiiate 
system üiaintained by gyroscopes, or ( b) by using a radio set on tue 
rocket to D/F on the transmitter of the Mannheim, thereby establishing 
the correct direction y/ith respect to the rocket. 

Once the t.^rget is in its field the direction of the homing 
device is held constant with respect to fixed azeS| and the oxitnut 
or error signal Is applied to the steering control of the misstle. 
AS a result the missile is brought into a collision course, tjie 
ineiularity of -/hlch depends on bhe speed of the. missile, and tla.t 
-speed of the t. rr^et» If the speed of the target and of the mlsellt 
are both constant, and the target flies a straight path» then the 
path of the missilejill also be straight, otherwise it willbe ourved 
but Cüailision v;ill still occur. R»W»Port9r 

337 



Garmisch-Partenkirchen, May icil, 1945 



Interview with Mr> Heins Qeiie^ Dipl.Ing» 



Interrogator ; Dr F. Zwicky CIOS 183. 



BulM the coahuetion chamber and the injection ayatem 
for the Weaaerfall propulaive unit of 8 tons thruat. For 
the inner caaing St 52 R (Reichabahn material) waa used while 
the outer caaing St • 12 (Ordinary steel sheet). 
Production : Preaalng of two longitudinal half aectiona and 
thon w»led* Bxhauat nozzle and chamber are one unit. Flex- 
ure jolfita near the nozzle. Flexure joint waa connected with 
a reinforcement ring. 

During the runa it was possible to stand within about 20 
metera with the 8 tona jet motor. 



338 



Hell«br«nd was bom Augait.X944 «nd «•• «dueat^d at 
Bipx School and t ho Toehnleal Edgfa Sehool in Damatadt* Bo 
la a Dlplona i^lnoer and waa a aoldior trmt 1939 to Smaxmtf 
1940 «hon ho was disehargod* 

Hollobrand worked at Poonoaundo on ealoulatlon of Woo» 
sftrfall strosaos fro» 1940 onward* 




Thruat 8 ton. StaMlislng; flaa ahout «tiio also «• tho 
wing«. Aold tank « mahganoso a tool. Qraphito hlatfM la |«t, 



339 



^=41 H«lIeter^iÄ. Eagltieöi?,. 18 i^^.}3A5 

X ««LS born- ort August X. 1914 in Vienna. Th© aon of Dr. Phil 
EmXl ÜBXlBktaM., th© ©hl ©f professor of the High so^ol for so^l*oul- 
tur«« Ät%&r four ^eara of grad« sohool aM eight, year a ot hi;-;h sohool, 
troa 193$ to 1934 I attained the ^tohnioai HighJiofeool in Vienna* 
la lt34 l/atteiiaea. the Teohnioal High Sohool In Bar»a1iikä.t* In I9;:>ö 
T toolt t^e final esamiaatioii as öonstruotion Bi^ivatt»,^ 

' 1^ sp«9ial wor^ iwaa eja^lneering design» Imiediately after my 
mhi^tMjBie» 1 Veoame a«ientif io assistant to rrof • |)r* tr^* %vil Z&im^ 
%n manm^tA toir statios of building oonstruotion and lattr asaiatant 
to PMf a?» I^urfe Kloefple- for etatlos and steel hiildiü^^ 

I to4 t'swi months of .at litory training in 1957, tw^ aonth^. in 
Itae anl t!ir99 «0#k in 19S9» I later went into bhe army ^ M^tin^ 
CoTForai^ eöänntii^ January 1940 I was a Soldier. 

On Jiftii«»ry *30, 1940 after 1 was diaohai^ged from the .army » T 
.wsrleefi, m% tSm ÄPmy Ordnanoe Teating Institute at Peenemiuide as a 
oo«- wmsk<t^ in t^© Projeotor Bepartaent under iiagi.aeer Roth, 

I also wi3Pke& 0t& th& prohlema of airplane atatl^oa and doaign, 
pmft&pm^ame ffulouiatiomf aiid air toeohanioa in the preliminary otagea« 
jfor the last t^ altars I i?»a« the jgroup leader of atatioa i^nd Jleai^uer 
in t&e projsot ftop^tmont« 

In Marsh 1940*1 got married* ay wife and three ohildren are 
tirtng St pjpfssni in Steintorueoken hy Nordhauaen in Kara« 

SijS'oied: Kmil IU|llsbrand 



340 



Dr« Zn^. F^lttdrleh Wllholm Bomacheusr* May 17^ 1946 

X was bom on U^f 2^: 1917» as tb» socond oMld of ilx« 1^ 
father i« Pa« tor Wilbalm Boxns^auar« IQr aotb«r« Binl Charl^tt«^ 
«ftldwä jQsao« Bernar» Guttorsbach, Odenwald * I aai a Protestant* 
After 3 years of public school I went to grammar school at 
Schotten, Oborhessen« I received further oduc&tlon at the 
Olasaioal Or ammar School in If aims, until Spring 1035» Aftar 
6 montha laboiar service« 1 studied building engineering» Fron 
Winter ld-55/3d till Summer 1959, at th» Teehnieal Hign Solxool 
in inarms t ad t» Stood my pre--exam« in the Fall 1937» and tho aMiin 
axsB* in the Pall of 1939 and passed both «1th **Ter3r good*« Fro« 
October 16, 1939 until 1 vaa drafted into the Arsgr (Saptaatbar 1940)^ 
1 waa first assiataal to the professorial ohair for Statiatt S%aal 
Brldgea and other Steal Conatractioaa above ground at Üia JfoglaMV* 
log Xiaboratorlaa» High School at Dar^ataf ^ On January 1# 1940» 
X «aa promoted to the position of direotor*«(iglnaar at tba IdtkgL^ 
naaring Lab^Fatorlas of I>r., Ing. Klepp^il*^ Ät thla time I «aa . 
■ainly coaftimed to aocompliah atatia«»taata oa tba larger pif%9 
of ataal and aircraft conatruetlon* In aonnaotioA «itli ^&ia« Z 
porfaimad thaoratical and axperimantal work la tha mdinaata of 
ataal ooaatmetion« Inuring aoTaral furlougha tip^m the A»qr# X 
bad aa apparta&iti' ta carry out further work u»ier tba dlraatlan 
of Prof* Xloppal« mainly thaoratical traatiaaa oa tha M|pia7 
alastla aaiaaaaa* Za iqr traatisa of tha 31 Mareli i944« ahlcli t 
aubalttad for ay dagroa of X>ootor of Sagiaaeriag aad paaaa« «i%li 



341 



diatlnotion/ I d««lt with tho probltn of th« awelllng of evon, 
r«liifQre«d plates undar a pr^ssura load« 

Maqr 1» 1942» I waa aent to Faanaaunda« as lagal rapra- 
aantativa of th© Elaatro Maohanieal Worka aMBK, Karlahagan, 
lAmrm 1 bad baan aaployacl as ''Chlaf Statlcian'* alnca aarly Sus- 
mar 1842« Ky main du tor was to draw up a atatic loading plan 
for ^tha apparatua A«4* This was oone in closa cooperation with 
tha air naehaaloal azxi aaro -dynamical axperta. Lata bummer 1945, 
I took the Xaadarahip in tha newly formed atatic-teet-group whoaa 
problaa waa to caloulata a "atatlo foundation''^ for tha carrying 
aondttct or tha entire ^'apparatus parta" and the **part load" con- 
atruction* All iBplamenta worked over by the "B«W«" were In^ 
apaotad. Thia waa dona in clolBe oooperation with the department 
for aatarial ipapaction aa wall as with the experimental ahopa« 
In the preparation and evaluation of tha experiments« I was as- 
•iatad by Dipl« Xng* Scheck II and Dipl, Ing, Wingensiefen. 
Sinea tha inatallation of the experiment- static department in 
Xarlahagan bacaaa too snail for ticta continually increasing da- 
sianda, tha great inatallation of the "Institute for Firmness of 
tha Gaman £xpar Rental Station for Air travel" (DVL) at Berlin- 
MXarahof waa ranted in the Fall 1944 to conduct large scale 
•xparisienta« At tha and of January 1945, we had 14 engineera 
and niaaarotta other profeasionals and oraf tarnen working on static 
•xpttrinanta« «a alao uaad tha Engineering Labore t or iea of tha 
Taabniaal High S^ehool at JDarmatadt since early Summer 1942 for 
atatie axparlaanta » Co*worker of Prof. Klöppel wss^in psrticular, 
Pr* Ing« ConMlltts« 

342 



Dttcen^bor 16, 1D44« Z woe tnarrl^d to ITltB Elizabeth MargaraU 
Ihauer, Xrom Mulns« Student of domeatlo^aelenoet 

Signed t bomaeheuer« 



343 



RESTRICTED 

II^rE-^^x'OGATICN OF DR. H ^RN at Partenkirohen, 21 May'1945 

By F/Lt. H.M. Stokofl 
Dr. R.W. Porter 

Dr. iiom is a fonaer ntudent of Dr. V.i-weg»8 at the üarmstud*; T.H. 
His principal problems at Peoriemunde wore the design of the graphite 
rudders and the manufacturing problems connected '^/ith the Kreiselgeräte 
integrating gyro, cod© name "'Iller-gerät", 

The biggest trouble with the graphite rudders was that of breakage. 
Usually they broke at the point of attach/^mont to the metal base. The tXM, 
troubles were overcome by use of a liberally rounded fillet and by proper 
placement of the bolts which hold it in place. The graphite blocks were 
obtained from Firma Sieiaens-Planier, and was known as "Gondergvalitat**. 
A similar but smaller graphite rudder was also used on Wasserfall. 
Many test were made to determine the Ä^lOfiiÜöt optimum shape. iMnally it 
was decided to use an almost rectangular shape, with the f or.vard end 
swept back at an angle of 15 or 20°, corners rounded* 

Dr. Uorn reviewed the terminology for the various integration devices 
"I" is general, refers to all types. 

"I-l" or **Iller" is bhe gyroscopic device designed and built by 
'^iselgerate. 

'*I-2" or •^sar** means the original device of Prof. Buchhold with 
1 integrating cell. 

"i-3'* or "IN'i'» designatÄB the mo-e complicated s/stom using two 
■leaauring devices and a stabilized platfo m. 

The "Iller" was fi^-st and for that reason used trie most. Towardd the 
end, however, I ear was beginning to be used quite a lot. Inn was never 
actually used so far as Dr. Horn knew, but was planned. The '»atabipla** 
wa« not a stabilized platform used with '*Inn" as we had supposed, but vaa 
sinply the name for the base on which the various gyroscopes were mounted* 

Dr. Horn was given responsibility for tho Iller only, and XXX didnt 
know much about the others. He siad hoverver, that the Isar, for reasons 
not entirely understood, did not f-:ive performance as good as had been 
•xpeetedi and that he believed the Iller was Simpler and better. 

Tm« principal troubles with the Iller ..ere frictional errors, bud 
ball bearings, non-uniformity of parts, and so on. However, errors of 
«ore than 1% in measu-cment were'^Upt likely to occur in practice, and in 
the laboratory 0»ljb could be Obtained. 

He had heard others mention '*.<uerintog-'ation" and "f^hubreglung'* proj- 
s, but knew nothing ab.;'Ut thera. The A-5 iio i:iad se n "as an object" 
vat knew nothing more. The A 7 (A5 7ith wings) and tho A9 (A-^ with wing.« 
he had never even seen). 

344 •^•W» Porter 



"Visol* is th« d«9lgnAtioa (Tünmsii«) for Vinarlether 

CgHg«0-Ch « CHg 
Visol propeUanti w«r« nainly ehosta b«eau«« thsy eui •asily 
b« made tpontaneoualy ignltabl« with r«d fuBlag nltrle «ftid* 
(la th« V->2« photoeells w«ro ut«d to trigger tbo Initlatioa 
of tho ««in propollant flow«) BoUor wo« propollant cdiooiiet 
«nd thorioodTnanielet* "Tom thoxmoohmloal porformaneo eal« 
eulfttlon« wore mainly dene lyy bla collaborator. Dr. Bttobaor* 
Holler originally mad« se«o of tbo oxaet parfbraaneo ealeu- 
lationa, taking into acoouat tbo minor propollaata« «1th 
Prof« Wagnor in Darmstadt« tbo wator-gaa oquilibriiai la all 
ealcnlationa waa aaauaod to bo froioa la at 1800^ duriiig 
tbo oxpanaion« 

HgO ♦ CO s % t COg 
Tbo oquationa of flov taking into aooount the xnuming 
OQuil&riim of the eombustion produota were integrated graphl« 
©®lly but th€ ©harts «r« loa t Ibr tbo proaoat • In the V-2, 
tbo following proponent eomblnatlQn waa adopted 
.(71^ CgB|^OH A 85^ EgO) ^ liquid oxygen 

Propollant ration uaodi 
0,8 kg 1 kg 

«hilo the atoiohlaBotrlo rotle i« 

O.M kg to 1 kg 

Iho thoorotloal oidiauot woloelty <«t 15 atu) la 8875 ■/«•«• 



345 



S* (fit« *Bl«lctro««eh»iiaQb« V«rk« at PMii«iiiind« vith Dorn» 
b^rg^r la •laurg« origlmtny was rm by tb« mrmjf \mt was aXti* 
«atttly %rftB«f9x>mBd into a pri^ata coneai«)» Hallar was in 
ebarga of m igF&u» ^t 16 ebasiata msA laboratoxr asalstant« wläo 
wMPlrad «I tha parfaanaanea of saw propallant oe^inationa • 
About hmlt af ^a« «ai%a<l <m tha davalopsaiit of "hypargol^ 
(afKAtaaaoiaaly ^iiitabla) propallant combination» for j«t 
■etera Intandad ta propal anti alreraft Risailea. 
9» Spcmtanalty af igiU.tion waa taatad with tha droplet-cup 
taat «atbad« fh« ganaral rula waa that j|,f tha ignition tlma 
wraa aMallar than 5 «o 10/1000 of a aae(»idp than tha tslxtura 
would igpU^ta aafaljr In a ja t bo tor without th« dangar of ax- 
ploalona }aif dala^rad ignition aftar tha eonitHiatlon ohambar got 
partly f Iliad with imraae tad propallanta« Tha ahortast Ignition 
tlMa fooad for any aonblnatlon waa about 2 «6/1000 laconds» To 
inaoro tliat tfaa ojgrgan of tha air did not falalfy tha validity 
0t tbm toata aova ohaeka wara run in an atfflosphara of nltrogan* 
4« With «ijcad aaid (10^ of H2&O4 in nitrie add) tha Ignltipn 
tiaa with Tarieua f«al« prorad to ba almoat indapandant of 
taaparatnro owor a vido ranga* 

91am foUowiag "faypargol** aonbinationa wara nm« Ona part 
of paro nitno aoid ^ a«29 porta of "Viaol" whieh thaoro- 
^ioally obould giwo about uox s 0100 m/aae» 

Mijcod aoid A *Viaol** 
in otoiold—otyi» proportion« Obaoratieal uax « 2000 b/b^c^ 



94« 



6« Originally» th» *FUkg«rat«' w#r« run with a oonbinatlon 
of Cieaal oil * nitrie aeid« In ordar to gat rid of tba 
nacassity of apaoial Igßitora, tha mora aaaily ignitabla 
Vlaola wara introduead« "Vitol** in Oansany was a naw produat 
(Hallar doaa not raeaotbar tha j^ica of it)« It waa ganarally 
found that ooaplicatad mixturaa of varioua fuala wara mora 
*^pargol** tovarda various oxidisara than ai^pla liquids« In 
particular» thara always »^%mB to azist a ralatira sdxtura 
ratio at which tha ignitability against nitrie aeid takaa 
place with a minlmun retardation time* With a Bixtnra of 
aoma aniline» the vise Is hecosia spontanaoua ly ignitabla with 
nitrie aeid« Trie thy lern Ine which ia very aaaily ignitabla 
with nitric acid alao makaa the viaols readily, ignitabla with 
nitric aeid. For further dilution of tha stixture» phanola wrm 
uaad aspaeially a crude oil nixtura aallad Optol« 
6« For tha standard taata of Jet no jra ftor antl-aireraft 
misailaa» tha following mixture» whieh ia called *OptoXla% 
was finally dacided up^?. Thia conaiata of Optol ^ aniline ^ 
Tiaol A bansol 4» sylol» which baa a danalty of about 0«9X as 
far aa Hallar rananbers» with boUlng point about 95^0^ andl 
ftpaasing point about nlnua fbrty dagraaa eaatlgrada« Vha ra« 
quiramant of low fraaalng point aacouata alao to sotta extant 
for tha ahoiea of tha above oonpllaatad alxtnra» 

Optoim «t nlxad ael« 
aheold glwa about 2000 m/§9i^ exhaust waloalty« Ite oMibnatlaa 
^«bara la thia aaaa wara always aeaXad with tha aalA ainaa 



947 



%hm STÄllcbl© flow of fuel would not be enough for cooling» 
(Seither Bornberger nor Heller remanber any exact figure» for 
fcett tr&nsfers in either the V»2 motors cr the motors of the 
Ysrious »ieeilee«) 

Tbm eoabinetion of WgO with Optolin wae »Iso tried, 

Fer the lÄeeerfell miaalle, the tests were made in test 
metore of 4*2 tone thrust end on the full scale motor of 8 
toom thrust« 

Im eeimeotien with armeturea (fittings, feed lines, valves, 
reg^lAters) ob eelA resistant steel», acid resistant gaskets, 
0-7iBge, walwe ••ate, etc., Mr. Millinger and perhaps Mr. Pais 
is«r9 süsses ted for ques tioning . 
T« Viztwe ratio« Optolin -* minted acid 

©•25 kg 1 kg 

fbe eomUziatiaQ gave a bri^t yellow Jet very similar in ap- 
^•arsiie» to s bright sodlusi flame. It the beginning and end of 
tbe ron, tiilsic brown elouds of nitrogen oxide etc* were ex» 
liatwted« 

Yb# stolebioaetrlo ratio for the above mixture would be 
aib9a% Optolin^ mixed seid 

0.21 kg 1 kg 

Rules for best nlxture ratioa. The mixture ratio is usually 
ehosen «itii two points in inind»# fhese two points sret 

(«) bighest possible perfomanee 

(b) Lowest possible chmber temperature without too 

«nteh loss of perfomanee or too high preeipitatlon 
•f eertwii* 

348 



An index to th« ebolo« of the mixture retlo It th« eo-eelled 

Sfiueratoffuberfichuassahl " 
which is uaed in the performance ceXculations of Otto motors« 
(SeuerstoffUbersehusszahl • index of oxygen «xcess)* This in« 
dex nt&nber is equal to unity st the stolohiosetrie rstlo« If 
the air excess or the oxygen exeess relative to the stoiehie» 
metric SBouat of oxygen is say 205^, then A » 1.2» For in* 
stance in the ease 6f ethanol and liquid osQrg^n, it is most ad» 
▼antageoaa to run with about A s 0»8. For other coahinations, 
the optiaua value of A is somewhat different and for coBft»inatioiui 
like 2HgA02 the optimum A is quite different from the ßl3#iff « 
These results follow from considerations on Jet performf»iar:s 
irtiich have heen made in a very similar manner by iisvestigal 
in many countries» One plots the expressicm t^ar the axhanst 
velocity 



as a funetlon of the mixture ration r s mass of fUel/maas of 
liquid oxyg«ii or otner oxidizers. The gr&phieal plots for the 
mean meleeular weii^t n of the eoii»ustiea products, for thü 
chamber temperature T^ and the exhaust veloeity uex «re ea 
follows: 

X s ratio of specino heata 

Fa »exit preasure Fi a ehamber presaure 



349 




STOCHIOMETRIC 



E«Il!»i* eonf ir»9d th» Infonnetlon iililch w» got «t YoIk«nrod# 
tfe»t Sanger «ami t im« «go worked vltfc •»ml«lon «ä5 cololdul 
mvmpmiBljm of Aluaim» in vspiou« orgftnic fuels, and apparently 
got in wm «uch as 50J^« Banger at that ti»e w<M?lced in Trauen In 
tbm Uiaeburger Beide* Heller tried zinc aiethyl ea an init- 
iator for eombne tione • fübout 60 to 100 kg a month of thia air 
iaflavmable «abatance were produced at the "Chemiachea Werk 
Sehollene at Rathenow, Berlin. This work did not result in 
any practically accepted procedures. Neither wea some initial 
•work with Aluainum triraethyl continued. On the work with the 
HgOg (eof) (produced by 10 Farbenindustrie) »nd run with con- 
centrated (275^) NaMnO^ solution« Heller knows little but aug- 
geated a talk with the men who worked on the ''steam*' generation 
for the turbine punp« of the V-2. 
9. Start of the V-2 > 

For the atart of the V-2, a ground installation waa uaed 
which, ran on the hypergol mixture (Hydrogen peroxide * Hydra- 



J 



350- 



zlne hjrdrat«)« Xho Jet ^rom tlJ.8 roACtion was shot up thro'^gh 
the nozele into tb» combustion obAiuber.of the V-2* A themo- 
element In this cliember Incdcated the temperature which «htA 
it reached a preecribed value^ released the main propellant 
flow of ethanol ^ liquid oxygen« id:iich combinatlon ignited on 
the hot gases already present in the chamber« Of the above 
auxiliary combination, about one kilogranun of propellant was 
shot into the main coMbustion chamber within 5 seconds* 

Interviewed 16 May 1945 



csi 



G-JitHAx\B ii.,]IL!]xi; - Dipl. ehem. ( second interview) 
^ Interviewsd on 21 Lajr 19^5 "by GJG and fUL, 

Graduated t.H. Darmstadt, spring 19^0, no Gubsoquent ai'my experience, 
at EaP 11 since 19^C, in chcir(:G of cbeiniiutry of fuels. 

Heller prefer^ nitric cxid to liquid oxy^^jen as oxidant for rocket 
fuels} thinks highly of tatr nitro nathane (if available) on the 
basis of snail scale experii-iGnts. :ie v.ould be willing to use nitric 
acid in a vsry Icrge rocliat llior.f;h tlio Gonewhat lov/ specific impulse 
of thegre fuel combinaticiiG i.: oCi;iiv.h.\t of a deterrent. The fuel 
planned for ä9 was 75/S ethyl alcohol -md liq.uid oxygen, the choice 
being dictated ^ past exparioiicj. ihe v/rter is, of course, added to 
reduce the flame temperature, ilillor says he can burn 95/^ alcohol in 
small but not^in larg3 ch^jabera . Perhaps contrsry to expectations, 
the cooling T^roblems are more severe in lar-£;e than in small chambers. 
Small (1 ton) chambers do not require spray cooling;; largo do. .ihen 
chambers g;et too hot, they fail in a manner characteristic of the 
the metal used in mcikinc them. Aluminum befilns to melt, and lar^-e 
sections of the metal are torn out. ötill chcimbers look as thouc;h 
a welding torch h.ad b3 3n rxin over them. 

In Heller's time, no v/ork was done at HüP 11 on gasoline and 
liquid oxygen. He f e .Is that such work had been done 6 or 7 years 
before, and that alcohol was then chosen, though he docs not :;no\v on 
. ?;hat- basis . -rtork on hydrogin hydrate at ILiP 11 was confined to its 
use u'ith hydrogen peroxide as a liquid igniter. 

In 19^0, a 1 ton chamber was tno smallest in use a Peinemünde. 
In 19^3» the smallest was on of 4.2 tons thrust. In the future, 
Heller v/ould be v;illing to jump directly from chemical laboratory 
experiments to a ICC ton ^XOXX thrust unit , although he v/ould prefer 
to operate the large unit initially at reduced thrust, jfilmost all 
testing at Peenemünde was doneaz-'ith the combustion chaxiber vertical, 
exhaust dov/n, this being preferred as it is the launching position. 
Burners are gpt tp behave' differently with th; combustion chamber in 
different potions. Chambers have be3n tested horizontally and v/ith 
the exhaust upu'ard. 

Optolin v/as originally coim^ounded with availability in G3rmany as 
the overriding consideration,' It has th'3 advantage of high density. 
It is by no means unirme. As a matter of fact, all fuels that burn 
v;ell with nitric acid give about the same specific impulse, Cptolin 
contains aniline -md visol (othyl rinyl eth3r) to insure ignition; 
optol, benzol -^jad xylol because thjy are available, Cptol is a coal 
tar distillate that contains the phenolic bodie:. objectionable in 
ordinary applications. Here, howev3r, the phenolic bodies serveX 
to k3ip the benzol in solution, \'vhiGh helps to make optolin stable 
at lov/ temperatures, Xylols serve the same purpose. 

Heller did not work with nitrous oxide or monofuels , He loiows 
ilyrol, but has not studied it. Cxygen arrives first in the A4 combus- 
tion chamber, Puol ar-rives first in thj Gerät .Vasoerfall, Thog^e 
v/ere no serious erplosions' in the develo-mant work on the latterö 
the fuel burned smoothly. 

392 



/ 



DISCUSSION dE^WESN C>I.0>S, (185) ARD DI?LO?iÄ ENGIKr.KH PAI^Vi 
/■^ fe/£lt A^ tl^IOfeA koi^kLlrC ^kliiii' ^ 



Fttgl for '^eggerfall* . 

Optolln Aid « nixtxu*« of (H2S04 «nd KNOS for nitration) 
approxlmat«!/ in the stolcfclcmetrical proportion 
approximate effect« 

Theoretical rate of outflow 2100 m/«ec 

Actual rate of outflow ^^ 1780-1800 m/sec 

Deaiand or äelivery ays tern nitrogen high presaura sphere of 
235 Xitera eontf^at loaded to. 26^0 atmospheres # Be&r pressure 
reducer ^7 atmospherea* 

Fuel — - Tank quantity 386 kg 
Acid Tank quantity 1600 kg 

tOieoretical Burning Duration 45 seconds 

Actual Burning Duration — -.——-.- 40-42 seconds 

Acid flowa throu^ the cooler. 

Teaperature range in the cooler approximately 60® C. 

Saxlmum rate of flow in the narrowest cross cut of the 

cooler iis/eec* 
CoRibuatioB chamber pressure 20 etmoapheres. 
Cointoustlem chamber tempertture theoretical 2800®K. ' 
Maxiimm axel acceleretlon 4.5 g« . 
Maximuit aide accelerstlon 12 g. 
Maximum i^irror deflection 70®» 

■■^mnk diseSmrgiag t^-^ugh the tsedium of e b£ Irnced ilexlble 
A,j.p^« Free fls-w ©f high pressure, at the sfe'-re tAre. ^s the 
take-off of the apparatui by mesne of the firing vslve« 

The presi^^ure reducer was not fully developed, the waste of 
the low pressure ia about 80 at!r)08ph©res high preeaure« 

Theoretical value of the entire Impulses 360 000 kg/sec. 
Actual value of the entire impulses 320 000 kg/irec. 
iJntlre weight of the empty apparatus 1760 kg. • 

Weia^t of the nitrogen 70 kg. 

(Pop coKpariaon with the A-4 nitrogen tank pressure In the 
ga» cylindör batteries there are 200 etrroipheres and the 
nitrogen low pressure is sboat 40 atraospheres) . 



353 



Utli «IB «at^rfall» the «irust f^lls off «t ab€iut ?^ Moonds a^ 
wiobM ft f Inaa 'valuft of about S500 Kg« 

The awrags noleoular wsi^ of th« burning gas in tho cosänxstioa 
«haäbvr is Oa 36« 

Th« arwraga k i« not «xaotly knoim» baoause th« outflowing equation 
«as imiiiSeallj int^p!«tea« 

9m Ottastiop of the Hyperaolity« 

The -vleol inaa ohoeen aa a basis for ah.9 fteel because it can wi-^ 
x^elati^v« ease be mafle borpo^rgolioalJIy« under the applie?)tion nf disposable 
ygg p ai e eu^ipleBBntal «Rtatrial, Tiaol in itself is not hypergollic with nitrio 

firiag palar a» a Function of the ProBort^ of the Mixture , 

Inserticn eonflitigna (logistics) . These conditions m de the use of fluid os^gen 
ii^posslble, with ' *terf all ano similar appa^tusj demonde^l storage oapacbilty 
fbr füll tai&eä appötwtu» 1 ye«r, 

lActtJä Qprgen, 

Vorwerk vitte by Ldiesten ii| Thüringen, w«8 the supplier of liqoid 
OBQTjsnu For transporting» special tank wagons were used. 

Power »parks and Armatures for Baterf 11 « 

Conftnsition ^laadber ia similar in form to the V-2. The cooler is 
•tzsiglit ^ttmxt spiral guidance - 2 expansion Joints. Volume of the ocal»ustion 
nhnwiier 75 liters (IX « 100 inches). Karros? no^iile oross-cut 192 ob 4» Cooler 
Tavern 5-6 tm (Cp m 1*4) • Inner combustion chasiber ocnrerinf: out of ST &?• Outer 
oartmstlon ohaaä>er corflring out of ST 57 (most usually na<^ine construct loa tin). 
The Bis-aossle (see the ^etdi) is £> drilling mix-nosale. 



(Sketdi on following p^ge^ 



354 




Both Bftt^rlals will b« sponiopvd agalnat on« another until | la 
uMd V9t (tmX «gaiiuit aoid). Thia ayata« hna tha taak of aaauring 
tha p«rf omaaoa of the firing, wharaby tha otraana mat aaoh other 
undaoottipoaadf ao that tha benefit of tha aacoapoaition ia inperf^ct. 
iMÄdiataly after tha meeting a lively reaction ia präsent, howavar, 
only on the diraot oontaot aurfaoa. With the ranaiaing |» ^tm drill 
aossla apwya fual pg^inst fuel ana aoid againat acidj thia giTaa a 
good daoooqpoaitioa; on the other hand the ignition would be poor if 
both ayatana ware not ooii^ixiad (oompnsnlaa firing). The proportloÄ 1/4 
baeana enpirloallj aaoartainad. With the vnrl-tion of thip iussportion 



3/4 



355 



pooif ignition or he&^ oacillatioas in the bwTilng prooess present 
tfceaselves. The noBaleo are imAe of light ja®t©l Xo«itz*il\^B<^ casting»). 

Fressure loss in the oaoler 1^ atiKsepheres, Injection 
pressure Iob« on the fuel side 2 etmos^hereo. Injection pressure loss 
on the acid side 5 atnospheifiss. 

Functioniisg of the appapatu» i>P»vio\i8 to ignition, the 
firii^ vslve is acti-wit^ by n^oas of electrical i^iition. There is no 
jpeatriction of the hle^ pressure, Ff^er the burstine of the diaphragu on 
^» gas side (a bupstlnr pressure of 10 ^itmoepheres). The nitrogen flows 
ewer .the pressure reducer and divider into two fuel tanks. Imraediöt^ly 
following, the air csushion in the fuel tanks is loaded Tdth nitrorea. 

Upoa reaching 10 atn^spheres, Ifcs diaphra^^ on thef lidttid side, 
brsaks, bo that fuel and acid flow into the coeÄmatioa c^aadaer unhindered. 

Bie building op of pressure in the tank» oonfcinue« until the 
predeteinBined tank pcressure of 215 atsiospheras is r a<^ed. The tiia» ftw» 
fti» firing of the tfLeiae, ^1"W8, until ignition, takes about 6 »eooi^« 
The pressure rise is the ooidbustioa chanjber follows (i^copding to an eamet 
forsuU). It is calculated th^t it t^kes nboufc 4 «eoonds after ignition 
u til the full GOii^ustia» diamber pressure i» readied. 

Prpssure raisin- in the fuel tanks !y means of w^rwinr » 

^^ Vpaa fWling of the apparetus, the te"^:per tyre of the fuel is 
about One, oomespcHiding to the ground temperature. Vith any lengtlior 
standing =f the '^r?p«rst'js, a rost unftirorable heating of ÖO^C is to be x 
redconed with. Hereby, *he fUel and acid expnrd considerably. The bursting 
pressure of the diaptoaip» aiaounts to 10 Atnospheres. For safe^ reasons» 
A pressure rise of 9 ^tiiospheres is allowed in tiie tanks. Correspond in/rly, 
UMS« TslTes »ust therefore be released 1H.th the filling of the jei^ed air 
eucfoion. These aaount to: 

In ^1» Ami container - 18 liters (tank Tolune 459 liters) 
In the noid oontaiaer « 48 liters (t^ink toliaoe 1049 liters). 

As the Ai^lo aoid and mixed ^old (K7?S04 and HN05) la mmll 
qitnatitles rigprwrnJ^ corrode tnftll^yed eteel, Tarious wmrm were looked 
for to eorrieet this def ioieney. On the test stands, tanks were either 
finished with elminuB or covered wteh aXumimBi y?A steel dress» 

Piping tmä anature parts irtiidi caas in oontaot with soid, «ers 
isnedistely finished out of V2A steel (hif^y aUo ed) with the sppsratus 
itself, it was not possible to use Alloyed steel, for reasons of difficulty 
in obtaining raw «nteriel. During slkora^, only <fae acid tanks with fitted 
piping t^ to the diiqplire0R, wsre in constant oontsot with the acid. As an 
effioieat protsetioa, sn seid resisting eneael was produoed, whioh was 
planosd for aass preduoti«« 8T 97^ Arm which all the pipinre were finished! 

356 



T«y llttl« Wßs ftttacköd by the acid. It could r^t, however, be u»«>d for 
th* t iks, oa acoouat of its alight fiironeas, {Tais should be flTolsimä in 
ftTiatlon "mscx. lar.terial 1265 or 1604>). Tim diaptoag^y which are aliwiMRaa 
•r© aot in the least affected or corrcded by the acid. The corsrosion in 
the contouatloa chamber durin,-^ the 45 aecotvl bumiJ^ ti»ae ie of no iaaportanoe. 
Acid will aot flow through the artar-^ituree« Otherwise, the case lays with 
the test stand trials« wliore one and the same apparatus , or one ai»3 the sas» 
eowbuetioA chasäwr repeatedly wei« burned» The ac1.d tank of the apparatus 
held out for six to eigiit trial ruas, until it wna corrc»<2ed tUrouj^, la 
Aiflr.iice of the water which was thrown over after tlie test r\m, with a good 
coodbustion chasaibert up to twenty trial nuis may be rcaclieü, r,ith ^^ careful 
flualiiuf- out. 



A Sketch of the Apparatus "Wasserfi^lX" (yaterfalX) 



^Proximity Fuse 

.Ng Bottle 
Instrumen 



Electrical 
Apparatus 



Jet Burner 



ft 




Warhead Or 
Ballast 



Air Rudpe-r 



M<BMruratioii of Tfarug^ ^ 

(1) Msasiiring atirrup (is a V forsned spring) laaxlnsaa deformation 
1.6 am "by 8 tona thrust accuracy plim or raiRsi« i;J. Oseillaticm "fegr 
eoafeustio© proeosa Assd too harä i^^tlng repeatedly damBgss the stirpiip, 
fh« experiment» were eKclusively ^ßde with "^rtically hicig o^r&n^, Self 
oacillatioH figures of the stiXTup reellj hi^er thaai file f^requeace of the 
Gvmm oacillatioxi, that 3tö resonaacse w*9 peresent» 

(2) With "bal-^^neiag socles, (tlm- ^.yven hm^ in a manner parallelogram). 
Vb» thrust co\irse wps recorded hy »eaas of a scriber in the same tmmer as 
with the ßtirrtip, 

ReisBarks . 

Measuring apr^aratus developraent w?^a worked by Herr -diuler. Researdli 
progr^B "Wr^sserfail*'. Tiie testiixg of the whole power unita ßnd the fiael ralv» 
of the oven ar^ä coBtaustioa res© rdti wee worHked by Herr Palm. 

The T-1 wos tested at the Air Force Testing Grounds in Fe«nefflunde. The 
plant tmntxger was ut. Col. Stanm. The rocperiraental Clhief was Dij^ &|glae4B^ 

iVey.c^nd. 

Piffereat D efects. 

(1) Test '^t^nd Vievy . 

Tue first defects in this line were the valve defects, o^'used by tht 
packing eaten up by the acid. As pecking ra^>terial the conmereiftl Oppassl 
wj^s liä^-ä x^^iraartly, available in various gr des of hardiMSs and varloui 
thickaesäsas. Color ; Violet. 

Ifurther y? Ive defects were throng seijsur« of valve slides. Thm valvMi 
were K3 actiiated aei^rfo valves. If? was set free througjti Eleotrioal Itagnet 
Valve (Bol«aold) and aotu^^ted the bsIä valves. 

Ftjorther defects i^irel^ meclianlcal« 

(S) Qv^Mi or Apparatus Side . 

Th» ovsa repeatedly bursted bgr the wat«r hansierliig at time of iflaition. 

Burning througji of the oven. 

Mixing Jet covered with rosin on -öie fuel sld«. 

Defects in oven head: Light metal Jet is brokim or sprung ivpeatsdljr 
through hard igniting, letting the injsotiaa stz^eass eoaie together too soon; 
oause an «cplosion of the oven head. Furthenaore, hard igaitloa eausad Jet 
to spring a leak in its seat. 

RenfcZfcS i 

The experlsiKits were observed throu^ anaill rmrts nhixAk w«re c o v e r e d 
with uiibreakable glass. 

358 



Wosic i»a doija towax^ the iirq?rov«nient of the ijaJeotloA »ystem 
with the riev of raising the Telocity factor ffom 0,8S to about 0,92 
in the A-4, 

fhe length of flame of the Water«Äll la free flight 12 to 15 M. 
The C5olor of the gas is light brown because of the unburaed aoid residu«, 
iifeieh gives off H20 and N0?>. During the *ests, gas masks , for the most 
pert were «ot wixn» la ^he cross section outlet, the ooMbuation chamber 
mossle was set for a pressure of 0«85 atmospheres. At the termination 
of fuming, Hke apparatus should h&ve readied a height of 14 KM a»a speed 
of 800 t^seoond« CulniuAticm point at SO-55 XK hei^t. Striking range, 
(Bee sketoh). 




For the ia;}eotioa system, & twist aossle will not be used, because 
of expense iHVolv«d in lost apparattw. The firing of the apparatus ensi;^« 
tram a starting wagon whidi is dri-wen over a concrete pit at the stark. On 
the nessle end of the apparatus sits a strong ring for the reception of the 
■Äßhiaery container for the steering rudder. With these machinery containers 
(4 pieces) the apparatus sits \;qp on the start wagon, where it is made fast 
with screws which «>re loosened shortly before the test start. 

Operation, 

Mr, Schüler responsible. 

The trial -values were transferred by HBans of measuring ajistrum«its 
wit^ a potent loMBieter, over an eleetrioal conduit to the writing apperatus. 

At the ecBflSustion ohaßä>er burning trials, the following were measured} 

Cooibustion oharaber ]?resaure, thrust, fuel oonsuB^rtion, aM tank 
pressure. Oscillations were taken down on sa oscillogw^h, 

359 



FljrlR^p target« wesm »ot &s y»t ah«Xlad» 

Pro^«ot wltäi 4 tons thrusts (cm3^ cm pB|>«r) 

Thm amm bAlllstiQ perfoxinaiKse,aad tha sens wuML load 
as Wfttearfall« 

(1) '^ilii e hi^ praesupe N2 pi^swst iia ^aterfbll« 

(2) ^i^h pcswäer oartxijÄß© (eoopononts imknoim) fUmiabed tsy 

a Kasabarg firs« The oartridgas "^mre triad out; thay b^imad up too ^ist» 
heyvrovier^ (X6 instaad of 45 aaoonds) and ^ßrm otf too hi^ a tas^panttuva« Barnad 
off at linder 25 atmoaphaz^as« 

(3) ^ith a oomb istioa stoaa instaXlatioa* YisoX id^ !QS04 and BROS 
ware oDmpletaly burned under a imter lA^actlon« Th» ooaimatlaai took plaoa i» 

a %isralBg ohaab^r* (see sketoh). fha fialahad ataas waa about ÄOO^« 



Weipht CcK^ptolaoiis 

H2 B hare es^f^ .«. 180 Kg 
HS aphem f Uli .., 250 Kg 
Con^justioK ataam inatallatloa filled 
(Pro^Jected) 



fiDXg 



It is aot aflqpaoiallsr knovai if a raaetloa takaa plaoa betaaaa iäm 
mß fual« Ikmemr, this oould aot beoon» sarioas, Ohtil mam^ ebout 95 Wataxffell 
apparatus were miafirad« 



moL 




360 



HelXtir;WÄi hmm on if^m^xry g*.4, 1914 in l^^ahwe^e^ 
he ©tt*>'?T^^<^ tlie Rfiforffi Beal^ymnas et ^fich^rem -^h^^rr hf- 
.took his '^i^^loiim on Maroh 2^ 19r'.3^ 

His Fost ö-ra^^uat® Courses wer^ - OhemiBtrj at thp nnl-t^er^iity 
(^ottinften »na r^t tb."': Technical m.S!:h f5chooI, D^^Tra^tRat, 
He specs *^1.1r,ea in "Physicßl Ühemistry, pn^ ps^g^ed his 
«x?imins^tlon for tltl^ of ripl.Ch«ra. In the Spring of 1940, 
Hell, er* fi l^^r^u'^trls^ -^rork from I" a j 1^ 1940 until to^-?^.y / 
was at the ^lektroraechanl Rchen Werke, K'srlebooi'^r^ (^•^MuH, 
His duties there wbtb in th@ Fuel chemistry and 
TfoermodynaiFics flel<1g, 

?^ P.eaporifslble offioös «no firms ^Ith whog® cooperation 
•^oTlt wa? done: 

1. OKH, "raffenamt, Berlin^ Kranzer Str, 
(Ordnance Dept») 

2. OKL, Technische L^jftruf^tung, Berlin, Wllhf^lra 
Str^ ^Tecbn- i,r '^nÄlpm?^nt Board)« 

3« KKperimental stBtlon of ths Luft -aff <*^ Kf^rlg»- 

hagen West* 
4., I. a, Farbenin<?i3stri<5, Berlin,. Koch Str. 74 

T)r. Wagner. 
5. Ohcmlache Werke Bohoirern near, Rathenau 

Director! Br, Wberbaoh. . > 

0» Schmldding, Bodenbach, Dr. Kaspar. 
7® Beiohßüionopolver'^altunp?, Stettin (aovniBt« 

monopoly control), 
8. feohnloal Hip:h School, Dresden, Prof. Beck« 



H»na Hut#r Parten Kirchen 16 Maj 1946 

«^ 
H&ne Herbert Huter, boim 21 larch 1906 at Bera, Swltser- 

lend« 

After I completed the Technical High School in Mainx, I 
went to work aft apprentice mechanic iTor 3 and j^ years at the 
Chenieal Apparatus Plant of A* Zierold, Ascbereleben« In con<- 
nection with thlüj» I visited the higher technical institutes 
in.Mittw^id®« AftwT 6 terrn®^ X passed the engineer examination 
with »^good». 

Due to tm depression ainä lack of work it was impossible 
for me to get & post m& engineer. In September 1927^ X.took 
§L petition as an aas«fflbl|' mechanic for iron and bridge con- 
struction with the firm of "Gutehofftiungshutte", Oberhausen, - 
Sterkrade. After 6 months of work, I received the position 
©f constructor in tfe®' project department. I worked on stati- 
cal and constructive probl«BS in regards to steel construction, 
mines and iron-min»-works» For financial reasons, Z left this 
firm in August 1929, and took the position of Ass't Manager 
in the Coke-Experiments Branch with täie ^Coke- Oven« Const ruction 
Firn" Dr. Otto and Co. in Bochum« In this branch, preliirinarx 
investigations were made for the construction of eoke plants 
at home and abroad| in addition to thii, large scale experi- 
ments were carried out on newly eonstruoted ovens and plants 

362 67937 



Work &i <s?xp<irisi<mtffil ^:igln®®r, I was promoted to th® position 
of dir®ot©r of ttm ^night shift** anö was responsible for the 
dontin^aotjts da^ <snd. night ©xporimenta and for the bperstlon of 
th«. normal ©©k# pXa.nt including by »product recovery» In 
August 1930^ «to# t@ eeonomieal reaeonfi, the axperiments wore 
t©x®ln»t»d, mr^ tfe® personnel laid off • For Bome tim'o^ I wes 
unable to find siii^ work. In Murch 1951, I was able to get a 
position aa «asH meehanlc for auto ma tic« long distance t^le- 
phon# installation. At the '^AFB'* in Berlin« In s short 
while, I wa« mechanic at the long distance phone stations 
Bremen and Rostock« I was again laid off in March 1932. In 
April 1932, I joined the Free-Workers Organisation "Rocket« 
Plight Field, Berlin", which was under the leadership of 
Piploma Engineer Hebel« Here, I worked mainly on constructive 
problems aa well as problems of th^ liquid rocket and the 
testing and starting apparatus which were developed hj the 
wtjrk pmrtfi BmgM^B thi^^ I evaluated experiments« After 
the flight tests requested by the City of Magdeburg with two 
larger pockets for 600 kg thrust were concluded wlt>} little 
. success in the Spring of 1935, further apparatus could only 
be constructed with very small means, as the necessary sup- 
port could not be obtained and industrial backing was only 
very «nail« In the Sumirer of 1934, the experimental work 
had to be discontinued« After 4 weeks of work with the Hen« 
8 Che 11 -Aircraft Works in Berlin, I received a position as 
constmetor with the Schwarz Propeller Works in Berlin-Waid- 

^ 363 ■. 6793^'i 



nisnnslust« Sine©, If- It was »t säII poasibl«, I w«nt«d to 
otfty with th® rocket ®xp©riißmi^j 4ft@r ^ ye«r at Schirmr«, I 
took tb@ pofiitieQ of «xperiw^ntül aagiaeer with the firm, 
Siesiene, \2nder Director Altvater. I worked in th« department 
for Äutomatie Flight Control« Director Altvater already had 
gi-ren us his stupor t at the Rooket Field (Raketenflugplatz) ^ 
km far aa possible» He thoug^it that sooner or later science 
wo'old take a greater iat^rest in the rock@t presto lern^ and for 
this Tm^mmi» p&t Mt'sAml» Heinisch, and myself (all former 
mei^ers nt %^m la%#t#iiifIiigplats»Berlin| into his Automatis 
Fli^t OoistFöl I^^partKöRt» Diploma Engineer Nebel also went 
to thm Slemeirs Works ftfter the termination of the rocket ex- 
p^riifients but was In another depsrtment* The present pro« 
fe^sor^ ¥on Braaia, had already left the Rocket Plight Field 
sii^e 1932 and Joined the Amy Ordnance* At the Sieraefis 
WorlEs^ I "»»liced as experimental Engineer on gyroscopic course 
Indicators and gyroscopic compassss, for airplanes and auto- 
matic steeriag gear, isnder Prof • Dr« Fisehel, (Former leader 
of the e:ii»eriffl€ntel station Ernst Udet). After 2 years of 
woi?k, £resi August 1953 until July 1937» came Frof • von Braun 
and took Elamsi^ Riedel, and myself to the Eeiff^st Artillery 
Park^ Feeneffiiiiid«j» the piece. where liqiiid rockets were being 
developed mvSi the first stages of th» c<mstructional work 
had been completed« With Riedel as leader of the experi- 
«!#nt«l grot^« we soon put the test benches in order and 

67939 



carried th^ expsrittmnt's (»t«rt©d at the shooting grounds 
Kxmneradorf} with *^ock©t-ov©n»*» «nd tlia «ntir© «i ?i«tu8 
further to parföction. With th» introduction of th« V-2, 
as ths fii*»t apparatus to b« used .for military purposes, th* 
dutie* of the expex*imental departnrsnt were increasod to cover 
the developftent an^ testing of the necessary vehicle, casings 
and firing equipaent» With the increase of operations, my 
duties anA responsthilities became larger. In the beginning 
of 193S, t was managing the ©irrational part of the entire 
test field. Early 1945^ I was Chief Engineer, In the Fall 
ef 194S, 01^ gav€ me the position of Leading Engineer of the 
entire testing ffelda. After th» Heimat Artillery Park was 
turned over to the Electro-Mechenical-Works, ö,M»B«H,, Karls- 
hagen, where the various departments coastructed ground in- 
stallation« for V«»2, were con aelida ted Into one central 
direct ^grmmd imrtallation". At the death of the director^ 
Klaus Riedel, the msnagem^it appointed me to his successor» 
I held this position until the unhappy end of the war, which 
terminated otir work for tbe tijKe being» 

Signed* Hans Huter. 



67940 



3«S 



....biiMA'^'\Mi la^MTTog.tlon cf Prof, rr, HH^i^T LUT^I, Kitaingea, 21 April, 1945. 

Lr. Hutar «as la+ rvi«^^ by F/Lt r.tckos f.xid Dr, R. V/, Porter. 

/.l^o b iÄ^'uixyr o..' -fie P^^reruTKle grou-^ at ''arar>tÄdt, Dr. Hut«r claims to be nn 

expert both in t3\.^ '»'-5 ylH of -lr»c^i'lc*l iBeusiiriiit '3eviceB, fiml alac i-, ..ha field of 

Hi^^h Tu-iaicn. *•%> ^^^l-ncipel tiroblerr.s puL :iO hire by Poenö.-'unce were 

Uy aa alücrxic i-re^r^iire meas'or bif^. ioatruiaariv for all sctlö cf purpose» 

<.-) :-.Ji .^luirri^^ivt? o ■^o: .fcr .Ir-ti/jiaci!"? '-r?»s no>\ roi fcr the A-4 rc'!kf?t, an'-l (3) 

He isentionsd two uses for tht prsssure reasurlr^ liistrucisnts, th© first was fop 
labcr=it<Jry -ad '.-T^t i<;_ ru-par-es snch as c^ö£3ia*äic©nt of the ojcy^en preesnr« in the 
A-4. etc. Tbs sacoid rj^quired a vary sß^ill X^pa cf irijlruajant for moasurln.^ Tery 
low preasiire diff j.".^ .i,»j in .7iiid cuTinol work« lie aixyn he has bu?lt pressure 
tnstruE-ints froi 3^10.^0 atßospbare to 70 aG..io3pheräS, for liquid ar^l gases. 

Iha intdjjrator -^c- ." vnschluas cowtr-ol v/as r^c^i daaaribed In detail bat in b:i»i'jf 

it conslstcHi cf = • .--^^-fr. "■;-?;.> Vj-; ?:u .r'ii.Jt,j.l a^ U^ vary 'i\a fröqn»r!<^;7 of ti»o 
oöcilldtcry eir- «:• ,,-: '.n o.-:^''.:-l „i dir^ic^U^i-d v.v.ari acceieraticn is aj^lied, Thl» 
chaxV;o in fr:inu;ni>' rrnnes a mctx:r to run at a sjuod proportional tc aoneleratlon 
30 tJ-^at 7@lccit7 tT ^«i^^'.'nrred b;r ^h^ r.ur/;b«r ol rovolutionu »ada by the motor« Tbl» 
ch€»ck<w3 tha s^xtt ?iv.7-i Uc? by'B'v:'-hhoT1, "r. Huiar sUiUd tJiav. ^.i« f^evice had not 
been eati-'^ly au^Cs^'s^jT .-n:^ h-:. ^ .\ot ^orvv ^ .■•<■' jiro i.i'jtion, (.i later coucepb ba3«d 
op t;r, Hit»er*? #r.,l.t'5--. ■^^-.tgn-r^nt, oo'i?!.. ?ä ci" iwo synclironous jrctora, one -^rlrii^n at 
th3 fr9iii?t5^ cf aQh ^nn-u} clrculL, Taa .•'ilff»\r-e;)oe in s^eod %'f-'iV? ?:>(9n ^i'T9 an 
ÄCCsir?/t6 •'?^:isar? ^-; ^.'^■. rcc^Ior.s.t! .m ^-<fc1 ohe volociiy could be obt^nlned by moar»» 
of 3 diS'^TOiitiju. ic^tci" 'Mif^ a counter. 

The aagactic 8i?4}iif;L «r pr obleia was put to Dr. Hater by Dipl. Ing. Sriheer, a '*or'''3r 
papil to Pe'Sneia 1 1!^. ria Uiir.kö it ^ras probably for the A-A but not cure j^jet how, 

D. I. Kur^chr^r am " « I» rlno^gen at Steinbach bei Lohr am l^ain are two «»n^ineera who 
have a l'^*# .'T'ichiGe ^oci3 and have bean aakiog saaplee of the pressure »easurlng. 
devices mvl tae ftoc-?ieroia8 ^-irs. 

Dr. Huter claLa»? ui .i all hie woric on high volta^^Q problems came fron .^.IS.C-» 9-^ 
had no co:r\:iCti-n "'I h rodiwt propulsion or 'dth i^oeneaunde, 

fiui probiaiii' V^i.-: -o ' o it-h rubcit.iticn of cUi'?r CÄteriala for aic« in 
Ifisuliitin^; iEav.»ri.»'l9. nnce inlca ras In very ihor:. supply. . He exi^rlront«'' with 
apfecially trafxt-e*^ r.a > r arA -^Ith trt-ac^tAte äK^roU, Scrae of his work 
Was intei/Isd '» riv< ivaj-s to cut dorn the e^^ce required for V.ith vol t^£,v^w by 
iTüpi^cved insula tljr..^ in' b'lffll'^g techniques, m» .lorkac with volt^jr^e up. to 
1,000,000 tolts m.9 ae and 2.2 Billion volte surge. Ho later ccrrec+^edthlii and 
aaid that ths trs^'r:f.«i»erc he vibqA for tl»e -eijr^-e voltfige» would T>ot «ctvallj fcjive 
that wjch, but w:ir%> Lnv^nced to. This «rork wao done for Abt. Industrie, A.S.Q. | 

Berlin, Ü.Ä.4.0 fiir ^ w:fj whane nas» ho couldn't reoeiober, but who waa a former pt«>ll« i 

One other div.-;!^ •«». vfich i^cf, Hulor remerabead working on was an in^truwerrt fer 
oesA'trin- the Uj-'Sxjie- i » rapidly rotafcinjj ahafts. The application he liad principly 
in jnind ifM.i t:-uit o^ 9*i*oruft onginoe. 

R. i, rORTT». 
366 



intarrogattd Ctermlsch 22.5.45 by J. HULL, H. A. L3IBIIAFSKI, Q. J. (JOLLII, 

He sat in a boHding and oaloulated the rseults of electrical measurementa 

during atatia taata. Ha ramabera thd foUov/irig statistics: 

Thrust 25 ton«, 

Oonitauation ohaa&ar - praasiora H*7 atu. 

• * taBporature not measured believod to be 2000°C 
Puap prasaura •• aaiaa on both posipfi 25 atu* 
IVasaura drop in ooTsring jaokat 5 atmosphere. 

rise in tha aoraring Jacket froa lO^C to 4^0^^C 
ijKuat taaparatura in rocket near combustion chamber lO^C 
Fk*assttra in alcohol tank on stand 

• -■ #2 " • " l<.2atiu 
Xurbina preas» 3^00 rpm at full thrust, 

2000 rpn after vorko^amanda. 

Fnal oonsuption 75 kilo 02/per sao, 

60 k ilo aloohol/psr sao 

135 kilos/aeo. 
Starting low! tor lishtii^up 6-10 kg/sao of each f>aal. 
At first tha flow for lighting up is liy gravity and tank prsssuriaad head 
but gradually tha turbine spaada up» 
Thrust aeasiirad by balanaa on AA all Baaaiu:>eB»nt6 correct to ♦ j;^ 

Chart travals 4- no per n^e 
par traTala 1 at a M, atu 
width of trade a 1 ^ 

367 



rhrast iBöasu^MÄDt by lESSBälui. acciiracy not m^tj good ♦ 1 to 2jt or 
2 to ^ eirröT» 
SchHt^r could tell but nas loot as good as tha baleoioe« 

V rious -7pvjs af ^irust spris^ were tried, 

?o..-;snH k^ioy if sTuÜ or t ®üps#, 

Cv i'KJt ^ivo tb€> t»s-a r<»sult8 a«- tb»y Tari^d so anich as the plant was' 

OsciUograpßs Cöly used for siaasur^asnts taken in flight » 



3^ 



int«rpogat©Ä E. A. UUCEHAFSKI 22» 5* 4.5 

a. or, QOLLIM. Garmisdu 

W&rk«d OB Amfstaad 9* 
Workod OB tivbo-pBBps« 
Cam frt» Iftlter of £lal« 

(1) Tarbin» tested at iOOO rpm 
la flight 3,600 - 3,800 rpm 
Drrelopeä 540 h.p« ye 4^XX> rpo« 
3-5 seeond» te get to foil speed« 

The alcohol - Ob Talvsa are opea before the turbine starts. 

Gas line to turbdz^i lapped to keep steam warn and to prevent fire fro« aleohol 

leaks« 

SmOI schluss at end of shaft (caa operated) cuts off T Stoff in case of 

overepeed« 

(2) I *■ ;? ttPtfUa (T Stoff 130 litres 

Z Stoff 10 litres) 

Z Stoff jsSi «wiv* first (otherwise explosion) it then operated diaphraa vmlrm 
and opened both main and solenoid T valves. 

Kass flmr 2.5 kg/sM T Stoff ^ ,, 

Z Stoff - ^ 

Steaa teaperature 400 - 420^0 

Z Stoff kept hot by blowing hot air on outside of tank« 

With ataos« temp, of - 20**C ©ould staol two hours (dropped 30^0 to * 5<HJ) 

Eeduoii« valw heated to avoid ohango in caUbration as rmry sense tive to temp« 

ehai^M. 

At lerkoamyyao Iain T Stoff valve shuts and turbine ohanges to 8 or 10 toa 

stag«« Fuel flim mit to 1 third of ooraal« 



369 



IN:T£R^:0GATI0N of DR^ GUI^TfiAIvl iJAFT , at Parteakirchen 

on 21 iV.ay 19^^ by 
F/Lt H.M.Stokes and 
Dr. R.vv. Porter 

Di». Haft, worked on the three computing elements for the Vassoi^all, 
namely the "Sinllnkrechuer", "Parallaxrechner" and ''T-recimer". He carae 
to PeoneiTiunde in August 19'^, and worked for Dr. Netger, under whon he was 
responsible for all**Bodengörät". Previously he worked on proximity fuses 
fo a small fi »m known as Kramolin in Berlin. He had a solution, he says 
but others were better and his ork there was tcrininated. 

The r-Recliner is ude for bhe purpose of resolving the control nignali 
in such a M^^HäX way that they acto on the proper pairs of rudders. The 
rocket it^eir is Sbäbilized g in roll, but dependinf^ on the problem it may 
have any petition with respect to fixed coordinate system at the launching 
point. lince controls **up-down" and "right-left" are given ;vith -espoct 
to this coordinate sys -em^ the T-recliner is needed to determine ^vhat Sig- 
nal shall be sent to each pair of rudders. 

The computers were experimental types only and were in separate boxes 
having electrical inputs and outputs« All firings ver-r^ made at trie 
Flakstelle in the neighborhood of Bengin« No computing equipment g of 

ij kind were used for the test firings. The rockets carried radio remote 
control of th© Eafehl-Strasbtirg type^ and generally the crew was hap.y if 
the rocket eould siniplj be made to respond to the control. The computinc 
equipaent was being beach-tested in Blbruaryi some of the components 
v/ere in the laboratories of ^.W. at Jieue Bleicherode, the home of the 
Flakversuchstellt« 

Very little work was actually done on the ground equipniont by the X 
E*'s^*l their ^L-k was chiefly to -"coordinate the manufacturers, suc'a an 
Telefunke , Areiselsoräatc, etc, id to test the systens. 

Dr» Haft seemed not to Kinww »out the detailed functionin(2 of the 
computers. He referred us to D^ ieisler and Dr. Elfers. 



370 



maOBAJUDmit latwrogaUon of HELMUT KSIL, 21 April 1%5. 

SourtM... fhif EMA mm a «ourier aetlng chiefly as liaison between BHF Berlin (1^ 
whoa h« UM Mq>lA7tdi) and Prof« Xiudvig Wasch of Heidelberg. He had had sooi» 
teAmical traizdiig \ßSL% apparently had no degree» He had apparently prepared for the 
Allied occupation by setting aside copies of dodunents, samples oiP tubes, etc« 
eacountered in hia work« Shese he hid. In the period betireen 9 April and 14 April 
he turned of^sr the daevaeata in sereral lets to the AMQ in Buchen wliioh was near 
his hosae la Hettingea« Ihe first set of docuaients Wiioh he turned were givsn, AMG 
says, to Maj. la« Saoaders 05> 21 Corps, JLltho there was no charge against hia, the 
isportanoe of hia deomenta and iafornatioa waa recognized so he was tkea la custody 
about 14 April aad brought to Heidelberg \sy l»%» Ryan, AUG. Froa Heidelberg he 
proeeaded to Sltaingaa where urTQ5 of the Saventh Army Interrogated hia, Hia 
doeuaenta were glim by Bjsa to MaJ • Draper in Heidelberg, 

Routine iatexTogation by the SaireBth ArflQT was carried out and will be covered by 
thalr reports« Adfmaaa aiasographad copies of aoae sketches the subjeot made are 
attaohad« Techalaal iaterrogatioa of the aubjeot was made by Dr. R, V* Porter and 
the writer« 

Subjaat «qpparcatSy faarad aad dialiked Wasch, and erery effort was made to keep 
Weac^ unaware of tlia faet that the subject was under detention and was talking« 
Another raaaoa for tha subjabt<a wiUiagnaas to talk was the hope of special fa,rarf> 
fw his faaily« At his request AMQ iasuad a pass for his mother permitting her to 
go out after eurfa» for a aidwife for his pregnant wife, 

lati Radior Ooatiaga *<^ Pyiaarily for Sahaorkel, Code name was Sohonstainferger« 
Material ooaoiatod of five layera per aooöapanTing sketch. Proportions of aateriala 
la diffor^t iMjmm differed slightly but averages were stated by aubjeot to be 
(laapblaak) |^20)(f Biaoiqpalvor (powderod iroa) 40*55^« ?he graia aiaoa of tha 
pewAerad iroa atÄtJoet aays are different ia the different layera, fhe ceaea had 
flattaaad old«« aad ak»p edges bnt aa alaost eircular baao« 

layMW aoro attaalMd ia tars« itoo laat layer witk the oonea attached was f oraid 
ia a proa« nalag aOO ataoapihoros« Subjeet says there are fores at Meaaelbausaa« 
There aaro aaagr aaa^plaa 40 to 40 oa at Besselhausea, probably buried. Several 
bozeara of aatorftal (taa elosod and one open car) left Heidelberg for Hesaelhausan 
oa 26 Sarah« fiiey ware seaa to be near Heilbronn oa 28 llarch, Ihey are probably 
oov aloag the reota^oither via Osterborken and Laude or via Kureaberg and Wurtaburg« 

Abaorbtioa withoat tha doaaa ia said to be 30)( and with the oonea abaorbtion ia 
fO$, Material ia naM to ba good for wavelengtha fToa 2 to 180 oa. Curve* of 
pwrforaaase «ere aaeng the docuaenta surr entered to AMQ, Subjeot stated thikt 
10»20)( of abaorbtioa mM aaoaad by rootifioaUon ia the aatarial which ema»^ d-a 
ia tha awrooadiag aater« Ha ooold not elaborate on thia. Probably aiaintarpiretation 
of Boaething he heard« Btaidea Woseh, others working on this aatarial ami 
Br« sma, ßr« ?S73!»L aad Barran SAUSIR and STBT1XR« Saaqple« were asde fby 
»iBawark of Sehhapaa leaatad betaeoa Merseburg and Aaoeadorf « 

8alf-8toeriag Mlaaile ««* Mabjoa^'a taohnioal knovledga waa «aak a^jd unre;Liabla 
oa this 9uliija(»t* Ma aoalda*t give a ooheront story oa the overall operat^oa bat 
, aoBo oi his fjtataaaacia say fill ia atoriea obtained elaewhere. 

üha BlsaU'j «aa daaaribad aa 25 « l»ng with a photosensiUva device in che noaa« 
Subjeot -h^ not r* n er dealt with tha tail and aotor and shell but say« that they 

371 



were to be built by Sch&effer and Budenning a Ma.e^eberg firm which makes naval 
torpedoes. The codo najne for the whole missile is Fuhrernotprogram. The control 
apparatus was quite cc.mplicatÄd involving four little motors to control the tail . ' 
surfaces, and subject did not know how it worked. Leita representatives were at 
the University frequently so subject thought they designed it. 

Tha missile was said to be a self-starting and self-steering device. They were 
told that the seacoaot of France would be blanketed with them to attack aqy planes 
from Sngland that came over. The sensative device was said to be able to detect a 
soldering iron at 200 ir.eters and up to 20 ^e^ees off its axis. As subject had 
only seen single element sensitive heads he could not explain how the thing steered 
itself but drew fron; nenory a circuit diagram (attached). An accarate original 
scheaatic was si^qDpoped to be among the documents he had surrendered» 

Subject said that lead sulphide cells could be used for visible light detection but 
were not good for irJVa rod. For the latter the "phosphor" type was us«d (»subject »s 
sketch is attached), 'Hhe filter material supposed to exclude all visible lii^ht 
was called IK36, A modulated light is supposed to cause operation of the device, 
A perforated wheel Is used during testing. Daylight does hot cause operation, in 
fact a lamp ^'s used inside the head when it is used at night in order to give the 
saiQS opera oing point as during the day. Said lamp is sometimes an incandescent 
^yp®f sometijBss a nercurj laiap. 

Other» besides Wesch working on this subject were Dr. KRUPPKS and Fraulein' KABffil 
of Heidelberg and Messelhausenj Prof GUDDSN of Dresden; and Leuchstoff, GmbH, (a 
Telefunkon associate) in Steinbach, Thuringia. Dr. KAM was in charge of the work 

there. 

Small Gsaarators Telefunken or Bleupunkt built a d-c generator about 10 x 10 x 10 

c®| lD-15 watt output. Output is 25 volts d.c which is said to be sufficient for 
some of the jaa^ eJjsctronlc tubes. 

The gemretor is driven from outside by a notor of similar size which operates on 
6 volts d.c* A larg^ generator for 60 watts which is driven by a small gasoline 
engln« is also reported, 

CCÜFU Gerat« Subject imported this to be for radar transmitting and receiving. 

AftsT omp inquiry about the magnetrons involved, the subject told us of hiding som» 
tubes in his hoiiss tb&z he was supposed to havo delivered to Wesoh. On the 
follovlng day the subject was taken back to his hone In Hetingen i^.ere he turned 
over the follovingi 

5 Telefunken hlgh-ftrequency tubes reportedly good for 60 watts output from 500 
era. to 10 ca, and to higher frequencies at reduced ratings. Type number IJ>-9, 

11 Magnetrons of the RD-2 type. These are small magnetrons In which the anodes are 
about i inch long. There are four anodes, alternate ones being connected in 
parallel to a two wire open ended ttined line enclosed in the glass envelope» TA* 
lowest fr^'^nency ones are marked RD2 Mod and are rated at about 10-12 <m, IHe 
interaedi^t« ones^ marked RD2, are rated about 8*10 cm. One sample of a nuoh 
higher fra^uency one (probably near X baiid) is narked IJI565. Several of the tubes 
have attached tags giving operating point data. 

372 



1 ^b« not pr«vioiis3^ 9noo\mt@r®d. It was mark^d RM4032. Subject r©ix)rt«d it t 
be a aagnatrois wfhose frequency was -variable from 2 cm to 18 cm Just by movi2^ fh^^ 
nagnetlo oeils. It appears to be a diode with oonnectlons at eaoh end for 
concentrio lixid or oaTlties« 

Suggested disposition — - iJie subject claim« to have hidden some sample phosphor 
oeHs at Messelhausea» Itiey nay be old types but should be recovered by taking 
the subject to this location. Subject's technicel knowledge i^ limited and 
probably knows little iccre than he has revealed, unless further interrogation ia 
specifically desired, it is suggested that Ö« be released to house parole. 

W, HAUSZ. 23 April 1945. 



373 



IN'rraHOGAHOJK ÜF DU L» ING, JOHANN JCS5F KL5IN 

By Sq/L Sharps, F/Lt 3tokes, 
and .Dr Porter, at 
Partenkirchen 

Ing« Klein was asked about the new servo-control equijD.'Tient wh.ich 
h© was i^eported to have worked on. He said that he had had samplee in 
Mb laboratory but did not know details of the circuit. There are sev 
al different types, having tiae constants from 8-10 milliseconds up to 
IQO mlliiseeonds. The lOOnniilli second type requi es an input of 1 to 2 
ma into 400 ohms to produce a saturated output of z\o e than 100 r-r.» The 
device is designed to control a K-12 servo-motor and is usud in the 
automatic pilot for fighter aircraft such as the Be 109, etc, A 500 
cycle AG supply with frequency regulation must be provided, 

This ma^etic amplifier was tested in model of the rudder control 
for Wasserfall« Results were not very g^od because of the 1 ng time 
constant of the magnetic amplifier, as coi£X>ared with an electronic aiapl- 
iflep« Tfe® time constant is particularly important in 'Vassorfall where 
the natural frequency (aerodynaraic) is high, bein^^ of the order of 3 cps 
for lateral »otion and much higher for roll. 

Dr® JOLein is personally in favor of the magnetic ainplif iera, and 
-.Jinks li® could have overcome the time-constant t.rouble. However they 
^ere difficult to obtain, both because of a scarcity of mu-metai, and 
because each, amplifier required twenty to forty manhourc to produce. 
Sine® four asaplifiers were required per rocket, the labor was concsidere'.^ 
to© mucli. Electronic amplifiers would have been just as bad, and in 
addition there was a very severe^Bottleneck" in vacuum tubes. The re f dps , 
the Wasserfall engineers were trying to develop a simple relay sjrutem 
which could be operated by the gyroscope pick-off and would, control an 
electric motor« To keep the system from hunting the rela^*^lire caused to 
"chatter" or pulse at a frequency determined by the time constants of 
the relays themselves« This pulsing is produced by means of a feed-back 
circuit and gives a control which is similar to proportional control» 










374 



.-^ 



-•-^ • l'-^^- U.H i,F it^Xi^^ii: 



( luterrogacion of Dipl Inö Johann Joaef Klein, continued) 

Br Klein seeF.s to be relatively enthusiastic about the relay sysi 
and believes it will be satisfactory for i/^/ässerfall. 

R.W. Porter 



37S 



Interrogation of Dr. Oskar Lange (m 2222) 5 June 19^5 - ^y F/Lt, E,'M, X 
Stoko ;-, -nd I« Hausz. 

Born 1912. Worked at Heinrich Herz Institute, Berlin under Prof. 
K.wr. Wagner from 1936-19^0. He was concerned v/ith magnetrons in the 
10-20 cm range J in particular v/ith the back-heating of the filament. In 
1940 Dr Lange published a dissertation suamarizing work done. 

During this period he also carried out a research on the transmission 
of 1 to 5 meter sho':'t waves in the ionosphere. Wsed a 1 KW impulse trans- 
mitter near the Scharmützel see in Be-lin. This work was under the direction 
of Prof. Leithauser. 

In 1939s Oetoberg Dr Lange was attacked to the i;rprobungstelle at 
Earlshagen, but was allowed to perform his work at Berlin. He was asked 
to prepare a summary of all available (§erman and fo-eigm) papers on the 
trar: =imission of short waves 4 to 1000 meters. This was completed early 
in 1940. Then he was sent to Rechlin to study bean control methods 
CL©itstrahl verfahren) under development by Dp. Plendl, At the time it was 
T'lpplied to the control of Ju 52 aircraft. 

In April 1940, Dr Lange transferred to Peenemunde and in conjunction 
vch Dr. Steirüiöff , who is a good pilot, -//orked on -the application of this 
Ha control system to the He 111 and the Do 17 planes with three-axis 
: ^'»eriag control« A tho^ugii grasp of the problems involved in effective 
e©Ecrol was desired« Experience gained ws^s applied to the A 5 missile S 
turlÄg 1941 and 1942. Similar experiments leading to the Lei t strahl control 
of A 4 were carried out in 1942 and 1943 <, 

Subsequeat to the development of the Leitstrahl, a 50-60 MC apparatus, 
i>r Lange worked on the development of the Leitlinie Verfahren. One of 
its aims was to reduce the possibility of jamming. It was tobe a 50 cm 
system. Much work was done but the development was aW yet complete. It 
was being developed in conjuaction with Dr. Jaekel of Telefundken* 

To reduce the jamming possibility great emphasis was pat on the design 
of the antenna for the missile. A Yagi antenna was developed, with three 
dipoles in line protuding either from the fin or the fuselage. This 
design gave a pattern with a forward to backward radiation ratio of 50:1 
in voltage or 1000 si in power. For 50 cm waves the influence of induced 
currents in the missil« on the pattern was still large but not nearly so 
-reat as it had been at 50 mc. 

A« in the Leitstrahl, the system was basically a lobe switching trans- 
-«tter with means to identify the two lobes» Plane of polar itat ion dis- 
tinction between th® two lobes was tried but discarded and the final system 
modulated oae lobe «Ith one audio frequency and second lobe with a distinct 
audio frequeÄi^.:' 

376 



Dr Lange was charged with the develOi.;meiit of control for '.Vasserf all, 
up to Ap^il 19^, but a flying accidiÄnt incapacitated him for six months 
"'nd Dr Ketzer took over this work. 

He disclaims having deviloped control for A 9 as told us .by another 
source but says that he had proposed a system but had not developed 2CC it« 



377 



CIOo trip iTo. 183 Group II - Copy of report given to Group I« 

nTTliUtOGATICN OF DR. LAiJGE AT ffARLilSE PARTEHI{ERCHM 
JUNE 6th 1945 

Interrogated by S/Ldr. B. A. Sliarpe, RAE 

SUBJBOr OP II?gDRR0GA2I0:7 8 "Leitlinie« decimeter steering 

aysteu for Vt, 

Br. iange explained that tlie Leitlinie system w^aa 
being developed as a replacement for the •'Victoria Leitztrahl" 
steering system for V2« 

Its mkLn purpose was to reduce the possibility of 
jamming« 

A wavelength of 50 crjs was used and directional 
aerials were used both on th4 grociiid and on the aiiiile. 

The system used v/as the sa^/ie as the Victoria 

Lietztrahl with theepception that the modulation fr.jouencies 

indicating the nmrk space periods were higher, i.e. in tfee super- 
sonic region. 

GROUI^D SQUIK^ar 

' A Wiirtzburg aerial system was used, fed fro-.: a cw 

transmit Ler. A comniutator was arranged on the aerial drive to 
provide switching of tlie audulation t3 nes in the required sectors 
of the scan. 

HIiGILE ZJJTBlsEST 

Thl& equipment followed the sane general circuit arrguige- 
fflsnt of -öle VJLctoria Lietzatrahl but the design would be made very 
much sißaller and cheaper. This was due to the following reasons. 

1) The directional aeriile on the ground and on the missile pro- 
duced a greater equivalent field strength at the missile allow- 
ing a quite simple design of superrengai erative receivers to be 
used. 

2) The higher modulation frequencies used resulted in much amaller 
filters. ^^ 

The KE^ origonal Victoria equipnent had dlriensions ij^ x 25 x 15 
cms. while the ne,; öquipment was built into a cylinder 12 cms 
diameter and 18 cms long. 

The aerials used on the i-ii sile v.-ere three eloneii.t yagis mo.Jited 
, on the fins. These gave a lack to front power ratioiof 30H 

sxAiis CI d:::v. Lc..:3rrT 

This equipment was still irnder developiaent at Telefunken. 
The engineer in charge 'vas Dr. Jackel. 

rUTHiRACu^IOlT 



Llore information nay be obtidned throug' Dr. Brandt of 
Telefunken. 

378 



I»araeOa 16 ,^una ,1945 

Enuet 

Ru-^pclt. 

this iSt3j:rOtj':vL.lo.i aOiAtiüu<^;j c^üu amplifies the re ort oT Ic 
J-.ii-e, 1945 on ths abovo i..3ii« 

yctoop> This r30oilloj3, hi^-n YC;loci.ii.7 gim wac worteoi on in Sv.'ulon 
^drijag. 1940-43 by Icu'saon. In thx^ devioc, onovm in Fi^.i, recoil 
±3 eoimtöractGl ij ^ rocluit ^wali isauiug from tbo broecih of tlif; ^'uii. 
Hie pwoler charge nali up of ü^.aiiuc-.iv liC powlor of thecliraengions 
eho-vn i3 distribuliod Oii oiwiior üiu.y of au igiiiliioa. plate in tho 
ratio of 3 parts forward und *: {^axos aft. Igniti'on is prodaaGd by 
heating a wire which sets off a Cüiüpre^üCu bl?-^ck powday disl: on 
either sido of the v;lrö« Currsnt is ob'oaiiiui from the atve.y field 
Inside the gun tube duo to a ooil wrapped around the outaido of t'.o 
tulie. fhe Interrogatora ciaiia that thoy have made tuio dubious 
devloe worlc. After innition» rapid bui^nlng of the two charges i^isaa 
the chamber pressure, acoeleratiii£, the pro^eotile and blwoixig the 
Iburstiii^: disfc situated i^i the rear of the charge, rroir. that tine on 
the rockst ^et from the rear in supposed to produce a force eq.ull- 
Ibrium with the normal ^nija i-ecoil fprcsa, 2Jhe bursting disk is nade 
from oa»t Iron or preferably a gtc^ei reiaforoad plaatio« fiie hcm- 
Ispherioal oup acallng the forward end of the powder charge carries 
the projectile on a short ©xtei^aion of its forward surface. Shis 
«ap is made from se&ioiroular flat stool baiodi? »^/erlapping and fflould- 
•a in plaetic. On reaoMng tke gitax. bore reduotion the hsfidsphere la 
supposed tc broak up and paaa out through the muzzle • 2he outside 
diem« of this hemo sphere ia pi^ovided with labyrinth grooves wliere 
it oomes in contact with the large gun bore to prevent gas lealca^'e« 
©le interro«atore olaim that with a chamber -oressure of £000 at"8 
the projectile yolocity at the bottle neck will be 850m/sec and 
At the muzzle ISCOm/seo* Higher pressures toward the muzzle end of 
the gun is given as the rea£>on for the higher muzzle velocity« Jk 
H^ht gun tube can be Laade to stand ^tuis pressure by a form of strip 
winding ahown in ?ig. 2» The wiuding ia laid on in an overlapping 
helioel form in 4 to 6 layers utidar tuxicion. latrive are ma;:*.e from 
« high strength, cold dravm Gv/odish staei of 160 icg/mm^ elastic 
limit» 5he inner layer is rjalo from stock »6 to 1 mm thloir. •fhiok- 
li«v«?.s i:j reduced lu eaoh la;/er until tho outside layer is 0#£ mm 
thiok. A thin outer tule i^ puchod over the assembly for protection« 
SChe claim ig nu;de that such tubes ^^havin^' a l^otal thiokneg? of 15 mm 
havo suoessfully ivitiiatüod 3000 atu. in order to obtain suoegsful 
•pei^ation «.lasticlty i:j neci^Sf;axy« ijJach. layer of windixig nniet slide 
•atiaily on itself so that üfter several pressure applications a thin 
bri^-ht line sho'.vs near each rubbing ea^e. The projectile used in 
this e-n.n is provided v.i^h I ig ^rcmsdorf device d-.^soribed in tho IS 
/one interrOi:atioa of the35 sa^e .men. 
This gun has no vor bucn built« 

jgenmiW Ra^jLo • 

This ratio is defined aa tlxe area of buryiin^- powuor siu-faoe 
d»vided by the throat area of tno nozzle. For jaormal diglyool pow- 
der (for composition see repoart of X£/6/4iJ on these people) a ratio 
of SCO to 600 is normally uaed which gives a pressure of 180*200 at\^. 

379 



'.itL "?er Pulver"' a rat^o of SO - 80 will give the optt.Tcj worJcin^ 
pi-^^-^c Ox 2j to ÖJ atu« A lower ratio I3 required aince the bura- 
-■-.,; i'si-'i:^; ^Oi '\Pcr Folver " ±3 al-oat bon tiuies that normal pcvvcier« 

.:•-„ ;..or:^o-._'Gtea pgv.'der 4<:rai2:ift arc uaed tile inner Klensniing ratio muat 
be cü-;i8ic.erecL i:. order thiit the ^3.2:11 will riot ba iiox'öt iluo to intern- 
al pre. cuu-'i-. Fur Biai^Tifc pori'oration powtior tue ratio is defined as 
^ii^ i.vib. oi' thü iiu.fcii- tuxnin:;- a^.irxe.ce äivicLe^. by tv/ioe tlie hole area« 
.rV.;i' ;---:cv-iity ircüi powder grain explosions the ii.ncr fClemmuixg ratio 
I.:,- t ^^ Xts& t.iiLu tho outer. '' i !.h bux-idn^^ the inuer iatio deoreasea 
r-f tis- hoi«? sü-sa (r «;) inproapea laste r than the in.- er burning area 
( T /• ihese people were asked emin about tho pe-rlormanoe oX per 
I-lwOi'. un todt it has ^iven a fuel constuiipticn without an expand- 
±1^ noiiile ol" 4*0 gifl/it« eöo- With eji expamiin^^ ncszle thiö would 
r 01? io sen's an .31 uX 27'/ ea«. 
i'hi a obtained by- 

!• Higher temperature 

£. KiiPher specific ^s volumn 

^. Eifrner heat eontent in the orgaaio oompounda (aore 
Ii 2} giiring better eombn.stion t)ro(luot<5« 

In addition tMg powder has a higher gpocifio density than noimal 
i.2, 1.8 instead of i.Sö. With tiirther work it ia hoped to obtain 
ruel öonsumpiiioa rates of 4.0 gn/kg seo without an expanding nozzle« 

Those mon suggest that Dr« Seiohmann be into rx'O gated» He ia in 
Wofratoliasiaea al>0Tit iSO mile» north of here on the fiunioh road« 
Suppclt, Hoidt and Ksmst worked for tPeiohniann on ruel Jeaooidn« prob* 
X&ym and epeaJc highly of his ability. S?hia report repeats Inform- 
ation gained from the interrogates irlth no special effort to gort 
out faot and fanoy» 



380 



J] 




t 



L/ 




381 



3tockholm* 

1. Lsrason was born on. 14 Varori,191ö in C*?tra jfroluiUa, _-ilva- 
oorga, i«aa, Sweden. Hö atLoMei. .-^ablic aohcol Ir^ H^-J.obruic isr 6 
/säx's, &i3d ine gymnaaium in Kalmstal, for 4 y^ars. tx Jiiditioii 
ta that iiö ab.öMue^ anfcil 1^37, tlio Ghaliuers GGoiinical Jii^li 
33äooi at Gotiianbcu'g* i#ar3aon be jlu ti-vo years of volaatary sor- 
vio3 dui'iü^is iatwdi- iiali of 19:-^? at tu.e owredish. artiller/ rCj^i- 
mont 1ji StoOiSiioim, aiiil later v^enü to tlia, resenre officers soiiool 
*«hicii was sltdated ia tiae artillery öohiGasohole Si!:lllin;3aryd, 
soataern öi«e4«n- Böo&uaö ot tho ^ölv hlt^ traixii^iji:; wag proloujel 
aad iio *a3 relöasöd in wuiy iy-io, ainüo it was pos.qibi^ to famii- 
iai'iii« himsölf T^it/i tkö dif iörent wca^onc ua^^d Isy tlie ini'ajati*y 
anci artillery units, hö beoaiae iü^erösti^d in a^LuOia^j^t techniques« 
Ha was speoi&lly interested in tho dosi^oing of portable guns 
am ligfat port&blö weapons, ainoe in hia opinion tne ourrant types 
to be too Jäsairy« 

£• In the massk^s ot 1940 ne pa^oposed a non-reooxling tazik gun whioh 
wtis aooopted 1^ tlni S««4isli anwies ^raapona branch«, for that reason 
h% was traasferrdd (as a olvlXian employee) to the Swedish armies 
wtapdns of flee in Stoolcholffi* Dwixin^ that time he studied for two 
toxM at the artill^zy on^lneoflng sohool of the Swedish General 
staff« In thd fall of XtiS, the tanJc gun was approved for man- 
ufaoturo. %h» Swedish l&fantry was issudd with 80Q0 pieoes { one 
por8atw4l« 

3» While &««onatratin^ this weapon he oame In oout^^et with rep- 
ifosentatiTes of the forei^ ailitaxy attaohe; She fiorwecian mil- 
itary attache |X>onäon OoTiyit*), l*t* Gol. Smith-Klelland (now am- 
hassa&ov to the irojraX Sorwof^axi Goviuat. for the future Czeohoslow- 
dd.en repulftliel showed the JLmerioan and British attaches some of his 
desigas» for It was a^arsson's wish, if possible, to go to .America or 
Sa«lan4» and there sontimie his work in the interests of the united 
zaiiozuitt fhere after he was iarited to Xunoh by Ma^or Balish the 
British, second mXltt&xj attache, there healso met the American 
Bilitarjr attaohe; It was determined, in the interests of the Allied 
naticas» to try and look into the possibility of Larsson coming tdth- 
•r td Snfland or Ameriea» and to work ther« in a certain developa^t 
ergaaisatioa« On this occasion he showed them several of his prev- 
iCtos desiipxs and outlined some of his further iseas« 
4« J!y this time It was 1942 and the only way for him to get out 
•f Sweden «as by air» he was informed, however, by the British Mil* 
itaxy attache that he could *nt leave Sweden in that way under any 
SUrCQBstaaiiocs« Besides which Larsson had becsme an official in the 
Swedish arnr weapons branch in Ctcokholm* 

$• Ittstcad the suggestion was made that he be sent to Germaigr in 
the iatcrost of the united nations in order to work there till the .j 
Cfld $t the war and gather and pass on information colic erning dev- ' 

cXopAsnts Cftii§i#OJtii« 7or this purpose he was met by several rep- 
irctfsatatiTCs cf the American and British secret servioss, from these 
«SA he received ens asnths instruction on how to operate (for full 
pa^$M3LA3^ of his activities in Germany see Appendix Zor J 



6« At th« above mentioned demonstration ot his weapon he also 
caino 5?j (sontaot with tho reppeaentattvea of the German military 
attache, lst*Lt. l^uller«liel>snau who aa iced lÄrsaon to pay him 
a visit in oorrü^ction with 3Qi:.dii*fc him to Oermany^ Several days 
attor, everything was set, oa 22 Küy,194a 7jarf?aon got hlg final 
ln8tr\JCtio?.i3 "froni c. Brltia^ acox-o;, isarviue me.n., ».^r. Abrtiücuü v;hQ 
v?ar> employed at thn Ex-itiyix le^atiw.* Xn Kjfcoojcnolm. Lamgon £;avo 
hiiü ius iatrj^t Ironi, - fy^ fwitoiü ciijvöiopfflent. On the same da^/he 
traveiöd l>y train to the ^.v^disii-Ks/rwi^^.n \>order, there was 
taio^n In hand anl o^^^ortü-d bj a v.ÄOu.i*i*i engineer who wag working 
oiricaa were looateil in r- rliu-^^ohcmi-^öütLOrf , Berkaorstr aß/36 
nevx Äleter Plat?, On 1 July, 1D43 he was employed by Mflt^t^ Berlin 
A'egel, this firm belongccl to '^fox'^.jertun^sßöse'lxsohaft"» Montan, a 
d<.iJfu:!.Y corporation ( Samecsellsohaft ) with whioh the leading weapons 
ti.L-m.1 were conjiected. /gsoi:^ theni ceinf, iüneinaatall Borsig, the firm 
o£ lui^et is al!?o oorrected with liieiniu^'tall Borsig, it ip the lead- 
i^^ firia in the field cf ll£?l t laacjhiuö gußs ^IMG Modell 42). For 
other parti eulare ocncemin£r the lia^^öt to see his special report 
Appendix ao— -^J 

?• in order to caarry out his re^iatration and in order for him as 
foreigner, to advoid any tro-ibl:; he was ^iven a helping hand from 
the former chief of the iieo^ix-it^ poiloe and tbo S.Ö», S3*l!auptstruiiK 
fuhror Skorxeay« At the saa^ tiiso hs ^as lnt«*rrogatcd by the oest- 
aj>o and seized by the eriraitial polico for the German aoorst service, 
they crossed the border about Sin* south of the Charlottenburg 
ousTioms station« 

6# In accoiHlanoe with the talica of the German military attache in 
E'tockholra, lÄrBSon W8.r> transportou. to Oslo by Gorman military police 
via an office of the Grrmn aeourit^^ police, and the S.D*(3eeurlt2r 
service) in Bombay. He au3 Icept in üslo for approx» three woe::o 
böoauae his ®ntr:f papera had not bö**a oomT)ieted aM the sntrv- could 
be re^^Äted from that point only. On 18 June he went abroai the 
troop trans: ort S/r^ ITonta Rosa and aailed for Aaphits, Dennarl:, and 
from there contlitiied his Joui^noy by railroad via Kembur^: to Berlin, 
where he arrived m. ^3 Jime, 1ö4ä>. 

9« Larsson had a let tor of iatroduotion i'rom the German "Eeereswa- 
ffeaemt'* for the flnn l^a£0t»ricrlin*I«4i-ei, and also an order to report 
to the Chief of th« security polica ai-d the S*0* whose (other part- 
ictilars oonocjrnin^ his iv2'Jti-:<:3 v»ibh hii^her German polioe authorltiüs 
sec Ac :)6nU:« j^o,— — ) 

10, In order to j^eall;' ^jraap tho aiVuAticn it shcold be expleiried 
thati t!ia above niontionad .— 3. Hä.npt« tüat^jafuhrer Skorseay had in thö 
■tantins oon-leted hi a aation of liberating Bisaollni. For that reas- 
on lie boofc-me a vf ry tjifXuönoial and well iaaowii personality in Berlin, 
which of vjourso w«o to thai adva,ntJ:.^> oX liareaon» Skorzeny «onld be 
very heli^ful whfjn .lirsKon v.£.3 intrcauood into the Reichs ministry for 
Axm£?~':.out ani war prod^^ctioi:^ (chii;! weapons board). Into the anay 
wearons eGotion, and to Chief of tua S«.:., weapons 9<äctioa, Brigadcf, 
Gartnor, in other word?: to all the lüodi.xg authorities in the fioXd 
of dGveiopmönt of wonpoiu, Xhoao autiioritioa he told of his aug^ 
estiona, as pep instruction obtuUiOy. in JtooKholn, he was then, alitor 
Xq:^& bxjI difficult negotiatloiLsi witJi r^evtral Geruj^n authoritiös («ee 
pcrsoanixl files j, traneferrcl to the Vor3uolitt«Anstalt Groosondojrt^» 
Westpruaaia situated ca the Hela renlnsula» 

383 



11. In the seantln© tea months had gene by and h« wag f?tili v^it- 
iiiti fui' Äor4 eosieeraißg Ills su^eetiona on dsvelOTsments» 
V^. KoäKs au tlie V£rsuoha-.-iiiütalt GrX-csseiidorf , he had the tcyt i-^oso- 
ijlc j,..v. ..ÖO to hv'^^X liito ..-tüolinici-vjüo since at this iru-titu:ion tii© 
wor.^ in this field fiaa eoia,, ou vcr/ thji-ou^^^ily am nynt.ene.ti.CfellY« 

v.-f; nide^l; roc^il ^^^e^ix^i^i, o^ Cc.^— ^^/. l:,,^3 VorrjLo.^ .::^ot..:.t r-min*.. 

lor^' x-ii^c .-»oaket, iator called i,h5 \/.^, Ti^oy r^l .-aa.-; j' jG/c-rs.i ooia- 
plato a-Arbfeitsa {report;;?} fgr ::iä^ roc it :Ci.;^il a:ixx thrcixrh tlioGe 
-^::i'in-icn v^as voi-^ ;ireli abl^ to foiiov^ tl;: d, vclo ir-oncn ci^ 1^3 V.r. 
'"- .t3iit las z>c:.ort5 iri i-afc.-cc::;- to t^iis, tc 3toekiicia th:^oa{;h tha 
t;^-j -^73 at IJ.Q disposal. 0-e; thxouw^li Ms öcntaot In '^e-lixx; two 
vxirxa-eii bJ-3 ^^ oorr-ejpCiOitace {f'£.rtio:-ls.ro hereiore .le- Apji-oa-li^v 

IS. ncxe he äl30 oauv in ocntact AitA t>e lÄiOir.-' jie^ of t'lo Tor- 
.'^odo Ter5=i3h3 uLn^Uilt Gvtiieahafsii a iDrancIi ot tliu Kriegsaariiio , 
V"or3C2^^.^ A2i.5talt ICI0I arsd aisa ultxi tlia chiaf a-! liTcio-Qment of t-^e 
A«,T7, ?rot« Xltex-, Ijaol-xdi^ his dSYaloriii^ station on tiie "^sla' 
-enlna-uX^^ i^üTtlxQümöi^ ia.e had somootloiia ^Ith t-ie do^/el^itju^int aeo- 
tlon ot IhQ fsolnaieat Hi^ :v^]aool ::;in2ig aaa tkö spöoiai ds:Jve:Lop- 
ins atatioa.OA the ^ixsi Kd2u..3 i^i Zappat wiiioli nad tua öasic of <iari*- 
yiiig out speöial hl^h tjce^üßiiöir stvai^s. 

14. Sind® la tii0 wiater 1944-45 tli« tsmXmnt Rua?^ian driva iato 
iruasla zaadd I;li3 ^ditlofi adstewhat didlioult it Vio^a deoided to 
moT3 til« Tersudlis*^ast&Lt (Srossdaadorf , Waat i^roaalft to Pll>razn, 
a2®eli0alo?mlcla »M tl^re, ia «onJuaatiOÄ wi^ the mfian-Ja-toi:. 
Slcoda-Bruaa OoiM*» Wsx'lc Ixibans I\t2ilcii Jaad alraady boa^ u^idex täö 
Mreetioa ^t Iß^;* 2^1:^ iJägOl fox oae liaif ysar to fore* tho Ver^aülid- 
Asatalt Of thd ^^Ä;ri#Ä-Jaioa» Il^raju Caa lataationa wore to öreot 
#ne po^idTfUl ddveldlBftat statloa tJi? ou^ thd coaiblniafr a# thä two 
rjaxitiOü@d at&ti&aas* For tii^t purpose Ofid of tiie moat modern testiag 
benohaa f©3? i-©«3kdt-töclmä4piö wae planned» «aid «rrsotod hors (approx. 
Bkr^ fzOK :^ibr^5i) All tlio ecdäB^eroä deTölopiadnt aeotloim iü Crer* 
nari^, tb&t is Oör^troüc-d a-9?oa]>ons, were traasf erred to ilbrami 
^esidos fa&t tke moat qiißHfied tocliaiciiöa Id tiio field of E-teoii- 
niq.tu^ were fcro^iiiit togctlier h^rs« 

14. 5iaed öern^aro^*» icmliieat car.ltiaatioa vwia at hand it waa do* 
aided ^&o l)reak up tto ©rgaalisatioa o-id lat tliO woriöiu moTü out of 
CzocAoaloYa^feia. Tiiis waa larsso^a'a fayaora-le opportunity to ris.oe 
his pcraoaaX tlX&B, »Moii :sers ia po^'jooslor. of the firia, i.uto rjaio 
^j3T;ia^, ^^daid€B that, thiie raDTiri«^ out, it Yt&n lÄTstjon'a good fort- 
ine to aootbcalats lual aa'?o js/oxai v:;i> iiaportaat apisaratur» iind 
drav;tiw.i ia the devolojnciit at :i. whicri w^^^e diapei^eod thj-o^j^^^^oat 
.ooTith^ra aaiXiaay. Ia ad^itio:^ :^o tiiat it ahould he »aid that his 
?;ifc (who ia liviae r/ith th^ir tTro chidiren ia StockJiolm) h«a in üo 
ancertala aaimor forwax'ded Mb i'eco;.'tw-; in ^.vvcden, aud haa ko :t r.nd 
i3 iit-epir»^ ia. acut act with i/hc, peor-lc tjhc had seat hin; to G-itiatj in 
th3 first plaeo« 

Iß. On the rctiirn of tJic l£.Gt tir.n.^.;crt out of Oze ehoalovUtia Ua^ 
4ih. they wöi'fe ovarrua hy j^sicric^iii troo^ia nes-r, lAiiiea &»d. Salzaoh 
aad r>&^ hia StookholA ixistruotioaa« ianißdiately raported to thQ firat 




ision* 

384 



1.2 wir., iiittara orä.cr3 Larsson wae sont to XVth. Ai'isiy ÖO-t-a (08.pt* 
D'srtsl i.n Dal^itrur^j ■ aiid from th.«..:..:'e to 7tb.»Ävm}r II^e.^.qnarterf3 tu 

^~^'"0v.*\; '.rliCi'ö ho ?.u*d ".a-vt Ol' liio group i'lJ-ve atajoi' slno« l!a/ lOtli» 



lu^3b-..r- 6 JUuJ v:^:.L. 



385 



Milling«!» • Gfirmisch 19 Mey 1945 

«illingar proved to b® e difficult men who was reluctant 
to telk. H© was born 7 May 1920; was educated at an Engi- 
neering School, Frankenheus ©n, after which h© worl<ed es a 
mechanic. Re went to Peenemimde on 29 December 1939, and 
worked on Ä-5 {4-6 meters long, retlrer less than 60 to 
SO cm diameter, no pumpe). 

Questioned: (1) Regarding Potent loneter & Contact In main 

02 valve. Former u«ed with oscillograph 
in test shed« Latter by Thorpe in the 
field. 
(2) Regarolng esl. pua. diaphragm awitch. 

Operated at 1*3 atu - permitted the electric 
E202 bjepass valve to open. Thia diaphragm 
switch it the Rubidpentakl 

Interviewed 19 May 1946. 



386 



\ 



ii^'^KT? ^uGAriuN cF DIU NhirZKf!, t^U 224, re ;Va33orfall. ■ 

By P/Lt, Ctokea 24 May 19^5 

!• WaSGerfall is known in altogether four modifications dosiignatod 
W-1 to W-4-, It was intended to use the letter "V" but this was not adopt- 
ed aa it became the collective notation for offensive weapons. (V-1 and V-2 

#-1 OnljöC one or two rcis-^iles type W-1 v. ere produced and v/ere, 
for exampli, the only sub- types in which the fuel tanks v/ere made of alum- 
inufii, 

f-2 About five exi^mplos made of the second variation of -Vasserf al. 
The aerodynamic feature of the shell of v;-l was retained, but the lateral 
diiaensiona (span) of the wings and the tail unit was reduced, (nee atched 
Sketch !)• Snother sheet metal fuel container replaced the aluminum ones 
of *-l. The aervo mechanism wa» fully hydraulic afid vas ai^plied by ijGir. 
Not all five w-2*» were fired» a nuaber was destroyed or dangged* 

W-5 The aerodynamic shape of W-2 was retained and little change 
■ade in the ••iaterior fittings"» except in the layout which was altered. 
Also, the hydraulic servo gear^ was replaced by an elect ric<»hydraulic sye- 
teai known aa K 12. Originally it waa planned to produce 170 w-3»3 but 

ia waa om^tailed to 70. In fact onl.> some 40 ihr3»s were made, fhe 
ma;Jority of the component» were made by private industry, the tail unit 
of the shell only was made at Peeaemunde. However final assembly of 
Wasserfall iook place on 12^ 326 under the direction of personnel from 
VK». 

W-4 Resenbled W-2 aerodynamicaly, but incorporated a fully 
fcydraulic servo-mechanism of LG.V limited to an effective time of 70 sees. 
2. According to Dr. Kotier parts of iVasserfall were transfer ed to 
Äeu-Bleicherode in the course of the general move. The nev/ location was 
ittfii^ known as EH 224 and was housed in surface-workings immediately out- 
side the village (Dr. Netzcr could personally direct anyone there, should 
an opportunity be offered). He does not think that a complete Wasserfall 
is to be found, only parts, mainly noses, centre sections and tail units. 
3« Wasserfall reaches a supersonic spe ?ds after 18/19 seconds from 
•tart, remains at supers:^ nie level until 70/80 seconds f3?om start and afte: 
about 90 seconds fr>m start ceases to respond to control. 

This time of 90 tseconds is called ♦•Qesammitioirkungsgrad" and is the 
me during which the miissile rar.antains a higher velocity thrm the veloc- 
Qf the target. It is also called "Treffzeit" or the time during which 
it is possible to obtain a hit on the target. The time of the "Gesammtev- 
irkungsgrad« iö also the time Ahe-e the misaile is maintained under cout-o 

t W UttY H ä 387 



(Iiifcerr* of Dr. Bötszer» contiimod} 

This time is limited also by the life of the DC batteries carried 
id in the case of sub-types using fully hplraulic servo systems, by the 
amount of oil available« Again, a limiting factor may be the efficient 
expulsion of the fuel from the reservoirs» 

According to Dr. Hetzer, all calculations on the expected performance 
of Wasserfall were made on basis of a total control tome of 70 and 90 
seconds, with a maximum burAing time of 40 to 42 seconds. It had not 
been decided yet whether 70 or 90 seconds was the limit. In the case of 
the latest sub-type, W-4 a '•gesarmmtwirkungsaseit'* of 70 seconds was prov- 
ided :.±tih fuel requirements chosen accordingly. In this case also the oil 
requirements of the fully hydi^aulic servo mechanism by LOW were limited, 
to an endurance of 70 sec.nds. (the oil pressure to be used was 60 atü, 
and was to be obtained from the Nitrogen bottle reserved for the fuel 
expulsion) • 

She speed of Wasserfall is said to be over 330 i|/3eo after 70 seconds 
aM 140 m approx. after 90 sees. 

I» WSM. view of an expected shortage of lead, considerable work was carrie 
out with a view to replacing lead batteries by primary batteries. This Iras 
dine h J Inig Wunder, the work was however far from complete. The lead 
batteries no laally useed could be heated. This was not in fact done, the 
batteries beii^ well imaulated and maintaining a sufficient temperature 
during ordinary usage. 

5» l?rovision was made for the incorporation in the nose of soae form 
ot homing device. However, nothing at all had been decided as to the pre- 
cise kind of device ultimatelSy to be used. Work was proce-ding in this 
direction at various places. At Poenemunde itself Dr. Weiss was working 
on an infra-red device. Dr. Weiss was «oncemed only with the device 
itself not with tjhe link to the Servo-mechanism. 

Work onX the lat^r problem was carried out by Dipl. Ing. Geissler 
and Dr. Lud-/lg. It was hoped however ultimately to make the missile and 
its hand control fully automatic, but up to the present this problem and 
the general control problem was very far from being solved. 

Actual firing trials at Pecnemunde were effected without the presence 
of a homing device and without the use of any formK of target. At one 
tijiie, some fo m of searchlight control was comtemplatad, but after math- 
' ,tic >1 examination of the problem this proposal was dropped. Work on 
steering control problems of Wasserfall was carried out at Peenemunde by 
Dipl* Ing. Brnst Geis >ler ajid by Dr* liUdv?ig. 

388 



!< ( 



( Interi'Ogation or Dr, l^et.:.?, c-.ntlrjjod) 

5» Maxiraum h'?l["ht rcr.oh.^d b^ v;:%3G:.^rfall is api;^^ox. P^ Kr:n* ;' ^.: ••■a:-:- 
irauir. i^ÄHgÄ ranr.o- ic -aid to be about; 40 kv\2u 

6. Ali modiric;xl,i':riG of Wa^c^rfall 'vcro ritl;..,:d vi oh Jel ri':i::ero (;!:■?: 
hlrder). r^oth ;:;raphivo and li-rdv/ood (p-ob^.bly oa:0 uypo,- v;ore \^i)od, .--xi 
is aurfloleivü a^ -..ho n.id . X;i'3 are ■oqalr. d anly dlj,-i:i.v l^-ie in.Lti'.xi :nib;s- : Lc 
p<3rüod ( up^ to abo\i.b K: ;,:-r^- fro!;: the at'^ t) . K'eth:;d:. a ,d ben devcj. l-.:^ 
fo^ Jettisonin>3; graisljiue ruadern, \-s .i.d'^n tji,.o:: aro ailov/t-d üo bu 'ii oi.u, 
Work on. Jgu rud. crn \A,ari carried, oi^l; b^ Iri:-> x-aM;, 

?• The distance ci^ uho launch ui;^, ,.oi:it ü.' u:-,o niiösile £to::\ the corib- 
rcL t%e?ir is about 20/3/öü iietero. Acco-dia,:; hO bv» K^joser it io not 
neceasary -co align nhe ni'^oiic in any v/oy at i,bü -tart, but i.t .1.3 .„ni,a 
to be done in a crude ^;j;iy fi?equentl;', lo aii^dct tl^e cp-.r .to-- ?.,■; lao 
control.. ^1^ 

^:ketcii 1 By Dr. .t'eu2ior re vvaor;erfall ' 



1^1 



««^^ 



369 



Garmisch-Partenkirchen, May 22, 1945 



Interview with Hans Nikutowski 
Interrogator; Dr.F. Zwicky CIOS 183, 



Worked on the mixing ratio of the propellants on V-2. 
A diaphragm with hole was built in of correct size (obtained 
from hydraulic handbook) to get the correct flow of oxidizer 
and fuel« Came originally to Peeaemünde October 1940 and 
worked on the construction of the combustion chamber (a Ofen, 
or HeizbehSlter) . Was a detail draftsman on a job. 



390 



j^nzoT..'0.a\t \oa o 



t_i:-v^_ 'n^eQ^or Netzer. 10 &lay 191^_ » 



^^' • ^^' -■• "'* Porter and F/lt. atokea^ *P»rt«nklrch»n > 

• 

Dr. i^Qtzer aid not coma to i:arl3hft.3«n until Äaroh, 1944 • 
^^^t ha did ^.fior» to th-:?t time la ^kiia*'? known« H^ ^«Id' ha hac|- 
written it out In Ms •Lttjeaolauf «, how^Y^r, no oopr If on jfi^« 

In o;<.ir cflico« 

At ;.\arl3:va.^en, ^« .vas .t'ln^d lately aasjl-^ed to ■•^«asei^fall« 
Since hfi irrlv-s-l rstbar lat«, h^ occupl«d hlma«!/ örimarily 
Aith oresnizstion fend planning rather than with äetailed «ngi- 
neerln^« At tbst tli^s, h© says, the technical direction csam 
Arc-r Ir, T-on Hraim and the Tnilltary direction from Obs. It, i>r, 
Haläei". 

Accord!n^ to Dr. Net?.ei, V^aaaerfg.!! was the only rosily 
Li^ui-rpoca a;, rocket plCinned, It w£8 handled by « special group 
at Karlaha^en and partly for this reason Dr. NetTier felt that 

It i:uilered sosievift from IfcI- of Interest» When -the move w#s 
iui.c*o twey fi'OT,^ Ijarlehßgen, the Wasserfall group was established 
in a carx5.fxgo Blnjop in Ken e Bleicherode, about 13 km from 

bleicherode proper« 

Gen eral Oper&tion, Y^asserfall , 

It was p^Änned that Wasserfall should have a »axiffi\M 
velocity of 800 M/aoc but the highest velocity actually ob- 
tained WAS aoout 600 M/eoc. The maxlimjm angle of attack with- 
out stalling or instability was aupposed to be about 8^ in the 
suporsonle velocity region and 15 degrees In the subsonic 
region» 

The rockot is fired trm a atationai^ platform of tubular 
construction, arranged with wheels mn as to be easily trans- 
portable to and from the site. Ko atte.tpt is made to turn 
the launciiln«^ platform ao tl^t a reference line pointa toirard 
the target; the control of the rocket is symmatrical ao thia 
is unnecessary. The trajectory Is atralght up for the firat 
six seconds aiter Jauaching« The rocket than comae under tba 
control of a computing system known as tha "Einlinkrachner" 



391 



the purpoa© of which is to bring th« roeket Into the Un« of 
8igl t as quickly eis possible without caiising altltudos In ©x- 
cma» or th« msÄlmisR. The sltitudo Is cslculsted «t ®11 tiraes 
Xrj another Computing device kiiewn as the "T-Rechner", During 
the final part of the trajectory, the control is "line-of-sight" 
target inforaation being obtained either by radar (Wurzberg, 
or Mannheim), or by special A.A. theodolites. The rocket is 
controlled by an operator, both during the transition stage, 
end during the final stage, who watches an illuwdnated spot 
on a C.E.O« tube and moves a *'Joy*stiek*' control in such a 
way as to bring the spot to the intersection of t|ro lines« 
The two eomputere mentioned above plus a "^Farallax Rechner* 
trannait theiip inforaation automatieally into the syste» so 
thm operator's Job is quite simple« 

Vbe ▼eloeity ef the rocket reaches a Tslue eqiml to the 
speed &t eouDd «bout sevente«i seconds after launching* Shortly 
before this pelat, eoasidierable dlffloull^ is observed with eeii* 
trol instebillty« Vaeserfall is said to have an excellent 
•erodynsHii« d«eigxi fres the wiewpoint of eonstancy of center 
9f preesur« &n the rodders, but aeeerding to Dr* Metser it is 
still not i&ä«ed. 

Tbe diai«asio&e« weights, propulaion data, eto« given in 
the Oseaberg files agreed wi^ Dr« Meteor's information with 
«be ezeeptioB that S«lb4ii is used instead of liquid ozyg«Q, 
the Imrsiiiig tise is 4B seeonds rsither then 45, and that infra* 
r4^ homing has not eetuslly been tried, but only proposed« 

Details et goaty® 1 gguipnent * 

Thft vmSi&mT serve is a standard hydrocele ctric unit knoim 
as MIS, A@ used on the iu 88, built by lAift fahrt Gerat Werke 
(LmO^W^) Berlin« Aa electric servo using s 600*800 watt 
aotor with a three»stage reduction gear has been~ designed by 
Pr« lag« lieklaa« The A*'4 rudder servo motor was not used 
because it was too slow and too weak« The K12 was chosen be* 
cause it wae available in large muBbers« The A*4 ''t'lechgerst* 
is VLM^ because no other standard device was available. It 
was hoped that a specially designed control system might be 
used on a second model of the Wasserfall« Such a system, con* 
siderably siiepler than the first has been worked out by Dipl« 
Ing« Klein, using a siagnetie amplifier« 

Tba speeialists on the overall stability proble» are 
Dip!« lag« 0eissler and Pr« Elfers« 

The radio control principally used was the familiar 
Kaehl'Strasburg system, also used on the HS £93« A few 



392 



^'••■i;'-3e9 -r^ve cbfrn'-netl of s now aot known as the "Brigg-rTozg«", 
mada jjy AölöjTujaKQn s^t i^^rXin/ mia later ßt Sumrri'drfeld near 
Bi^ealau. ihie sot uces a trcnemltter having the code name 
'ivrrTi'^ pno. a receiver sijr.piy "brigg", or "Brlgg-Kozge"« This 
rraio system, Dr« Net«er bellevos, was to be used quite 
'renerall^^ ac soon as ic coulc be put in production. It 
of a; r. i,3c on the same principle ss the Strasburg-Kfichl, but 
uücc r 'i7j;vi?l«r-,t^ of about 50 cm. end weis harder to jam be- 
caufse the Trequency could b© vßrled. According to I»r« Netieer, 
'*r:rr.n*' -:c-"'nl ta transmission in .3 channels alnsultaneouely. 
(iniormation later obtained from Br« Wurster of Meaaerscbnidt 
ind'lc&te'^ thnt ''Kran" transmits four simultaneotie a^jjdlo tone« 
for controllln:; four functions, md can be easily ©djvsted to 
siny one^of t\7elve ditferent carrier freqiiencies ) ♦ t'lpl. Ing« 
ii/sltber, s high official, who remained la Hohenpei senberg, 
should know sll about thie. 

The r£d|tir sei;s uaed for obtaining line of eight infora- 
ation wer^ either l^urxberg or Mannheim, usually the latter. 
Ccntjjn^ter types of radar were beginning, but had never been 
used. The accurscy obtainable 'witb the Mannheim la about 1/10 
aegree prob&ble error when not jeBimed by **window" or other 
countor moecuroR. 

The tranaitlon computer, "B^inllnkrechner**, had two forma. 
One wßp 8 mechanical type known eg "CuaBRiband", worked out by 
Dr. ludvv'ir vho remained st Blelchorod«# Chi« of hie sediatants» 
Ur. Elchler, is here. I'be otLör computing device la an elec- 
trical eystein isorlfed cut by Dr. Eifere. All of the nachiuiloal 
co:aputer6 vre re mnCc by Ereiselgerate, Berlin, later at Mieder 
Splegll and imchner, who mfey have gone to Bleicherode. 

An optical Infra-red control ayetes of the beam ellmblaag 
type for Waeaerfell was developed by Ur* Wels«, the woöc being 
almost entirely "fannod-out" to other labor atorlea and aelen- 
tific inr titutlon». It la believed that thi« ayÄtem wea ooarly 
rf!fc5y for test. Dr. Setter did not believe it would be auceoea« 
ful becfuse it would bf» too hard to keep the wiaell« In the 
n^vTCT fesrcMl-bt beam. An electrloal aelf-aeeklng eyateai abo 
-r:e boine prepered by Telefunken, Blanpunkt, azxl the Relchapoat, 
the Tnork being coordinated by Dr. lol«s. 

Tea ting. 

A four-chancel telemetering ays ten callod "Ueaalna I" 
wae ueed for telemetering gyro-data^ rudder peaitlon, preesuro«. 
to^^peraturea, and ae on* 

About forty rocket« were fired altogether. Many exploded 
becauae of failure« tn the propulaion unit« p«rtleul«i»ly «t 



393 



first, but th«re i»©r# eeldon any fei lures which were Attri- 
but eole to the control equipment • 

Ecsework» 

VTm letser ha» ugt%9& to write a short history of the 
WEseerfell project and to have it ret.öy hy Monösy, 21 



Intdrrogatlon of Dr. Thoodor Netzer. 

!• Dr. Netzer did not coma to Karlshagen until March 1944. 
mxAt he did prior to that time la not known. He aaid he had 
written it out in hi a "lebenalauf ", however, no copy la on 
file in our office. At Karlahagen, he waa iiDmadlately aa* 
algned to Waaserfall. Since he arrived rather late, he oc- 
cupied hlmaelf primarily with organization and planning 
rather than with detailed engineering. At that time, he 
says, the technical direction came from Dr. von Braun and 
the military direction from Oha. It. Dr. Haider. According 
to Dr. Netzer, Waaaerfall was the only really high apeed AA 
rocket planned. It was handled by a apecial group at Karls- 
hagen and partly for this reason. Dr. Netzer felt that it 
suffered somewhat from lack of interest. When the move waa 

ade away from Karlahagen, the Vtaaaerfall group was eatab- 
llahed in a carriage shop in Nei^e Bleicherode, about 13 k» 
from Bleicherode proper. 
2. Qaneral Operation, Waaaerfall . 

a. It was planned that Wasserfall «hould have a maximum 
velocity of 800 ffl/««c but the highest velocity actually ob- 
tained waa about 600 bi/«»c. The maxlaiua angle of attack 
without «tailing or instability was supposed to be about 8® 
in the siqperaonic velocity region and 16 degrees in the sub- 
Bonfc region. 



395 



b» The rocket t« tired ffoBi a statlonaiy plat form of 
tubular construction, «rrangeö with wheels so as to be 
easily transportable to and from the site. No attempt Is 
Bade to tura the launching platform so that a reference line 
points tovard the targe t| th# control of the rocket is sym- 
aetrieal so this Is unnecessarsr* The trajectory is straight 
up for th© first six seconds after launching« The rocket 
then ec»«s jonder the control of a cc»nputing syst®» known as 
the *£inlinkrechner" the purpose of which is to bring the 
rocket into the line of sight as quickly as possible without 
causing altitudes in excess ©f th© maximum, ühe altitude is 
ealeulated at all times by another computing device known as 
tb® ^f-R@chaer*. Poring the final part of the trajectory, 
the control is *'lin«-of<-sight" target inforfflation being ob- 
tained either by radar *Wur«berg, ©r Mannheim), or by apeciaX 
A.A. theodolites. The rocket is controlled by an operator, 
both during the transition stage^ and during the final stage, 
whQ watches an illtstinated spot on a C.B.O. tube and moves 
• "joy-stiidr«' control in such a way as to bring the spot to 
the intersection of two lines. The two computers mentioned 
above pl\is a •'Parallax Rechner* transmit their information 
autOKStieally into the systea so the operator's job is quite 
si»|^le« 

e. Tim velocity of the rocket reaches a value equal 
to the speed @f sound about seventeen seconds after launeb- 



396 



Ing« Shortly before this point, conaiderable difficulty is 
observed with control instÄbllity« Wasserfall la said to 
have an excellent aerodynamic design from the viewpoint of 
constancy of center of pressure on the mdders. 

d. The dlmeniii<»i&, weight«, propulsion data, etc«. 
given- In the Oaenberg file» agreed with Dr. Ketzer *s Infor- 
mation with the exception that Salhel la used Instead of 
liquid oxygeti, the burning time la 42 aeconda rather than 46, 
and that Infra-red homing has not actually been tried, but 
only propoaed» 
5. Detail« of Control Equipment » 

a« ^Hie rudder «ervo is a atandard hydrp -electric unit 
known as K12, also used on the Ju 88, built by Luftfahrt 
Gerat Werke (L.O.W.) Berlin. An electric «ervo using a 600« 
800 watt motor with a three-stage reduction^ gear has been de- 
signed by Dr. Ing. Nlckles. The A-4 rudder servo motor wa« 
not used because it was too slow and too weak, ^e KIS was 
chosen because It was available' In large numbers. The A-4 
"lliscbgerst" is used because no other standard device was 
available. It was hoped that a specially designed control 
system might be used on a second model of the Waaaerfall. 
Such' a system, considerably simpler than the flr«t has bee» 
worked out by Dipl. Ing. Klein, using a magnetic amplliler. 

b. The specialists on the overall atablllty problesi 
are Dipl. Ing. Gelssler and Dr» Elfer«. 



397 



c. The rudlo control prlrclpallj used, was the .leinlliftr 
Kachl-Stra^burg 8y»t«Bi, also used on tb© HS 293. A few 
»«mple» were obtained of & new set Icnown ae the '^Eri^^^-Koege", 
made by Telefunken «t Berlin, and later tit Surr.irerfeld near 
Breslau* 'Shl^ aet uaes a tranair.ittcr I:iaving the code nem^ 
''Kran" and a receiver »Imply "Brigg", or^'Brigg-Kozge". This 
radio system, Dr» Ketzer believes, was to be used quite 
generally sa soon as it could be put in production. It 
operated on the same principle as the i^trasburg-Kachl, but 
used a va-re length of «bout 50 cm» and was harder to jam be- 
esuae tkm f^«qu«ney eould be varied. According to Dr. Netzer, 
"üraus" permits transaission in Z channels simultaneously. 
Clhforisatiosi later obtained from Dr. Wurster of Messerschmidt 
indieatds tliat "Kran** transmits four simultaneous audio tones 
for eontrollini; four f^ctions^ and can be easily adjusted to 
any one ©f twelve different earrier* -frequencies ) . Dipl« Ing. 
Walther, « high official, who remained in Hohenpeisenberg, is 
rep€»*teS to know all about this* 

ä. The radar sets used for obtaining line of sight in- 
formation were either Ifurzberg or Mannheim, usually the lat- 
ter. Cssiti»eter types of radsr were beginning, but had never 
been used* The aecuracy obtainable with the Mannheim la 
about l/lO degree probable error lAien not jammed by "window" 
&p other counter neasxires* 

e« The transition coraputer, "Einlinkrechner" had two 
forms* One was a meohanical type known as "aummiband". 



398 



worked out by Dr. Ludwigs who r®nAln«d at Bleicherod«. On« 
of hia assistants^ Dr« Elchldr^ la hers« .The other com- 
puting device is an electrica'l ayatem worked out by Dr. 
iClfers« All of the mechanical computers Tiefe made by 
Kreiselgeratei Berlin, lator st Nieder Gplegll and Buclruiai^ 
who may Imve gone to Bleicherode. 

f. An optical infra-red control ay a tew of the beam 
climbing type for Wasserfall waa developed by Er» Weise, the 
work bein,-^ almost entirely "f armed-out'* to other laboratorlss 
and sciaitific institutions. It is believed that this systs« 
was nearly ready for test. Dr. Ketzer did not believe it 
would be successful because it would be too bard to keep tbe 
missile in the narrow searchlight beam. An electrical self- 
seeking system also was being prepared by Telefunken, Blan- 
punkt, and the Relchapost, the work being coordinated by Dr. 
Weiss. 
4. Testing . 

a. A four-channel telemetering system called "Mesaina 
I" was used for telemetering gyro-dat«, rudder position, 
pressures, temperatures, and so on. About forty rockets 
were fired altogether. Ifany exploded because of failures in 
the pzH>pulsion unit, particularly at first, but there were 
seldom any failures which were cttrihtttable to the eo&troX 
equipment • 

Interrieved 18 May 1945. 



399 



RADIO CONTROL C AS3ERFALL 

INTdSROGATION G i' DR, Netzer & Dipl Ing Walter . 
By S/L Sharpe and F/Lt Stokes, 

The flight of Wasserfall can be divided into three parts: 

(1) ffrom launch to the point of entry into the Radar Beam. 

(2) Line of sight control up the beam which is kept directed at 
the target, 

(3) The final stage during which control is transfered from the ground 
to & homing device in the missiles. 

It wasstated by Dr. Hetzer that space had been leftin the nose of 
the rocket for the homing equipment but as yet JiaoixkKKE none had been 
fitted« However, the use of homing was very disirable as it reduced 
the possibility of jamming by a transmitter carried on the target 
aircraft . 

Velocity during flif^ht 

The duration of flight during which control could be exercised on the 
rocket was between 70 and 90 seconds, depending on the type. Of this 
time the fuel only^ lasts for from ^0 to 45 seconds. After launch the 
velocity rises until after 18 seconds the velocity reaches the super- 
sonic region. After the fuel is exhausted the speed drops until at 
maximum usable range the apeed drops äMHXMX to 280 mph. Above this 
speed radio control cannot be used for aerodynamic reasons and also the 
speed is not sufficiently in excess of that of the target aircraft to 
permit effective attack. 

Aiming and firing 

Two Würtzberg Radar sets are used one of which is used to track the 
target aircraft and the other to track the rocket. On the approach of 
an aircraft likely to present a suitable target it is picked up by 
the appropriate Radar sets and it scour se plotted. 

The term **Treffbereich** is used to describe the surface enclosing t 
the volume in which the aircraft must be at the instant of firing of 
the rocket if a hit is to be possible. 

Tables were being complied in Berlin from which the instant of 
firing could be obtained from measurements of aircraft course, height, 
speed, etc. Allowance is made by the commander of the site for the 
particular conditions existing during any attack. 

MBTHOD Off CONTROL 

Pully automatic control had been considered and would be desirable 
but so far were based on control by an operator. 

The angular bearings from the two Radar sets are transmitted by a 
remote indicating system in general use for other purposes. Theae 
two bearing indications are to be displayed on a single cathode ray 
tubeo The target aircraft is represented by a spot at the centre of t 

he tube face. The bearing of the rocket relative to the target is 
indicated by a spot, the position of which indicates the course 
error in two axes. ^ „ 

?he reading on this tube is. an indication of bearing error. I^o 
correction is made to the scale of the display to make allowance for 
changjB in range. Phe scale of the display is therefore constantly 
^Singing. ^^ 



J 



The conditions of control are also varying due tochanges in the width 
of the Radar beam and also to the speed of the roclcet and to atmospheric 
conditions etc. The control is also complicated by the fact that it 
is arragged that the rudders in the gas stream should be either jettisog^ 

or be made of wood andso burn off after about the first 12 seconds of 
flight »Dipl Ing Walter had been given the problem of designing the 
apparatus to provide a variable gearing between the control joy stick 
and the rate of turn produced on the rocket to make allowance for the 
above changing conditions. It was proposed to do this by a timed cam 
arrangement operating a potentiometer controlling the modulation of 
the ground transmitter. However the design had not progressed very far 
and the conditions for which he had to design had as yet not been 
definitly stated. 

The operator used a joy stick type of control. During the flight 
he assumed that the display xksMiii showed the relative positions of 
target and rocket to a fixed scale. No rat# term was introduced auto- 
matically into the control system and the damping was introduced by 
anticipation on the part of the operator. 

The signalling system used was a modified version of the Kaeh- 
Iger^te used in the F X 1400 and H S 293. Two apirs of audio frequency 
tones are used, one pair for azimuth and the other pair for elevation 
control. Each pair of tones is keyed at a rate between 20 and 25 cycles 
per second in the manner of "Mark-Space" keying, A 50% mark space ratio 
corresponds tostraight, 100% of one tone represents maximum rate of 
turn in one direction and 100% of the other tone represents maximum 
rate of turn in the other direction. Intermediate ratio providje 
variable rates of turn. 

The keying is operated by a motor driven divice and that keying 
ratio is determined by the left of a cam which can be varied by the 
position of the joy-stick controller, 

. The modulating oscillators and the transmitter are the same as 
those used for the Kaehlgeräarte. The radio frequency used is approximajj, 

„Ä0 MO/S, A simple dipole aerial is used. 

The reciever is identical to that used in the Kaehlger&te, In 
this receiver the four modulation frequencies are separated by ö 
filters, rectified. and arranged to operate poparised relays» These two 
relays will therefore key at 20 cycles per second with mark-space 
ratio depending on the signals arriving on the azimuth and elevation 
control channels, A fixed DC volts keyed by these relays is fed into 
a unit known as the Zustazgeräat« , This unit contains rectifiers and 
filter circuits and provide smoothed DC signals of amplitude corres- 
ponding to signals on the control channels, 

AERIALS ON WASSERFALL 

Metal strips mounted on the trailing ilnsulated edges of the 
rudders are used. These are of similar design to those used on 

the A4, 

KM RADIO CONTROL SISTENi TO BE USiSD IN WASSERFALL 

New equipment both for the rocket and on the ground was being 
developed by Telfunken, This operated on a wavelength of 20 to 25 cms. 
This equipment( known as either Kram-Brigg or Kahn-Brigg) ia more 
fully described in a report on the interrogation of Dr, L©o Brandt 
and Dr, Paul Kotowski of Telfunkea. 

This equipment used the same control system as the Kaehlger&te, 

401 



However due to the much higher Radio frequency used advantage can be 
taken of the use of very directional aerials thus reducing the 
possibility of oamming. 

The aerial on the ground equipment consists of ä dipole with 
parabolic reflector which is mounted on the side of the mirror of 
the Radar set which is tracking the rocket. This arrangement allows 
a very narrow beam to be used. This increases the field strength at 
the receiver thus permitting the use of a reciever of low sensitivity, 
Ä directional aerial will also be used on the rocket but the design 
of this is not yet known. 



402 



CICE trip 183 Group 11 - Copy of report given to Group 1, 

I nterrogation of Dlpl«Ing« von Ottanthal at Innabruck, 6th June 

1945 . 

Interrnarated by S/l/ir. Sharps. R,A«E« 

iiub,1«ct of Intarro^atlon "Victoria löltzatrehl" control «ystam 

Törir.i r: ^^ 

Dipl. Ing. von Ottcnthal gave the following description 
of the ground equipment of "Victoria Leitzatrahl" equipment 
used for the steering control of V,2, 

AERJAL AERIAL MATCHING A£RIAL MATCHINa 



MATCHING UNIT 1 



CONCCNTRJC faOSR 



fiWLAWCC TO UN* 
SALANCCTlMNSmMK 



OPEN WJRC 
TWIN fgePEIC 




CONCENTRIC FEEDER 



öiAM Cet4TRÜmiNG 
ADJUSTER 

TI5W»M»rrg« 

Output 



OPSH SNIRt 



FRMUENCY 
3WlTCHiNQ 



A block diagra» of tho ground system is shown above« The ays- 
tem worked on a frequency of 42mc/8. The three aerial ayatena 
were the aane and each conaiated of a dipole 0.44 long with 
a reflector of the aane length apaced quarter wavelength from 
It. The aerlala were mounted at one wavelengtli above the ground« 
The diatance between the outer aerials waa 20 • The tranamit- 
ter used was the Lorenz 500 watt Blind approach tranamitter 
type A.S.I, 



403 



Output 
lb Aerial 







'VfUW- 






/^ 

b' 



Transmitter 

JMPt/T 



Circuit of Phage 



gy<i: 



lator Unit 




S\0£ Virw 

Diagrem of oiotor driven capacity awltch 

The motor drives the capacity «witch at 3000 r.p.a. end gives 
equal open and closed period« • On the motor spindle a com- 
mutator Is mounted arranged to switch the transmitter modu- 
lation frequency. This frequency was open and 5000 c/s during 
the period for which it was closed. 

The phase moduletion produc«d a beam swing of 1% 
The beam width 1« defined by Lorenz as the angl» between the 
two points at which the V50Q0 s-1,05. For the Victoria Leltz- 

strahl system this angle was 1 second of ar<S, 



401 



balance a nd unbalance tran» former - I'wo type» had been deaign- 
ed: these are shown diagramAtlcally below, 

Unbalamce ' Balance: 



4 i 

.Y.J. 



A 



-=ir 






D/\LÄNC£ 



i?r 



k^ 



^v- 



Co-) 



VNtiL/\NC£ 



The «yatem shown in diagram (a) wa» the one that wag used al- 
though it had the disadvantage of being frequency senaltive. 
'Ihe «ystem shown in diagram (b) wa» not ao sensitive to fre- 
quency variation. This was a later design (Loronz) but only 
an experimental model was constructed. 

.I^JL"^?-l.i® -^ i on of s ystem 

Lorenz en -ineers had installed the systeii at Feenemünd® in 1941 
and had carried out tests with an aircraft« Dr Stienhoff of 

.•■"eeneajünd© was the pilot. 

Monitoring 

In order to maintain the directional accuracy required of the 
syst^srr; continuous monitoring was necessary. A receiver siaiilar 
to the aircraft ©quipment was installed on an island off the 
coast (about 6 Km») on the centre line of the beam. Steady 
reading meter indications from this equipment were sent back 
to the transmitter site first over a decimeter radio link end 
later over a submarine cabl». These Indications were displayed on 
a centre ?: er o meter and an operator kept this meter on zero 
by adjusting the beam centralising knob» controlling the phase 
ballmce to the outside dipoles. 

In order to obtain correct phaaing of the aerial systems cor- 
rect feeder lengths had to be used. Also as the phase modu- 
lator circuit had to be resonant the system could only be 
worked at one Radio Frequency. 



405 



Karl Reilman 

Age 26. -tJ.ngineering school Bad Frankelhauäen (not diploma). 

Left school Nov« 1939o Went to Army; later Peenemunde 4.1.1940 

Test Engineer on A-4 and C-2 (V/asserfall) on the stme test stand 
w s Taifun. 

TAi ffUN 

10 cms dia. 2meters long, Fuels Visol and Nitric. On test bed 
!*2 expulsion but in flight done by powder. Whole operation 
2- OP 3 seconds. Flight tests. No cooling of the combustion chamber, 
Tewted statically ^ Thmst readings were taken by means. of a hydraulic 
piston. 

Seilman then drew a diagram of the tAIFUI^ showing? ^ov/der 
cartridge nd 'the bursting diaphra^as which are situated at either 
end of the acid container which itself is contained in the fuel tanks 










406 



May 19 1%5. 



Interview with Kurt Patt. 



Waar«O0ntly since September 194-3 occupied with the supervielon of the 
oonstruotion of the «Wasserfall" body, war hoad, propulsi-ve power installatlon 
and control gadgets« After theoretical stress analysis, niodel tests ware made« 
All tests male were static in nature« 

Greatest difficulties were euccuntered %'iüi acid proofing the »«Waa serf all* devlee» 
(Patt does i>r,t know exactly what Urn "Saiireabtragiing" « yearly wear of the 
aaterials in contact with aixed acid was). 

ft:»es8urisatiori i^'obleoB at great accelerations of the device also caused sofii« 
trouljle* 

1933»43 Patt worked on tha A4 in a similar oapaci&y as above. 

A number of friiluros of the Y2 wore caused in particular b:^ insufficient 
strength of the mountings of the ppopellant tanks which were very thin (1 sn • 1.5 

^llehbruehe (failures of tho outer ^^hell) wore also quite frequent at the 
beginning. 

Mouatii^ of the g^raphite rudders cause relatively little troubl«* 

Tightening of tJie feed öystem was not too difficult« 

( »»Dehnungssicken" « 

flexure Joints Lad to be watched to guard against rupture»). 

(Schematic drawling of the test installations for A4 wlU be supplied by 
Mr. Zoike)» 

1930-1936 Mr. Patt \yorked -'t Orenatoin und Koppel^ Waggonfrabrik, BerÜR» 
(Mainly work on hydraulic and pneuioatio brake») 



407 



• Ktspt Patt 



lö/n;4n 



Oareer 
I m.e born on the Xö/ö/lS in Berlin, At the age of 14 I grad- 
mate& from th© 7Är€l HibJUia Sohool in Berlin, and began servin:.: 
mm an appr«ntioe in Tefflmieal Drawin,^, from l/'^/zr to 51/^/^0, 
at th« Wa^on Building firm of Or^nstöin i^ijä. Sapp^l, Berlin. 
Duriisg ay apnreiitia®ahip I attended the trade sohool for .letal vioxk 
aaid took erenlng courses in -.lathe- uatios, Eleotrioity, Physios^ 
asS. taaeriptiTe Oaomatry« .ifter the oonoluaion of my apprenticeship^ 
V4/S9, I Ibagan wortdLBt as a te^hnioal employe© ana worlced as a 
pitjatmmxk^ ü,9tSLlX aeslgaer, and designer of truoks, lur^r^-e container 
tmolpi, ana auteisati© unloading truoka until 11/ 5/56. 

tr®» 1/10^ tmtill 1/4/30 I attended and ;E>aduated from 
dw^nläe alaasaa Gf maehlne eonstruotion in Berlin. On l5/5/;36 
t amuiga& m^ |al» and nant to the ilrnst Heinicel üiroraft orks 
mm a daai^sar« In Sept 1936 I got married. In :iov 1907 am in aay 
1940 ®ttr aliilär@n Pttar and Jürgen were born. Immediately^ on 
taieiilg ©▼ear my naw Job, my firm plaosd me ^t the disposal of the 
^aray-waapaii« seotion» at th« firing range, rruEajaeopadorf , v;hioh -^as 
un&er th« 4i7«otiOB of Dr. Von J^unn, and worked in th« "R -Gebiet". 
I alilo «Rark«& la the designing; bureau under Herr Riedel, as a 
&«0i^gn«r and independisnt design assisting in the development 
-Jf R-^anka aoA ralve design for assisted take-off dcvioes, as v/ell 
a« the airframe design for the a^ apparatus. In add-ition to 
thi« war« d«algn« for testing benches and projects on 
oalottlating traJ«otorie$ (^ine of flight) fo^ lon^:^ range apparatus, 
"vhieh war« to «erre a» the basic fundarnontals for the a^. 
Oa May 15, 19^?7 I was requested by the üxporiiaentaX 

408 



•atation, ■^eöiioüiu ide aud l>e,i;aii m^; duties there after a larse part 
01 uhe persoijjiel froin Kuameradori" had alao böen moved to Peeiiaundo. 
As group aiid main group ohief I was put ia oharge of alrfroui« 
design 0^ the a-5 aa well as the plaiuiin ; oi" the oomplete 
details Ox master designs for the a~4. This inoluded also the 
estimation of fual oompaoity. Begin ,in^.; i'eb 194^^ I worked on the 
alrfrairie oonstruotlon aiid the ooraprehensive d^slgj^lüg for all the 
ii-4 apparatus. -S öo~^^'or leers I had at lay disposal^ Group Leader 

a 

Dipl Iiig .^arzek, Blpl Ian; ?aliü and liiß Ilroll v^th their 
respective sta^Ms* 

In Sept 1945, as the .x-4 was 1,. its finishiiis 3ta^®Sg I 
was oontraoted to ^^/ork as section leader for the development anfl: 
design of the apparatus '"^asacTfall" (, waterfall >. This p*ojeö^ 
^as for faa«S-produotion at the bt-.^jlndng of 1945« 

lis oo-^?or]£era I had at my disposal 'the following., Herrn ilraaelCs 
B@duri't3 ■ , raliQ, Oaf^Kroger, Burose, Giese, aiaten» Holderer and 
Ko*' .« -hile ^orkin,-; at the apparatus "Vf*, it was found that 
... it Y/ae öOüstruoted somewhat smaller, a definite reduction in 
@@$?'' ..ption vifxß achieved, 'A'hile ,aalntaint ng the same perforiüand^-« 
*ae workers on this apparatus went as far as the final deaAga 
otago but were interrupted on aooount of oilr moving 

Gareef y Indes: 
Born; 18 laroh 1912, Berlin 
lanished Sohool? i>l :iaroh 10*^7 
^ipprentloe: 1 May 19S7-51 i^iar 1900 
Trade üahool and Coursess 1 ..ay l9ö7«iiapoh öX^ 1930 
Designer at firm -/her® apprentice ship waa takeni 1 April 19i^0-my *^ 
i.laohine oonstruotlon schools 1 Oct 193® - 6 March 1936 
Beaigner at Ernst Hoinkels 15 :.iay 19;i6 - 14 -lay 1937 

409 



Began work at Peenemunde: 1Ö Ilajr 1957 
^oup Lea&«r; ilay 1958 
Main (sTOup Leader t ilay 1940 
Seotlon Leaders Beginnizig ^iue^uat 1942, 



410 



L.:^':iT-?ub-uTIüIi OF lilI* TK.J j;.i; -aL ! 

'•i DT» ■. V. o'.Lar^.e on 28 Lay 1945« 

.s.-y3 ,.urpose oJ the interrogation v/cis to obtain inf orL^ation on 
^■LiTr... :3- ecuip.^aont and general In^ra Red develOiiaent in Germany. 

J:o. f^.osGnthal detailed his carreer and his connections ;vith Infra 
■i'.'l o- .:• He carried out tv70 yoars of research betv/een 1954 and 1936 
^-^ ' - John ho, kins University at Baltimore UIS«.^. 2e there carried 
Dut 'D:^eral o,.-tical research involving; Infra Redo 

.m l;;-:' ijr. Rosenthal returned to Gem any and started at Dresden 
^ •-''^-^" hi'or. :.'0:;aschah. Me carried out investigations into the 
c-;t::-litic action ol ;^:Jiosphoi2s, the aim being to obtain a relation 
^-^ -"^^^h^ the condiüion oC the ^..-hospors and the s.ectruru in the Infra 
Red re'jioir, 

j:n 191^'"' he b^:;ca e an assistant to Prof. Beck at the Institute 
of ii.uto obile^;^Jn::;ineerin'^: in Dresden. He vvas here engaged in the 
:Casure:-3iit of fin e ber,;,_ eratures in internal combustion en;-';ines 
in co;m-iCuloa ,;ith ;07f.; )y . rof. 3eck on anti-knock fuels. 

Dr. Rosenthal /as called up for the ari;:y in Sept. 1939 but was 
rej.ease:.: a ., i:i i_i Dec. Ij39.,;hen he returned to the Institute of 
riuto obile fn-;-ineeri.i.r.: in Dresden, fie then carried out work still 
uvidoy j.rof . -eck, o = the de bailed design of the burners and combustion 
C'... b-jr of the .. 4. I'e carried out tests with water cooled probes 
to trace tlie course of b;,ie chemical reactions in different p^crts 
of h..o .'I:,, e. 

.Tof. ^ec:.: .....3 c:.ll-;- to a Job in i^erlin in Se:.t. 1940 and the 
A or . :.-t Dresden ca^ e to an end, 

.jv» -losenthal then joined the optical firm of Seitz at iVetzlen« 
f^f'f -^r ;it:i ..0 :^ ; on ; :eneral optical instruments, hewas here involved 
i.:. .:he desi n of hn^'ra Red f elescopes,f or German Air Force and Army 
use. fie i^arts of this equipment peculiar to Infra Red, eg. the 
pUlorosccnt ecreen, v/ere desir-'ned and produced 'oj A.iC.G. under 
Dr . .-3 c haf f e r n .1 c ht . 

Leitz develo, ad and ..roduced T:he lenses and the miechanical parts 
such as the tube, mountiji^s, focusing arangements etc. Leitz assembled 
and delivered the co;..plote telescopes. Xhese were made in a large 
variety of sizes, fnese telescopes were the only Infra Red equipment 
•Ait; I \;hich Leitz 
were coacernedl 

jT» ih3£enthal v;as called again to the nrmy in 1942 and v;ent 
to Russia. He acted as an ordinary Infantry can until iUay 1945, when 
//it.iout warnin,.; \io .>;..s called to reenemunde.He first worked on the 
design of tbe co bastion system of the a 4^ In this work he acted 
a^i; a theoretical physicist. However due to his preference for öpticö.1 
vor'.! he was transfered to a Dr. Weiss section to do work on homing 
systeiiS. 

.J. ho;äng syste^. had bee^i developed but as tlriis was the respon- 
sibility of Dr /Veiss he would prefer that Dr vVeiss should talk about 
It. 'jlYiQir were proposing; to use nori^al types of photo cells for Infra 
Red detection. They had purchased cells from Zeiss of Dresden. They- 
haci not UGO:. r'olometers as they were considered to be too delicate for 
use i.i a rocvot were it was exposed to severe vibration. 



4TT 



A t.ieri;-opi^e ha.: been consiaered but it. as nou ,>ossible to desi^^n 
one Giij-t had a fast enou^A res;;:ü:ise. r}ii. phouoelectric cell used 
'was or the lead sulphide type. 

Dr. x^osenthal v/as also involvod ia tne design oi" tue o.,i.ical 
a'^ran2er:c;n:-3 for t^.e airiir;;; of A4 oji jAe lauiichin,;, plaG.:orm'. 

It a^.'perrs thao Dr. iosenthal aad had several yea 'S e.:;jerienco 
in^fche use or infra Hea. Althou h ne m::; ^Aiat a lot o.: v;oia: on 
infra Red v/as in i^ro^ress in der., axiy he had n:; conuact ;Lth .Lt 
outside the PeenenCnde Group. 



412 



BiojOf phy of Dy» Eafu« Martin Schilling 

!• Domestic Partictilar« ; 

Born October l8t 1911 in Hoerde« Wastfalan» tb» son of « 
city building engineer, Fritss Schilling» ^ After lining in West« 
felen until 1930, then moved to Hannover* In 1950, married 
Anneliese Lange» Two children were bom, 0erd «id Earlaaut, 
who are living, at present, in IQaeeebeck, District ßifbom* 
2* Education » 

A'-.tended the 9 grade secondary eohool at X^ortnund Hoerd«* 
Graduated 1950» Went to a Technical Hlgli S^ool In Bamiover 
to study physics» Received diploma there in October 1934 
with hi^ honors» After one year of military service, eontinued 
studies as candidate for doctor U degree end assistant to Prof» 
Hase, the professor of the Technical Eigti School at HosBover, 
specialisii3g in he&t measiaring techniques i^d tecbnieal physics. 
Docior«s degree December 1937« Orade of •smalnatlont Very 
Good. Specialised in the foil owing t Kensaration of heat, os« 
pecially optical pyrometries, optios, industrial mensuration 
and practical matheMatles» 
3» Occupational Practlof » 

I>uring his time as asslstsnt fro» 1935 to 1937, earrlod 
out Inportant work for Industrisl wox^ of ohsBleal produotloii 
and lighting teohnique» On January 1, 2.938, he beeasie work 
manager and menber of the business «anageBient of the Pyro Verke, 
Ombh, Hannover, special factory for pyromoter eonstruotions • 

413 



Omfeh, H«mov«y, sp«clftl factory for pyrömater construction», 
CSpeeiel Field« of work in th« tamp^ratur® regulation tacJaniqu«, 
©ptle»! pyrometry, «nd «specially temparatur« measuraroanta») 
llerkcd in conjimctlon with tb® Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for 
Iron Beaearch^ Germ an Iron. Mines personnel at Düsseldorf, Pro- 
feasor Rtimisel and Dr« Outhssann» as well as Dr« Maser of the 
Cerwan Conduit« Wos^r«. At the outbreak of war, put in the re« 
plaeaneat fore««* (^ December X, 1939, was deferred for pre- 
Jeets at ftenssitisid«. Beeaaie «lap er Intendant for the power unit«« 
Ta 1$41, t0ok ewer aH power test« of the latest development« 
®t relets* ^ Eftpti^ber 1, 19i3, after the eompleticm of the 
wesl^ di^ai^^emt, becaai# director of the teating dept. md l& 
uddition Jima the Inspector of all the parts of A-4 made by sub- 
sidiary. Testing eqtaXpifient for series production of the A*4 
was being planned by «pecialists from their own personnel« 

fhe association with similar places in Germany, in par* 
tieular testing grotmd«^ was comparatively ffiaall as their im* 
portance both tttaatltatlwely and qualitatively was inferior to 
the installatieiui «f Karlahagen« 

A plan feroed the developments of the different type flak 
rocket« to be pat at use at Karlahagener ezperiicental «tat ion« 
The t^e thea eame to nove the Slektromechaniaohe« On Feb« 5, 
194&, they eeaaed to work« In the few weeks before the oecu* 
pat ion, it wa« lape««lble to set up an experiment plant at the 
new area at Blelchorede and Lehesten« 

Signed) Martin Schilling« 

414 



1^^ 11H5. i^e ;^b» Dooi;or o:j: ^^ngincerlB^ 1^;^7, T««h« Hi^ 
wahi>öl, !r^2LSiftT©r» %rV:ed for Piro-^rarl]:«» to^s^» isöaüureiaeafe t® 

i^e^an ae l^e-der of mcjisxjrecic^ntc £Toup tlicn lat«? ISmiBL ^ 
l^geTh^^:^%uX ^eotivß in charge of all ©acperiment©« 

■^ur'^ed on a 4 - .1 5 (hu4 V^ eiij^-alslbu 

Taifim (50 kilo all ii|it 

^^iilefe \»a^i best» I'Bruet fCO to 000 up t# lOCO lUla* IJß £.a«iaöQt« 

( Beat on A 4 «quale 4k€ @»/Jdll$ »Ml 

a%a Viai-lo-u8 txiülü ugtfd ^Ith aio;^ oiil/ rsade a^ 4if iore.i»# of plu« 
or lÄiuua 0»! gms/ttlo £«@* Th® oooIIb^ aXoohol {suria«» only 
maltea a di.lfer@i.ofe of 2,' to 5,. in the tlirust« 

Di££#riivioe of QplMon in sbq<i1X ro^lcets &MiaA*t» «ftiktiMr« 
In lurg«! roai^tfi.» fouiid gooA pro#«&ur« £er th# aald to mim £UHit# 

Somufeimes as snoli as I ooo» Cl^Xs-rönö« Iä timliiÄ« ^\ci4 1# 
th« |iiürfc#«t path it^ludtQc: tÄo soll öoabastiou oJüajcaS^a? 1700 %9 
1900 0« (üa A 4 airra^s tbö 0^ to aoms firat la ardflr td 

©lätabXi'^h uteacly flot?,» * 

M£y9i 67924t 

Vfiüturi of ^14 8t«#l# aoul4 ud« tli« m^JMf fmktmt fw 5 
Mas« y%«B r^uow» veti^p« of v«iittarl &t «a& #f S moni» 19 t« SGO 
or 400*0» !:äi»r«t tt«amar6d ^%h mit fltt&n« l^trraU« pl«tM 

aibout 1^ oms in Ola» 

415 



I® Siaae lt4l, Dt, Boiimld -^as oooTipioa -ith Urn ojtioiX aur- 
T«5^ of ti» orbits 01 the T£ aaa i^ith -oodetio suryej^ lar p^^-^ 
PQ909 Of arf plant Installations* 'To also dotc?'!;iinca tho in- 
8tmitdzi0diia looatiaa .of airplaaös ror the ^nrrpose of ohec::l.i ; 
data ^loh ??@ra olstainad Tith etöotrioal -otliods. 
^» Osl^l^^^^ ^-xsrfojBm Tr?o oomplesos or observation stationa ^'er© 
ostidbllsliae to awrrQ-j tho bogiimia^ of the path and the end of 
tli€ path« iiis@^tö^aphla tranaita Ithöodolltcjs) ^yr« ..^^od 
to r^ooM a^3»ith ai^l <^ii. nation photo ^^raphlaallj ap to ten 
^Ni^a pap so^oM« lliü objQot ^ma follo^.^«d i.i a juldin,;: tolc- 
QQ9pe hj tm HQii operating the two ooordlntito^» Tho ^iisn'^j^'iri- 
iastrttsxifit«^ '^AsJaaiila'* in Barlin« In ^od -^oathar aad -^Ith a 
ti^mX i^a^h of osi© tacter^ apürturo l£ ma, the 72 oould bü ol- 
loiwd up to a dlttaaco of SO to« 1«: -oit^ral 4 to 5 obserTatioii 
StstioiUi . f Otlo^*^ tho VS aliaultaneo-.i3l/* Thu position'-wt o'j föa 
&i«tUiioo Mil ©al;7 ^ gUÄ^öd to ^thla 3-5 mctcTs* 

40 a «0001^ method tho l?hotothoodolit)waa uaod. 3tQroo- 
ttsoi^ ptoturo» war« ta^n 8 bi apart and cval latcd v?ith th© 
stiOPto«» oosapisrator» i^oblef^i or oorrootlon duo to atoady and 
fluotuatiag rofraotlon li* tho at.':K)3pherc lloo in b t- oon the 
ootnfmpoMixi.^ prohletD of oraHiwry »^eodotio au to/s aiid tijo 
profclo-i« is aotroxi^a^ ^have the reiTaolioa th^ou-rh th«^ hole 
thlo:^3cm3i ^:f the i^ti^^tfixat^ i^iu^t ho tak^n inii a.ooouiru. Bo- 
«aua« of tho large distaaooa involved^ tho uurTat :- e oi' tho 
earth auat of oauao also be takwu into aojount« 



416 



iieoauce- oi the di^iiculty oy. xjlüicinj uu Dhe oroj-v^otilc 
at the Cad of tho orüit, capüciall^y ia da, ttüc, the x^olnt 
o£ liipaol; i3 deter ..dnod by acüustioal xi^ickiips. /is lpa_; aa tlxe 
explosion aoourrüd ou the üoi'th 8 aiiri'acü there wer© no 
QDOüntial di. i-loultlos to this mechod, iio^^ever, it waf^.- 
laoro dixxloult to detcrüiine the hei -hu at -hich a pro- 
jectllü prüi..iiti.o?Gl/ exploded* 
4» 3ohraid \7orlcQd on the data .obtained iroa the Soppier 
;;iethod aui*Vü;/ ox the velooity tlnio function q£ the VE, 
and 0-: the "Ilochzioltriansulation" (hi;:^h tar£;Gt survey) 
in 'der to eatahllöh acoiiratG haaos at the Island of 
BorriholM ('"diioh hütonycd to J^iQii-iarlz^aX a distanoe of 
1^0 Hi from Po©ne:uunde ) • For hi a survey "Leuohtho^nbon" 
(fl^irea) vqvq aet by airpl:jjio3 at a heiyht ox 6000 m, 
x'hü Jliirea were paraohute suspended 



Interview 19 ^.lay 1945, 



417 



Dootor Ixm ^^imt Stelahof f # 

Born on tlie 11 f^eb 190B In iTO.aa/i^ir, 2Gi,5on:^iaiu aa the son oi 
tis« Tdolmloal taspeotor for the Heiohsbahet», Lud Ig Steiiihoff« ifoia 
1909 :%o l9Ef I residea ,ln^:«S3Ql, flnall- in ^)arJ9tadt» IConlgaberg/ 
l^ruttiia aiid..Bafi, l^aacenhausen» 

I» 1936' carried Hild© ade« (neö\ Of this inlon four chilOröu 
'•«i*# bmm, Hans Joaohtm» Eaiinelor8/:.i0üilca, and 'Gisela. 

Origijml raaidenoe I5ar;ii3tadt», later ?0eae.:äundo« They wer o ^ 

eraeuated to v«risig©ra4e/ Sudhar® In the vioiuity of Bleloherode, 
Zm Kdueatioaal 1!yainin^ » 

üttesii.^ th© 9-.^ad© High S^ihool at Kassel, final examination 
^mm in the ae^ ye^ 1929^ finally at udled at the Xeohnloal ::ollo.:fo Dar 
staAt« Sti^ied airplane eonstruation airaition meterology» applied jM 
sadeWmiaa« seleoted oapital of the hi,^£^ mache.ia^ioe, ^^euwral 
eleetrielt^, wireless teohni<iue8, hlj^:;h treq, eiioy tcohniauos* He 
irsoftit»^ Ills dlple^^ in the final exa:nination ox Uay 193^ witi a. ratin 

After the eonoluaion of etudiea, durine^ the praotlsin^ of hie 
pr&feasiea« engaged in further •r^'orfc on the v..uoartlon8 of teohnidal 
phyiftiea« f liefet inatnunent teohaiviuea ani soforth» ^'eoeivod a pro »otlo 
la 1940 ttpm %hß Teehnioal Collejge, Darmstadt ?d.th the prediction of 
good # 



During the «titles iü tho yeara 192>1 to i9ö'ö en^i^a^ed at the 
,»ai3© tine, -^ith the "^hon-Roasittön iixperlmental aooicjty pn aubjoota 
^'X the aerologloal aeasurements, ilitSht perf or^aano© and aeronai.tloal 
radio traaaoiitlona* 

67919 

418 






In addition to a p\irely teohxiloal fduoation took: flyin^^ 
Instj^uotlon« In l9Ew glider trainings in 1931, power flight traialo^» 
and ooiapleted in 19^>8-1959 training X^ all eXassöS of land piano« ,> 
^'ith a blind fl/ing permit, alöo hold the 1935 gliding world rooor4 
for distano© from Wasserkuppe to Br\mn (504) toa« Also partioipated 
in nußörioa air raoes» 
4« Professional Friiotioo , 

f 19S5- I9g6 one year with tl^ Biotrioh air£>lano ^orfcs« After^^fards, 

Raab-Kat«©nstein airplane woriss, ICasstl, In 19^9 > £ laonths ^*lth the 
-i.ir Seathar -station in llasaal. In tu« "follot/ing sem^st^r vaoation 
öonaideraöle praotloe ^^-ith the d@partm@nt of energy ooonoffi^T» o'^&thBoA 
eatolea, ©vtr h©ad oahles i:aöüitOFing öto« 

after the ooüolusion of studies froia ,iay to October 1933, ^rkM 
with the a€!riaan-i"^usaian air fraffio company in Zo-dsshurg». a» 
ffltahanieal ©ngine^r« 

P For health reasons he oharie^ed to the engineer» aehool. Baft*- 

FarnScenhaueeiit «*» a leoturer and saetion leadeir fco» the Air Tranapart 
dmsion« 

He wae oooupied for 3 yeari teaohin/:: subjoet« on airplane 
•onÄtruötion, propeller eonstruotiont aeroplane statte «» general 
•tatioe» aiaipUfied oonatruotion, and airplane reeoarah laboratory 



• 



In Ootober 1936 he retwned to the Ernst tJdet «a|>«rlment&l body, 
thus worleiflg uader Prof* (Jeorgil on the eubjeet« of a«polegie« fll^t 
rsieehÄniee, Radar teohni^ea, following ttoough with fU^riit perforaanee 
uieaeureiuonte of numerous er>£^ines» and glldefr«« range me^eurementa 
©f airborne radio ©duipment» flight teatia^ of tew gU4«ra» and tha 
aubjeot of autoniatio pilots alao« 

67920 



419 



Oa the 1st Ol July 19ü9 Tranal'ered to x,h& ar.iy'a teatin statioa 
in PetneoiUßdo arsd took over the supervision of ate.rlnf* ;:eaT, ana l%t«a^ 
%'m t«99ting departiaerio, it the end of 1959 he divided t^@ sul^jeots 
of i?9ork -«glthDootop The IX, fro a IZum .iOrsadorf , r^ho took: over ©i^^-ine 
&^«lopraeat« oTkini^ Tt%th the saiae seötora ot tiiO eXootrlcal axid i^adlo 
@.,uipsaent« aiiä ©r fr»e flight expo^lraenta» alao fligiit moolmidos aiid 
liwally resot« «oBtrol, inölu&lng ©q.\ilpa©iit testine-j ^^ith a ooiaplete 
e^er ismntal teetixig airp lane « 

On Ma^ Ist 1948 he reoelired tho ratin of fli^^ht oaptain from 
th« H«icih ulQist«? of Air Transport, on the grouxida of the ©arp er 1 Lieut al re 
result« o^tfldB#4 in the airplane em^ine experiwentatioa« 

Gn thffi 1st Sept IM3 put in oharge of the eleotrioal «vjilpmont of 
the HÄl^saT'-^crtlll^ry parle 11. and later the eleotrio .aeohaiijLaal -^orfea 
at KfiqrlshÄgen». 

Is the folio ing ttffl©, ooGuplGd in supervising'^ tho aauufaotur^j 
of ©l^lariomljpart« of various additional sub -firms for -^-4 e uipraentt 
0®^eolall|r talcing «ar® or th« dovelopraent al exporimonta ol the -».-4 in 
S^^m^ ftighl», l^ir providing proaeaaea for tranauittinf; ;.ieii3uration 
values^ fro« f ,lyille? aiid th® further development of ^i-4 apparatus I'or 
inB%6iim^ 4i««9« 3inoe 1939 he ^m» ene:;aged ^^ith a lluid pool up tOw-öO 
te«(ding (HRna^ Muoatl^ial Institutes for apeoial problems of the pro- 
diyldti0^ of the •^vM and for the furthering ol the baaio 1 >provemcnt of 
^«reral ToeJtoit «apparatus • 

lOTteiHg ti^jgether f^ith the leading radio firms in the produotion, 
e^^ijgi#AtAtiO^« and fittings of radio iiiatallationa for A«-4 apparatus 
and Hifttkff all«( ^sserfall ^ 

A% the end of 1944 was ooiuffliaaioned to taJce over the development 
,of all unnannod control led r^er/aan fljiiig oraft together 7lth r.oioha- . 

67921 

• 420 



ojinlater 3peer« .^a a result of the removal i>OK rarlsha -en and th® 
developffiOLt of the ^?rar thia co:;uaosaioa ooula not l5e put into pra^^tla®. 

■Signed I Br»' vj:-iisw 3t@liihoff. 



67922 

42 f 



H mipsff iffiff^ygcipat ;^6piy;^94g 



X WS bom on th« Vi9kA of Hovmber 1905 in R^OaiäH»«^. A soa 
^ e ftnüttf» Ife^löa SoteOn». fjR» e ^i»«ni to 14 ytars ! w»at to ^it 
^ttcaar MiooX oT ^nA»» Irllet, 

Aftwr I q«dt «diool I wortad for tm yMvs tUX AprU 19"^ by Il»o, 
^mP^bmekA^a, iM 6n^ SxH» as ü?«täiaiosI X^raftflma. At the sans fix« for 8 
jFvax« X Xsaräta Ife^iiMt Flttiag» 

X «tt«&Asd ths fsUowing Iitstitutlonsi 

IhiBielfftl frsds Sohool la BerllaoChsrXottsnburg« 
SpsolAXlst Sefaool in ths City of $erlia (Night sdhool). 
9n»i 1«4«X99« to ^.3.1950 City Maoiili^ Ooastruotioa 

Hil^t 8«li0^t BarXia, sad ths Stats XsoogalBsa 

MhÄIas CoBstruotiott SoluteX« 
■frtm X^X988 tlU 12.8a98& X did thsss profsssioas by 

iSm foXXowiag fixwss 

Mmt« Ssiobstsia^ Brsnasbor Woxfcs» Brsodsaburg, 
€»$*m to 92.6*28 as Auto Hsslisaio. 

VrL«Ariflk SsaksX« Auto Rsppir Worte « Berlin- 
GbarXottsriboxi^ 80«8*88 to 2X«8«289 as Auto Msdiaaio« 

metUl VorkB» Uaitod Co« BsrXia>Stsaksa« 25*8.38 is 
XSl.t.Sit ss XadiiBS Flttsr. 

UadAbmm» Udik, Bsrli»-¥ils«ni4torff X8*9*;^5 to 14.XS..28 
as SXsetvislsa* 

Bzvatft Slsstrio Apparatus « Liaitsd Liability Oo^psay, 
ltsti».Cb^rXott«ai^iin, X8.12.P8 to 8X.X2.^ as Taotoxy 

Xaon^-Srakss Lisdtsd Oo« BaarXia-Uohtsabsrgf 2X.1.28 
to X8.X0.84 as Oonstruotor. 

IDvonHBraless Umltsd Co« BsrXia-LiohtsabsrSt ^.10.84 
is 8X.X*87« as f^ro« lißnos Enginesr, 

XnaBsrsdorf Tirtag tLanm$ Proriag Statioa Wast, 1.S.87 
to 2i.9.87| as Oonstvuotor» 

AffQr TSst StstioBf Pssasounds« X.8.57 till ths prossat 
aitiy, ss ConStruotor« sad Group Lsadsr in ths Contructioa 

BoMStt. 

422 



By th« f Im Knorr BnJwft in BerXla X was dhltfljr Comtnwtor 
of Air Bnikra for aarrcnr gaug» railway« and air piavft lAiSti x«tati»|( pistnw* 
fo tb«M iMlmg ▼sX'v» and pip« llM appamtus. Basia*« flM pc^paratioa 
of diaslgaa and irarkahop dzvnriiige I haw auparviaad tiia earxyiag oiifc of taste 
la tha wEirtcshop and oondaetad testa of Aa«|y dawilopad appaxmtai or Ite 
taating field. 

In tha laat S years I was with the sana fix« la tha aalaa ^WNMtt 
ma Traa L&noa Snginaar with projaot ivozi^« I waa oocstplad <m prioa «aWI* 
iadaixittg and praparlng Tandera. 

Since 1*2.57 I niorkad unlar Br, Dombaiil^ and Px^f» Br« 'Vtm Brava 
on tha loekat Fro^lan« 

I hagaa on tha Xtsaaaradorf luring Raaga aa Conatruotor» and ^btm, 
pa?aparad dasigna for a aalf-atartar» fihloh war« eoapXatad latar la B 



Finally Z worked with Ing» TaaMaaa oa No,l t«it ItmaA at Pmim— flirfi 
(Projaet and iatamal Inatalletlons Inoludiag proriaiMi of talaaoopaa). 

Qa account of tha ahortaga of peraonaal läila wogk had to b« 
ooatinoally interruptad and I woz^ced on tha A-3 aäi 11-4$ • Oa ^la A-0 appmrati» 
Z oonatruotod tha ooeygaa tank and tha altrogaa ooalMsar« Tarthanmpa Z 
undertook tha oomprehanaive woHc of tha idiola iq^pa^Nitiia laoludivg iSm d«v«tL«t> 
■ant of a aultabla hl|^ apaad para«khuta for tha aiaant of the appamtvui after 
Ita taka^ff. 

Sha oonatmetiva oontrol of tha A-4 ooaa^litiag of ^la fbUowi^g 
aocparta waa la qy haadat 

AaaaiKbling Bapp« 

OaUa XraU 

Water Heater KaubMunr 

Tuofto-punp Badalvftlä^teMka 

V-XaataUatioMi VaidL 

»MÜI yiaMX 

fool shop Kann 

Flpa ayatam 7(;to«ani^tNl.no|iar 

Slaotrio eonnaotiona Kubavi^iiiihl^ 

«ha p@ram& inMdlately orer »a «aa Saparior ilpl. Ing. BwtmuttwflPi» 
itho alao algaad aa vaapoaaibl« for tha tasting af #ppar|tvui. Tha aMIlJE^aas 

to hAsie eKpeadltura ware worked out with &ng* tasiSAnil. 



423 



Albert Sohulegi 

Ag# 30« ft^haidal High Sohool^ Caraistadt. Diploma 
Engln««!» 1939. Worktd f®r Z aonths on mat^iale (not oon- 
ad@teS with w@Apoas) at HhsiaaetalX Bor«ig. Umer in Army« 



forktd @a Ä.-4 aßd f&aserfall lnstjnim©nt&tion« 
fToblta«! Cl) Special instnsmenta to inrestigat« 

It) B»glÄt«ring readings at a digtanoe, 
fS) Measuri^ (a) Pressures. 

Cb) ?e»parature8* 
(«) fual now. 
(d) fank Gontsnts. 
^9 mh^9rrsL%l@m po^t «as SOD to 300 aaters froa th« A.->4« 

Cl) A« in A.4, usad ft lairer waii^ag aaohina. 

(S) Bjr aliptiaal •laetro-aagnetia ring gauga* King 
«paoial ttaal t«A«f.S.A. f* % 10<*. 
!)®fi0dtida li an f®y S toiiaat /V^^^'^X 

thnict. 500 . gftday bast eea- r/m/sr 
ditions fte0iii*&ta t# Xjl» Ma* 
dlianiaal aid« 0»I« b«t bad alta» 

triaai troabla daa f tai^paratura fXaotuationa and ahanga« 
la frafttas^r« Vaaaaraaaat 1^ A«0. Xaduataaaa Bildg«. Tha 
Waaaav^MLl gaaga aada to raalst aald aarraaloa (Ka had not 



424 




uf^ee ?na ro«'«lbly not hesüN! of « win gtfmln 
of ®#Bgurlng thfi thruet of the WntitpfallJ 



Vf*t;hca 



I -■..''-. -"^^. -/>;.-- //^/^7 

': J M 









I' 



xny 



~/y 

'--/■■ 



/x.. 



K 



M ...!_.„-._.. / 






~1 



|»fap»ratur» MetimreBgnt * 

(1) Ste»® for turMnt ^0**a. 

i2) 0«C* tM^«rst«i3^ tri «a by Ea^mlioa Tfn^^ttT» h&% 
this gmT« «n inaiefttion onljr« 

(3) Tilt «loohol. was not o^lea appreolably by paiali^ 
throitgli th« L«Og tftsil^» 

C4) Z« St%iff was haatai ontsläa aXaotriaallj. 
garit atooa too long vltlioat ^^»t flrad, it wa« aosatlmaa 
iiaaa89äs*y te haat tb# 2 Stuff by Hovlttt 1» Imt air Ca»* 
tamally ei^^j^ t ?atik) 

lAatymaAta mHi tbavnaaocspiae « ir»» « ^aatantln. 

0« « toaataatia» 



425 



ID ÜB9ä B©urd®n tubes on whleh were mounted rheootat« 
«pill oh ti»aii«f eri'^d the reading to Bunker 200 m. awÄy. 

it) Oond«nj|®r g&ug«8* 

(3) 8i«m«»8 «l»atrl0 pr^gsur« gai^«. 

14} la fll^t* Bour den g»ug« used to charge induotan«t 
for t#l«si8terliig. 
tela t«gpTütur» In fXlajht « 

fhcgr ln««f*t into th« ekin small patches of met el of 
Iciunm »«ItlAf point« Thsct patohe« are eaoh eonneoted to 
^m «leetsdeal eis^itil whioh sent a signal when the metal 
se3.ted* 

(Sdlwler was only O0neex*ned with Instruments for the power 
nnit) 
fauA f 0ttf at< and r»#l Hc^« 

flis first »tthod« of ■SAsurlng fuel oonsuaption was by 
a 9ontiii«9«s rsading depth gauge in hoth tanks. (On the 0(»i« 
bastion #li«Bl>er test had, they measured the fu^ eonsuaptimi 
1»y\feeünc tr&m wiigh tanks) 

(1) (OoBtifiuims) • iylindrioa). soadsaMr prsbe« Two 
aonaentrie oy3.inders (aiuaintss} useA with eondensor hridge 
Masuring systsm« ?9ry good with h»Q% as disleotria eonstaat 
was GOttstant. L.02 an exoallent insulator« Rot too suooesi- 
ftti with aleoh^ hut they inodisaa the snrfaos of the aluminiiai 



* 426 



tub««. One of these probes was built Into each tank of f^r^ry 

ro©k«t due fop test. To mount tbe cylinders, plexlgla«» was 

rood for L.Og. With oar«, if/t accuraoy. Made a more «laV- 

or&te brlvi^e but ner^r ustd aa thla syete® wa« abanaone«. 

Depth ^augt - Bygtf)in ?? . 

Developed by Profesnor Hise of HanaTer« 

line ourve. O.K. for -^loohol« 



%Y© a straight 




HSRe 



Uo good for L,Og dut to temp. 

variation. Iron l^ wound w2tb 

^Ire. Strongest field at bot- 

toai. Kaoh leg eheatbed 1b 

porcelain tube, fhis con- 

»tltuted the Primary of the 

Inductive systein. The iecondary W^j^SSi i^i£Lß 4T/^Qm££i:: 

eonsiated of a shorted turis of aluminas» «laev^a la a glaas 

float. 1^ accuracy on aleohol« Wanted k%^ but coytld not 

get this with thaee continuous InatPttwent« §9 ^aaged to two 

new InstniBNenti giving eignala at 10 leTel«. 

Syatea 8 •> for Alcohol « 

¥hit eysteia soaetiaac tzsed with 

the contlnuoma ayataB. Accuracy 

gAooo. li^O» pttKped in always 

4000 lit Pea error on tap tube 

oontaet* Nfvar greater thas plu® 

or Biiia« • litraa« 



427 



>« — m 




10 ^iAS$(M£il9CVJ^) 
AT 35 CM 



SysttÄa 4 for LO2 

"KSSfS'Sflfeci i«f tarn 10 ffisreiiry glass switehes floats rotaLiii^ a amall wh«al 
«ith kJ» ftttA Ibr«^ eoQtaet« 
Syatwi 5. 
MsoostlisiiMBft «l9dtro aagnotie depth gang«, Impulse to indicate as glass f l^at 



pasw^ oafch eeil« S » 10 coils in taiik. 



Co/tS iCM 



BB«d for !r«ft8flsdPfi23L« 



4Lmmiim %imifir 



f^JJlC£Ui4/^ Ti/S£' 




ALimiHiUm 









/OC.M, 



• UUULAr£il 



I /OCM 



iH^QLAre^ 



l3k t&WSB tSi« n.ttJ4 flows w^ro not otasured« 

For tsÄÜ^g tsaisffrfallj, sost of th@ instr^asBnts wero the same as for A4« 

Hosi9f«r Vm eliderbrie&l insrilation which was O.K, for alcohol was ao good fw 

mtri« or i^«ol« 

For «$14 wm inraUter "Dynagen» (C^panol) us« a different insulator for VISOL. 

For UttMurfiili ^ÜUI ae4 us« the capacity ^x^ or fh9 CAPACIty tube or the 1*02 float 

Xltrltt atte^lced »t er c wy »witeh©» - poor contact »o used system 5 - ae« abow. 

Sifflmilt t» VMBb liuik depth gmigmt oirer «hort rune so developed flow maters« 

tX0«d manml iileSBi pJjftte« and pressure drop neasuriqg devices for acid and 

täjodhbl httt I'«? lid had to d««i|^ special vtsnturi to avoid 

turbulsaos m^ tmix^, 

YtTf «sritiosl t» %mjmsBP9 jour 

presflig« is m» r£|^ plsode* 




^^^^P77?>^ 



IL^ 



j^i. 



OtM bt« helM. ftnn*l «Im 2 - 8 m but for L.O; S-8 an to avoid «iro» tm 

ns 



to boiling« 

tbasf Tiaod this typ« »ucoessfully for liquid oaygen. 

Was intondod to »ov® combustion ohamber, Beet boys to LciSilfiSTEN raaar GAX^'^ID« 
D«pth gatigaa ai; fl/st one was built into ®v©ry M for «xperimental purpos«« 
^imi in productiosi 

(A) 1 in 10 
thru (B) 1 in 20. 

then ab&ndoa@d. 



429 



Isterrogatioa of SHICH SSEFSRT, interviewed Qarmisch on 22 May 1945, by 
H»A» Leibhafsky and G«J. Gollin 

Made jigs and dies* 

!• TAIgim (g^g illustration below) 

'dia 100 mm. length about 6 meters, combustion chamber 13" to 
long. Mild steel 1 mm mostly, 2 1/2 to 5 mm at the thickest. Sprayer 
xn 3 parts, mamj holes. Tanks 1 mm wall. Fuel tanks about 1.2 metres long 
Iimer tank about 60 mm dia? Probably samples at Bl echorode. Tried all 
kinds of stabilizing fins, some short and some long. 
2. . Wasserfall 

Worked on middle part of the body. 




^"*^ ^^.TH f, 



MS 



^"•«aaat 


^ 


.>^'-^^ 


t^S^ iö 


i 1 ! (.« . 


y< l-^n 


\ 


i'-ujrrs^ 


^-^ /Jp/>vw 



Interrogation of PHITZ SARk, at Garmisch on 22 May 19^5 by H.A.Liebhaf sky 
and G#J. Gollin* 

Concerned with the liquid oxygen plant at Peeneaiinde, 

S&ii lüiSäi 



22,000 kg contents 
•^»OOO - 8,000 kilo 

Insulifation 30 cms of "magna sium^powder 

Fixed Peenemünde LOo factory 

Storage -~» 2 tanks 50 »000 kilo each, suspended from an iron frame, 

insulation magnesiiim powder« 

2 compressors each 2 cylinders. Bach compressor SISI made 500 - 600 

kilo of LOp per hour. 



430 



I ut erT 1 OTT --7 1 1 h Tip » Ueii ihod ^v tr al) 6l (of I u ciiö2iu,nd e 

(raral soli i^'arteiikirQliou» ..-ay.lt>, 19*^3. 
Interrogator: It. F. ::Tviok:;/# 

Wfc-i-e to b«- Solved aaai:emutioull7 b^ tih^ Tii3-t.itut© oi* -.v.^^Xied 

of Messrs« HÄna%iju» iiuj'Ä'^^eg, -«ö^ioner )ana c-^liCTa» aa-'^'^ll i.^ tlie 

üLöd &erM4|»äöl^ 4..vta i'ör ali Qi" -ihö üallij&ic öaIeul>xtiona» 1^ 
ia«teeare.lagiOÄl n^riüm of the Ralöh nuppli^ th« data öoao^rrdr^ thm 
ntfiios.^'Uia*«» .Bi4©ä as iaapcrsit-iirfia» dönsitios, ^M volciai tiers ©to« 
as funotl^a of tiiö aititud«» 

"ihm ^iäpiü'aioa ^£i ran^^ü oX tli© .f3 (50,"' üon©' i:i...^^peria t-o h@ a 
a43P«l« tü«aiei0irüally , ior tae uii^^uia©4 ^31*1X0» 7h# dl.Jiitöt®r of 
tili» 0lr#l« l» 4tm5 km. for tiM radio direot^ YB th© Xater^X 
diap^rsioB is aut doim to ona half and tbo 50/^ diaperaion zoi;i# is 
aft tllip«« ^tk a üiajop dXam@t@r of 4*5 ^m In the diraatlon of 
flight .ind a l*^t«r'al 'aiüQi* d:xi^ oi' 3 ^-* ^xii3 diamwt^r uf thö ilO;'. 
diB^«d[*!9loa son« 18 oaloüiaö©4 frira %ha l^dst e^uoi'« loramla 



11 ^^=± 0.^7^5 VS^^^^F? 



'2hm di«i>«rai0Ä lüa» its origlii in th« folXo^ns errora: 

X Säer^T» ia th« .äa^ateia veXoöity reaohed t-eocius® of 
«rt»oa«ou3 tia^ag ot tli® ayt o^f oi: th/$ prspöIXajatä 
(£z>«tinaaklu8a • 

a is^roir» la täft i^i0t^uicG tsraTfilltd at thai tim# of tb« 
proptllant «ut off« 

3 Äfegaaga^nöd«lf«iil«p DUxror -n th« an^l« ?©l?^tlv# t© tli# 
vartiö.ii ut 'i-ii« ^'Brennaohluasj'' or the at-r^t of tho free 
t3f%Jd«tory» 

4 .^««haXt»€itf«nl«r i£rrQT' ta th« tlÄng -«f tlbt pro 
p«lViixt «ut off« 

5 H^ao«p]ai«ri® fXuoti|at|ori9^ iaüludno© on th© drais 
(iapü^l dooffiditjCLt Cy • thos« f Xuetaations t«r« not 

»ltiUWMlti04l]Ljr «OAtld«^«^ 

i »4ii|^t f t»iftu«Uoii0 :p«latiT# te tlM tls*u«t wa® also 
$alEM int« aMtttftt« 

431 



"vO ali.i*-;«? tuc T j['luuj puiaaote^^u of .the VE lu oi'dor t,a uahiQVö 






tha '-vii^^ht 



iS r©üa;otid aS s^ßr 



w^ta 4)ü the proi>e'i.l^*it out o.£t th# r^inge '<;.is thüU eößi,*üt^ ariÄ 

v.crwal^;' akäTücc '.rit-liln «m oüciirac^ ox" l^atj than plua or miiaiS l 
^a» iiitU he^xü, wli^ aM t^all ;4M adilitiöiiäl changes of tlw 

^^ii* aeö^iifi. 3L.artc:as the rtüije "b/ tau mctöra» üiiiöe soi^ötiaiao 
v'iiÄ vclQijltifS of 40 %Q jO ui-it^ra pö2* >i'€jaöü4. %?€x*a oljSi.a*Vü?ü. 



df« «>it« for %bM t&%al (^og 



vv = c^|-VF 



3^ = CROSS ' StCTI 



ON 






aCwC«*'')- o.iC 



w 



v^ ^ O for M>I 
Si« tentative &i3^am is ae follows 



,^-/t 



w 



Ol 



^ 



432 



) 



(A8k Bra» Rosental« Steliiboft Holder 




Orbit 



fl^ angle of atta®l£ at %hM tin» of th^ propellant aut off la 
differ «at fir Olffareiit actual orl^lta» 'l^e drag ooafflolent 
l^«iiM 0» %kXM amgl»« 



As a fuj^tion of ll&l^*a musbar M tha drag^odeffioiafit 0» ^ 0« 
luas a siaadUrai at M » l»i nklali la 0^ (aax « 0«4® 



Drag Coi^fpiciBHT for )h 




Height 

f 

eoKmr 

} 

I 

! 

! 

45 I 

i 

50 + 



'x. 



X 



X 



Atmosphere 



-54 -fS4 



■ j^'x 



Temperö±ure in 
Centi(jiräde 



434 



yar^lftXtffi of the luflueiio« of long tms^n tt^e patha on 0^ at 
gtmkt altituäoB ^9a« not oon8i&iro& by tlio Fi^u^sauoAd (hrotiq^» 

R«o«iitlj ^«Q zaany T8*a wort flrod tma^ tmaj^oapex/ probletaa o«* 
•Of ioA V» tdu^l« attention of the aerod^imleiart at Peen^sonäe.' 
aii4 the mere haele iaveetl^tione were turned over to the X>apE*J3 
etadt fflatheiaatieal nsrotip« 

for the aeroilmaBdea of the wing hoara alesilee at Peeneisyade 
iaterrlev Pipl» Zag« Oeieeler« 

A haee line with at least three oheerration etatiOLis was 
ueei and oheerTatione ij^d© In olear weather both hy day and hy 
night« SpeeiaXiet in this field is X)r« He Unit Sehald« 

lleel^ieat eurvey of the path of the TS» 

Thie wae done ^dth i^ort waves on the haals of the Doppler 
prineiple» The ground £reaueney emitted from the ^^ound station 
was rei^tted £pom the missile <^nd arrived at the varioue ground 
stations ae a ehmaged fre%uenoy» the ehange in f^e^^tienoy rep 
resenting dlreotly velocity eos^onents of the lalaaile* Ver7 
good results mfre &htained ^^th this aethed» beeause one ohtains 
in this way the veloeity direetly rather than hy dlfferentlatlen 
of the path as in the optleal aaethod« 

a teennsehluse trough radio i^gnal with an aeeuraey ef 
dispersion in the amadLamsi veleeity eq.ual te plus or eadnus one 
aeter per mtm^slU 

h Brsi^iMihluae tlarou^ the use of int^ratlon devises« 

la this ease the aeeeleratlon is Int^^rated« 
JNr IhtegraMon devlee see the Intervie« Trith Bref « BuehholA. In 
lendenf llth this fi^paratus the aeeeleratlon of a^^vlty estere- 
the pletiare elM* 'mkt^ aey theref(^e)oeet3r e rather large . 
Hmb '^ Seit Fehler (Qiruet tiae error • On these errors inter 
view 

nr* Kirehsteln 
Sr« Sehwidewslci 
Mpl« lag« Bern 

1!|a tests at Peeneaande inelüde sot of the eut eff^s ef tte tmm 
« and S0I» ef the eut off *e of the type V • 

Hie Mssiles whieh were sent afainat England used the e»t off h 
in $Qh ef the eases and only 10;. of eut off *s of the type a « 
1ÜMI reaeon for this is that t^ erew did not eare to staad arouad 
and ep«rate the radio equipment beoauee of danger of air attaeks« 

435 



la addition tbrnre "^m-e not diioii^ ef thß eldotarleeil iprouM la** 
artaliatton« aT^illal»!®» 

l^im ^rmmntB la the *'aNi«hrtLflh»k^^» (^^w«d3r ^t tfbf%m 

a Jsfpr^f^rmmBA thro^^ «exTMiioi» of tli» pa^« lull« « 

«#lL«ratloa t« tte Äistano« tr«T«lX«&« (X^^orriow ßp« Kira^ oa tMs 

% 9«7r««tton ©f til* tlflilng of tho pifopollant out off. 
mi9 lattor saothod la loo« aootsrat« tbaa. a « 

Beikh mot^ho&s aro Waoa oa the follo^rla^ 14aa* Oao oorr ^ts tiaa 
Telocity neir tlM time of propollawt out off ©it&er aftar ooa 
P^tti^ thm diatoaao ^aTolled or t3m time oa roaohlng a dafialt« 
Tolooity ^%h tbm dlstanoe or tlae tliecxrotloaXl^ os^oot^« 

%1im29 «i«?t>iiad3 ho*^irar ^^mte in the |s*ooe33 uf dovolopiaent» ^l«tiial 
firings iser« oo far only eco^rootea ^th the tla« oorrootlon 
isotho4 laut not ^t fdth tlio dlttar^o oosipootloo mothod» 

fte ti^*2« oosrootloB oethod is loss aoourato than thm dlntanoo 
90aETO9tioa sMithoft ^ooauso It lnrolToa fnl^ oi^ point oa tho patl^ 
fwitli ao Jcaowlodge of ptmttovm hiator^ « ^^Mlo tb« dlstaaoo ocr 
rootlOB oot^od liiTolToa tho tiliola path« for Inataooo if tho tllte 
oliaorvod at ttao otit &tt la tho aortaal th«>rotloall7 exp^tod timo 
aad tte Tolo^t^ at out off tha pEraa«rihod thaorotloai aoraal 
Talaalty thaa not aaooasarix? actual dlataaoo trav^.Lod o%ual 
aarttal thMratloal ^^ootad diataaoa* 



436 



.l^fr 



'^hib VS o]a':ü:'s®a up cl®oiriOAli7 to order of ;i5a rnitudu 
£0,000 Volts at'th® Bt^rt of th© rwa ana oit tht propetl :t.:^t 
out-off« .Uuria^'5 ,-;ood oombuotlon there l8 no ohurge ^xid 
previously, "buitt up po^^enljials disup ö;dr, .he net ohorge 
on the ddirloe aust heuia ta solid portiolea in the oombuatluii 
gaaeSf Th0 QSiatenoe at solid -partio lea, either •Zxom Uio co .- 
bujatlon orfrom duaii iK^tiolea xrom the outsiae uir is 
neoeasary lii orderfor che bomhs to bo charged up öleotricaii,/, 

.^e 50'^ disperalon zou® refers to ir*i bai^üä Trhioh all 
ar© In ^ood order* Thero ^mre of ooura© Lieaiy aysteiaatlo 
failures which aocoimt for th« MOtiiälly obaervod vdde ^ 
aaatt^ertAg in tha^-rang^e» 

i5. Double ixite-tyatlon of th® jaiooajtaratlon »" 

A oontrast was given Prof* Btioiihold in X^armstadt to de- 
velop© auoh a device, whioh mis liitönded for ooxsiissotion of th« 
path at the tliü# of th© propella^t ovt-off, ^s. propoaal waa mads 
fur aotivatlou v/ith the aoöeleration intK^aitor, of ä motor, 
the angular velooity of ^ieh r^uld alrniys be proportional to the 
felooit^ V of the proj«iotile«^The xnmhBT of revolutions of 
this motor would be autoaiatloally souiited xnd thus give the 
diiätaneo' travelled b/ the projeotile. 

4« Agjiattth errors for the T^ m 

Agimutal llae up of the IB on the firing platform i^as 
possible within qa& to three "artillery divisions'* {.ji'tillerie- 
atrlch s 1/0400 of the oirole). This error aoaounts cit most 
for one kilometer lateral soatterin^« Ordinary artillery 
triangul4tion instruments \^9re used to adjust the projeetlle 
on the tabls» The plane ef the flight orbit is defined hj 
gi^res to about the same aoouraoy in final range dispersion as 
aorreaponds to the error in asiiauthai line up« 

JM ^nm^U9^9 9^. thjJTE. 

in the b^e^imiing Inaeouraoies in the oonatruotion of the 
?£ played A great- role« 'These Inaeour^ioies r^^giulted in an 
angular velooity areuup, the tojis of the aro jeotlle of' about ;50- 
60 rpfii# 2«ater on the geneifatlea of angular momentU2& during the 
flight was more and laore eliminated» rhe control problem 
^ith the ?8 is isuoh mere diffioult than rith ordinary aircraft 
where stability .must be ^ohievad only in a muoh more llailted 
veloeity ran,Q;e. (1 to 6)« Ho artifiolul d.^jipiii;?! is used in the 
V£, Ratlltr the air itself is used as the dtimijlii^ nodi urn In 
suoh a' way that both the rudder« in the Jet und the extcrnjil 
one» üre öadw to anticipate the onootvdiv:; oaoillations and cvro 

437 



iüv ä in uuoh a raahion as to oorapenaate tixe.j In statu jia 

Up'jf^da ni;;ht 2^ Cmax) js 1.1 atu 

i>o'mmärds dive f^ CadÄ) -m 5*5 stu 

Heatlor; ot tbe skin of the TE 

^perJUaontal la^ £ot tho frioti-ori temper itxire a« as 

2 
Ty s V / SOOO in Centi,3rad®s 

'"here th« voloolty ¥ is to be exproaaed in ißeters per 
second* 1!he depeudenoe of on various vari'^bles hiS not /et 
been determlued aaoiirately» 



Ißttarviaw 19 ilay 1945 



• Hj- Dr. HoA« Sharpe 
Interpre-ber- Dr. Rosenthal ( l^cGjie: unde ) 

jjhe pur_^:oG-^ oi uaj iriLe"Top;'::i'..iOu .;::b to obt'.,iri iiiio crr-tion 
on Code iiaaes U;-5ed in connection with ..4 riadio oquip].:ent. Code 
nanes 'vere allocat^ii b./ ieenem^nde to all coaplete e^-^uinmentl 
In all correspondencoe individual units v/er-e only ref ered to as :\n 
item of a code named _ e^iuipLent. iheso code naiiies did not appear on 
the i^ianuaactured equiiment jhich was only raar^.ced. with a t:/pe number. 
These t^ype numbers •■/ere sent to tLie manufacturing; firths by the 
Ministry aoäcerned and not from er throus<h Peenemünde. There 
would therefore be no one availab].e that v/ould kno-.v the numbers 
concerned! 

The following code names v/e?e obtained; 
1. EgLui pment in Rocket 

H onnef f ; This name covered the control signal receiA^Rr and 
auxilliary units mounted on the same ma'.n fr^a-"e, 

VoK^S /7g This name covered the receivin-- .equipme;.i!- lor the 
Leitstrahl beaiA sip-nals. 

Lessina I JWas the code name given to the liiSütlöSix equipment 
including transmitter, modulators etc. 

Papern;ie : This v/as a self oscillatin,^ Radio Receiver which 

was used as a low uower transmitter for field strength 
measurements in connectionwith measurements of 
absorption of Radio '^/aves by the rocket flame. 
It' v;as used only for experr'^ental purposes i 

Qrtler : This name covered the /erdo. ^^ler Receiver Transmitter 
in the rocket» 

J This jas tihe name for a receiver desi:2;ned to p-^ovide 
a nu:;:ber of icdiocontrol channels to the rocicet^ 
It *vas used for researcn purposes only, 

I. GerÄt I or II .s 'fas a general name for Interjrating 

Accelerometers» Iller Gerit ;;as V.riown as 
I Ger^t I and Isar GerAt as I GerAt II. 

The following terms are noted. These were not code names 2 

Oernig- is used generally for a power unit» 

Haupt Verteiler - for a junction box. 

Antenna Kasten - for an antenna :r;:atching unit, 

2« Test Equipment for Rocket . 

The ground equipment used for testin-": the roc'cet is covered 
by the general name R-Gestelle. This Gestelle or fraiie contains 
a nuEiber of units. It contains a lo.v ^ ower transiiitcor and mod- 
ulator for producing signals sir^ilar uo l;ho;;o obtai^ioci .''ro tne 
J-.eitstra}il ,^oai„ and also a ,;ci loGijein dander i'or toütia- U,e 



':.j.:j^3iu.ur.r. 



':?.:hWR2 OF D:^, . StGiniioii - 3o May 1945. 



5ololenz 



verao.plere several units that are probably 3~Gestellen were found 
^n y..2 tram at i letxn-. jJiie uni.s in the i r .i^e were numbered so 
t.-au an maividual unit is hno,ai as Unit ho- of B. -Gestellen. • 

5» Ground -2quip; ent 

iiasa i= This code nai..e covers the Leitstrahl transmitter and 
aerial s./itGain:^: unit. 

H^£ai-^_I^ I fhis^nai!".e covered th^^ complete gi'^ound equipment 

for Lhe Leitstrahl beam including Diesel Generator 
Unit, m-dulator etc» 

__________ fhis was the code nai.ie given toa monitering receivinn 

equipmont located near the firing site for checking 
the direction of the Leitstrahl Beam. 

geaple i This is the ground transmitter for the Verdoffler 

system« 

Z-Gestell s This covers the Verdoppler receiver and all the 
units for the Doffler velocity measurements. It 
includes the receivex^ Lixer unit, filter unit and 
frequency Bridge v/ith automatic operating circuits« 

Palermo s. This was the code name for the .transmitter ude§ for 
the sending the control signals. 

Heide % This w/as the code na:n8for the modulator -.used with 
Palermo. 



440 



Dr. at einh off; 11?.^^^ /sz ; 



Dy. Stelnhoff wag asked for Information on th® ©ffeot^'^ 
of th® ®xh&ust gss@« on radio eosn'unleatioR with roekste« 
M® itattd that th® work omrrleä out by frot^ Tl®w®g on th« 
prop»rti®i of J®tf hÄd \)een b2»©ught to «n «nd as the r«- 
«ultf Indleatea th&t interfarenee 6ue to this eaufit would 
not be sufficient to cauee trouble with A-*, 

The B&lR oonolusion froia Prof. Tleweg» b work w&b that 
Interferenz® only appeared when solid pertlclet were ©reeent 
in the gftSe Interference was c&ueed by eleetrlcal ohi- -»gee 
OR the miislle, but this wae not sufficient to cause trouble 
as it was «aal 1 ooiQjared with the field «treagth produöed 
by the ©ontrolling tranemltter at the maximiiB range, ©r. 
Stelnhoff stated that no tests on radio absorption by the 
jet had been aade on the test stands but all tests had been 
made in flight« fhe field strength at tt&e aissile had bsea 
continuously teleaetered to the ground and recorded against 
height« The field strengths reeorded were then ooopared 
with ealeulated field strengths assuaiag no absorption. 

At the 60 Md/s frequency used on A-4» absorptions of 
as »ueh as tO)l had beer« aeasured* The seasurements of ab* 
sorption had agreed with theoretical vaXttea to within 9^. 
Most of the work on this part of Hic problca had been carried 
out at frats« 

There is & definite relation between the electric charge 



441 « 



on the mlgfiilf: and the pr^setast of particle« in th« gat 
«tream. If there is abaorptloa #j# to th# presenot of 
par tides, the «b««rptioii is pi*©portion«l to th© eleetri« 
cb^'.rf^e. Complete oo»bußtion give« l#ts loartlcle» and leu« 
absolution« Br. st^inhoff did not knoir of anything th«t 
©oulö be done to th# fö«l to reduoe this troubl^^ aiaa h« 
haa not heara of any ©jcparisents that hsa been t8ffri#a out 
to Inventigat® tk« p@8sitoiliti#» ©f aMing tubstanea« to tha 
fiiÄ te reäwe® tMe trouble« 

A-4 uharf 8Ö up to a Toltar* of 25^000 &t tha ba^nning 
and end ©f ©osibiigtioriä. bwt th® itrIu^ was gmaHey <?!uring 
aoebustion* 

Ho trouble was antiöipatea with Waasarfall au« to ab- 
worptton OP intarfaranei^ a« tha ranfaa wmre shorter than A-4. 
Waasarfall * 

Pr. Steinhöff atartta ^^1% on faAsarfail in Hovambar 
1942. Ha had hopad that ^raasarfall would hm raady for uc« 
in HoTambar 1945«> this howavar would oiü^y hm'ra st aerln^ by 
an oparator with trB^ki»g of tha alaflll® by «ptloal maaAc» 
At nighty tMc frould ba tttad in oenjuiuitioa with illoslnatioii 
of tha target by aaarohliglitc« 
Ela@trioal frosmlaion^ 

About 4 or 9 yaara ago» ^aanisinda was latarastad in 
eleatrio rottet propiilaion. St was« howaTar» only in ths 99* 



442 



«^m.T^% €ttt@a l)F». ftil had hm^n th® ItÄlicm offi@®r b®- 

tw^.Bn ?tenem§nö^ anä this work* Aft^r h# ^as kill«<5^ in 

thu H-Äf fmidt noboäi- had b-^en. anpolnt#a. in hig plaa®. 

fli« prlnaiple worker in thi® field had tea*^n ?rof. 

Bei«0i!l3iirg in Berlin. Iß 1941 ^ '«hi oh ^as th®-l&s% a@Of*'?iofi 

©ri wMeh t^r. Steiahoff had baa iafoririatiofi on thif subjeet^ 

« 
tilt ^«oipri^fit had been oonst d«refi to b« af praotieal us® 

f ©r i*@ad veh!eles and .mibmarlntfi. 

ffe« Ötsiga had bsen mort iuitÄbl« for th« produotlon 

ef nffiall powers for lon^, period« than for l^rg® power 9 foF 

p®rio6.i r®quir®d for rocktts, ^ 



Herr« Eolzer, 



!• JDr, Stelnhoff stataä that he had not done work on 
the X Strata Bjttmx of autcsnatic control* This bed been 
ceveloped hf Plenäl« llcwevöx», wh^n h® started woi^ on the 
i^-4 proJ®ct^ he investigsted tb© then existing X Derate 
equloment wifeh a view to its us©. He soon came to the con- 
cixwiori, however, thet this syatm wee not of sufficient 
ficcuracy for the control of projectiles and work w&s 
startea to iirpro^e the system« These improvsroents produced 
s> besm which gave e stated accuracy of control of plus or 
'rinus .-JO meters at a rani^e of 140 K Meters from the trans- 
knitter« All early tests of the control equipment were 
carried out in an aircraft and it was pointed out by Dr. 
Stelnhoff tliat this figure rspresented maximum error in 
flight path of the controlled aircraft and not the dead 
area of .the beam* ThlB appears to be an extremely high 
degree of accuracy to achieve i^dth a befim system on a 
frequency ©f 50 mc/s^ h%zt Dr« Steinhoff wag very definite 
about this figure« 



H« 



equip§^nt in a 
¥.4iJ automatic pilot* 
for an improved- typ@* 
The results of thea® 
©raft ar# of interest 
eeeding in both U.S. : 
landing ©f aircraft • 



M fir et tests were eerried out using the radio 



in 



aircraft fitted with a Siemena 
uli# automatic pilot was later changed 
Correct 3y^ banked turns were used* 
ts of automatic ecaitro} of an air- 
connection with the work now pr©- 
li«K"» on automatic approach snd 

_ — M was aasused parallel and the 

conatanta ®f tb@ aystem were fixed at the beat comprowise 
valu#a i^ieh ware obtained «ainly as a result of experl« 
trent« It was nec^ssery to switch on the automatic control 
with the aircraft la the hem. WiJod with its heading correet 
to within 1 degree* With this arrangement, the aircraft 
would fly from about 800 K Meters to about 3 K Meters fi»om 
the ftransraltter. However, the latter part of the flight 
was only auacessful if there was no change in cross wind 
during the approach« Kost of this aircraft work was car- 
ried out in 1940. 

S* Kadio teats in an A-6 were cairied out in 1941* 
Much trouble waa eaeountered in trying to find aultable 
conatanta for the control ays tern because of the wery large 
speed VBug^ involved. Succesiful control had not been 
aehieved lOamn the A-5 was abandoned in favor of the A-4. 



444 



It has only been found possible to apply a r&rj »mall de- 
gree of control t© A»4^ otberwis® th© system became un- 
stable* 

4» Both the groimd and rocket radio control equip- 
ment bad been developed by Lor ens, Berlin, to o s^peci- 
fleet loa of requiretnents from Peeneminde* Mr. Hölzer äse 
later Interrogated on certain details of the above sub- 
jects but was veiy unwilling to apeak of saj experlencesi 
they had had during development . 



Interviewed 19 May I94S» 



44S 



bernh^rd lesxiüann Fsrttnkirchön 16 May 1945 

1st En 2:1 n@ or 



I, Bernhard Tm&fm&ntig was bom on th© 16th of Augxm t 
1912, the son of a sculptor and pl«ster#r, Robert Teazmann 
o^ Zingst on th« Baltic, Kr®ig Prangberg, Barths, Shortly be- 
fore the outbreak of th« 1st World War, my p€ir®nts moved to 
B©2^Iiii. Ear®^ I attended Ho, 9 Grade School from toy 6th yaar 
if^tm Oetöb®p 1928 to th® end of September 1926). Under th» 
premsmra of t^ post war conditions, it was Impossible for 
me and ?ny three brothers and slöterg to go further with a 
higher education • However, my wish was t4> become an engineer. 
At th« coEiq>letion of my schooling, I became a locksmith and 
apprentice artist with the firm, Orenstsln and Kopple, in 
Berlin* DiarSfig this tiü®, on my owi time and money, j. visited 
th# Cl^ *Prad© Building in Berlin^ in order to prepare myself 
for entry into a higher machine construction school. With 
th0 completion of my apprenticeship la 1030, I completed my 
filial* examinations at the iTade Building and went still fturther 
into th9 studies of a machine construction engineer in the 
Higher Machine Construction School, Berlin {Max Eydt)» Tn 
th« beginnings for mtinf days, I worked as a technician; later, 
as mn independent designer with my spprentioeshlp fiim, Oren- 
stein and Jfopple in the division of dredging -machinery axvl 
erane eons true tion as well aa locomotive engines and engine 

446 



^üUBtra^tiim c Mze:/P- two yer^j^f? ä^ctlvlt^-^ (I ätiil did not 
hava n5\ Hnglnoeririg De^jree) « I raoalveö^ in the alvision ot 
ör^dging machinar^ und crane aonitruotlonu «n Independent 
worlc group,, la which I primarily aiapa rvis®d «11 tb@ saoving 
»:#ch&nls% and all mmchlnas^ employing lever sg© and special 
siönal ürrüögemmita* . Later, and in between^ I carried 
leslgna and ©slettl^mtiotis for l&rgp bm».© platen for el^ctrie 
it&mn driY^n dredges- as well ^® for separat® machinerj 
I« B@for® I left the abof^® maatloned firm, (in Hoir©mt)@r 
1035},, I worked ij years „on situation plims for large cor- 
struetioR Installatione, tbe onöans of appropriate est lira t ions 
of differant type® of dredging machines, with the additional 
calculation of dally and hourly work output and Individual 
technical statements, whidi were rec It'ed as a service to our 
ciistomere. In August 1935, I passed my state admittance ©ngl- 
EtsTf. fiat I ©sft^Jjiitlon,^ ift?^;r > school attendance of ten se- 
aeaters (B ytars}« After «hi® ©^mlimtion^ I met doctor von 
Sraun (now Professor Dr. t» Braun) at the school, in order to 
work on the subjects of rocket development, at that time a 
small Tsork union. I started work et th® artillery rang® n«ar 
K\immersdorf on the 18th of November 1936« The service po- 
lition was attached to the OKfi Heereswaffenamt. Above all, I 
wat her® as a dtslgntr for the Jet propulsion oven of 500 Eg 
mud 100 % tbruit, also for small armatm-es and piping arrange- 
already undergone a minor test run. 



447 



Th9 pyös«nt growid «nd the ©xisting Installations In 
Ktnamersdorf wer« too samll for roeket development, fio the 
fcssociüte» of Peentmimde elected to move to the üsedoVOfltsee 

XslaM fo3? the planning work. 

In the aiidaie^f the jear 1956* Prof. v. Brami commiBeion'ed 
m© with the planning work of sfflell end l«rg© test ber^chea, «o 
that I was ordered hj the «ir force to have • construction 
directive alreÄdj estÄbllghed after the preliminery work ia 
195Ö. Under mj influence ^ sna according to ffly original «tate« 
ment^ in conjimction with hoavj construction fims like 
Wiemer & Frachte^ B©rliR| Baton & Monierbau, Stettin,' Gallnow 
a- £-on^ Stattini MachSn® Factory Goad©, Rehfeldei R*0. Meyer, 
liamburgi aM other® who were to supply necass&ry test stand« 
lor testing E-tanki^ complete apparatucj, and- steam and pump 
asseasbliea» My duties «l»o included the ariangement and fur- 
nishing of all test stands, i.®* designiri^ of steal runways, 
the establishing of eonduita and valve arrangements, as well 
&s the supervisloa of erections %ind@rtnken by different firms, 
'i'h® same applied to the field testing at the subsidiary station 
Ksdermch n&mr FTiefelri.ehshafen on Lake Constance, and Vorwerk 
Mitte in l,«hesten near Saal feld/Thur Ingen« 

T@ complete the above jnentioned work, Z had a work staff 
of SO t© 35 m@n at my disposal «-« engineers, designer«, and 
techaio&X draftsmen» 

Vp to this time, I was with the OKR Testing Station at 
:eenejBunde| later with the OKH Heereswaflenamt, Peenetsunde. 



J/^^ 



Dr. Ing. Fr of. Uo 412. 



kt^ Sarido®« 



Werk i&t Pe®ii©mundej 



Wa.'- PiPofssSQr at Technical High School at Grat?, unil 
1941 when h® was csiiled up for the ariv^. In -iia ar^T, 
was in eharg« of an KT Itlaintenance r^ecvicn in IhisBiu ar.d 
North Norway^ attached to an 'acoustic ran^^e finler for 
ar tiller J (Imoim as an observation troop), H@ »Yail- Trom 
Murmansk to Pe@n@mund0 in Aj^ril 194.3» He had a special 
öommission in the army wi4.h no rank. 

He is in charge cf a group of 30 to 5'" men engajed in 

carrying out field tests .n A4. Ne'.v equipmsnt was BQxit 

to this group for field trial« Itiay however knew 

nothing about th® design ^f' tails of the o.oparatus ts^t^d 

biat ^rare only in teres ed in its performaace« 

This group was also regai'dsd as a traiuirig unlL as 

people wera trarisferrsd from the grcup to firing sites« 

Weirer has littls knowledge of radio. 

Attached is a layout drawir^g of the layout of ä4 firing 

sites, drawn by Prof, 'iVoirer, 



l¥of . Dt, H^ niiaper. 0.0, 16 Itay 1945 

1. I was bom on th« 7t day of Fmhrmrf 1902 in Soldbsd Hall in Tirol. Hy 
faJior was Joham» Wier«r, He was m tea^^r at til© local school for woodcraft« 

2. After I coi; i. e^ :^ubilc School, I w^nt to grarocor school at Soldbad Hall 
in Tirol %X^c to Mehreran by Bremens en the Bodensee and in InnsWuck. I 
completed: ay ai^^li school at Kuf stein, Tirol, with honora. Ii» ?«ovoinber 1921, 
I enrolled at >.* :^chülcal Kigh ochool in MiLaioh. I studied electa'otaehsia 
and dixrii^ mj tlse off, worked in several mechanical workah:, s, par tl-ralarly 
in electrical po^-jr houses. I coM.pletod py fl+.udSea at the Technical High 
School in Muni&h in July 19^5 »i'-i: vcy high honors, I completed my doctor 
studies dnriri^ .^y Icdus^^rial j/ork, and I also wrote afe ths time a Öiesis oil 
^mm aectposechanical control o^ hi-ih tension networks» which I passed ^lA 
honore at ti^ technical ilifeh School, Vienna. 

3» lft«r I &p?iDiei^i s^ %.tjdi©s in lliirdleh and due to the lack of work In t^« 
4uBta^Äii Hec1yi«s ii^austry, I arsut to Borlin^, ant^ 5n Au-^ist 1925, went to 
wosk. tor Vom a©rgSBm»»Elactj"o-:iürks AoG« ^h*7re I worked in the central powor 
plant« Ity d'-itie» were to st«ady projecta for Dower plants, tension, and 
tr»i»fcraiers» B-side» that, I was to concentrate on blind performance control 
and Toltago« Or* the let of Dc sober 1923^ I left the BergiBaan- Electric ^orks 
and weot to work for the Si9a©na-£chuck/5rt-^;r3rks A.G« in Berlin-Sienenatadt» 
Again I mytk^ in ihe cen^rai powöi- departaant, I was to soIt© the probloai 
of a loi^ distance M^h i-ension Dorf«r line, (220 kv froa Brauweller i»ar 
Cologne« to Bl^KÄesis on the ¥oraiberg) , In 1929, I was sent to tho Sloaono* 
Bolaio-Corporatloiu äj proble« vfas to soleve the dletrihution of automtio 
and Tteaote oon-rol of po«f« stations of all kinds awi industrial iostallatioot* 
I also worjca^^ In building ?.ll itlnd? of appvatuii nec*?ssary for this project, 
X wo:^KOd oxt8:2ri?oly on tb» cons -ruction of « ^b-pow^- stations 3 to be usod «8 
ffooorw» for bi«^ teanion net-iTorks. I alno insde installations for powerfol 
bydbraralio p»ir,üo -30 bo oeed in place of th*5 net-^orke, should it beoomo 
noooMMTy« 2 (äl»q installed a=^par£.tijis in great and sasall power plants for 
roBwte eonuToI, 

\ij psoU^ai T'afl al'^c to ?ee ^hat the Industrial sections were sttppliod 
with oloe'.rlo >diw9 at all tl^is« I alno had to nana^-e work prograstf« 80 twat 
I iiod no oonnsotion with ai^ weapons tschniouesi^ Towards the aw! of ay ^ork 
with tfto Sissessw'^rüa, I specialized on an adjustar whi h woa3.d replaoo tho olA 
pototing nmher sd^mUr^ This work, however^ was teroinat^d diie to tho 
outbreak of tho war* 

4« In 19«tO, I roeolved a call fron the T^^^' rical Üifh Sehcol in Qrai, so I 
left tbe SiojBonowerj'.e and U^ck ever the pwjfessorship lor '-'sl&c tropins Ul la t Ion"« 
»It, it was only fop a short wMle, for In April 19A1, I *^s drafted Into tho 
amy with tfiis M^ of troop«ene;ineer. f?«r Adrti rip trat Ion Board). Aftopwards, 
I WH» mr}9 sonnet enginser in an obs rvation battalion, Cn U10 20th April 1941» 
I was tranafezTP-« to the «sperijuental aray ordnance station ?Jord (VKN) 
BsoasnuKlo, At Mm Slectro-Moohanioal-Works, f crmtnrly 'mP" (Hoiaat-Artillopio- 
Pask Xaplahago») due to w^ praotioal oxporlonoo I w^.s given tho loadopship 
in the dopartisaeat for airborne installation and ground networks. I hold this 
aao posnion aov, Xt is 1?^ job to sso that the difforont parts aQ4 i^iloaiaät 



V#hic^l®8 uB^fow electrical and radio g^asf at otögyat^c^naa shoo^,„9|; .4^4^ 

Is St&jrwd.'^^Ti9 "" '" te 'pj-xs replaced the Scnisver Wagötia and parforr.8 
t-h® B&m% füiic^loBs« .It contains t)io ^'lectrical generator ami the 
rslays öri;'i,:.ü3cfLag tho control ^oh-'.cie with tJ^e rocicet circuits, 

2» F^uerl®! tfma^^T (aueh ilomniaiidopünzer genannt) ^ Li.rbt «rmored ^«hlol« 
Cl CSS artr-^r) '^ staining riiree coiiti-ol panels, (Control, driving 
r^ecbaiilGis^ radio), 

,, rtrc'lo tsB'Aiig appai'atus and ins^riHa^nts for tpajdctory 



4* Trailer <Sdrrjf:^^ cable drams« 




®f ^m a^ipasm^ßm «r« psi^ptrly oonaöotöd, Tü@ preparations for th© grouad 
ifietftllAtitti wep® ifsry ©artenBiTe also, which were used not only for th© 
tssti^ ef di£r«r9iit parts and apparatais, but also for the diring Bechaaisa« 
It WIS ftlAO 4i£fi0iLLt t© solv® til« problem §e supplying enou^^h current for 
tbm «irbon» eoö ground installations, »fhs thras main probleias weres Th® 
qoicle tftstii^ 0i all apparatus in the' factory as well as by tho troops, 'Ihe 
safo and mxem firing of the projectile and tha v?orkability of the ground network®^ 
so there woold b« ao disturbances which would oitUer damage the apparatus or wak.9 
•Ö» projectile luisa the target. It was also the duty of my dspartuent to aak» 
the ®I«ct7iaal tgsts on all testing Etands« 

Signed J H. Wierer, 



453 




PAMZE.R 



453 



17* c;,li«ösith 'ifld i.t. (^r) i^ « .ilkinacn. 

i^r, .,oi::3 Stat id tliat Irof , Glad.?ui>3Ck, in nid 1944, had be iH 
^r.oint^d ccordiiiator of ■ il uh i xmu^-iTou^ homing or tare.gt aooking 
.■:yjtjiL3. Ihi titla of tno ^cb ^113 b :iF or Bevollmäachtigte für 
i^erxüjteuDi-unesforschtine;. ( It nc^c»' "Iso ba not od höre that Gen. Dom« 
i>srr:ar baa st-t3d in n j roviou^ ixti^rvi^w that In Jan. 1945 this ^ob 
h.id bo ixj turnöd over tc liim in addition to the coordination of all 
rocket i?orlc) 

JJTm i.ei3s*s work on automatic tare it 39 ^kini: svstoias fall naturally: 
ißto ttK) eranoral clasaeas ;) for erotind to plane missiles , and in 
particular the Vasssrfali c^nd 2) for plane to plane missiles , as the X-4 

■■II I I I , , „ I I a , , II ,,„„ ,^ ... .• « I iM n um w iii ...III . I , H I H I 

The initial phase of the work on .vaoserfall contoiaplatöd launchine; 
ir. a vortic 1 direction and by njnna of tracking devicas, which could be 
3ith3r ortical or r-dar, bringi^ic th? laiaaile into lina of sijrht course 
7;ith raspect to tho tcir.pt. Tt/o trockirig devices are thus required, one 
treckirr tho tore^t find ono trackii^ tls Edssile. ä remote control 
Btoin opor itirit: in conjunction with ü computer fjid indicator makes it 
c ;3ibl .' to criii- th i cdjsi.le ciito a line of sifc ht course, «"^b^n the miaai 
r rt3 \^tiiin the" op^rrxiiiif, rfönt^o of the ai^oiriatic tai^et SHjaking oquipmont 
t J.iii lUiriL.'ist ihould tak:^ ov.^r and control the jaisslle on a constaÄt 
b-oTirc coi;r3:- it! to collision '.vith t'la to©-, et. Several laothods of 
briiipir^g^ uhi };GEii.nr a;;üt^'. onto t'-^? target, or gotting the target within 
'^p.j G ci^rrv:^ i'iild of vi v/ ol' i^ honiinc system were cons id or ed .This 
f jnoril protlcti ■»as knowri :r.y xi^ick-}. Of tiia several types of hooinc 
3.>3t3L3 consid ir idjit v; 3 docid d to attempt a const^mt be:rinc syst iBif 
Cthi-r ty^ -53 '.vculd of cciiriso l^o either one in «srbich the axis of tho homing 
dfjvic . V/U3 ccincicJ'.'int witL t-^ 5 fixia of th«5 missllö or one in ^lich the 
ixi3 of c.ha :icirJ/4 d vice v;:is Daint aired in tho diroction of the flif{ht 
; ath, or vinrstra.'xa. 

arlv ii th i g-Bfij il iv'S rjco^;ni?,id that use of a line of sight 
ccurso ro^ult'-jd i. th:> l-itt ir rortirr: of th j tr-'^ijectory in ä fairly 
';ioi^^ »;.; roxication to u ccv-^t ^nt b^ rij.t course, 'ihe clos'sr the missile 
! t :- Ij t';-* tor it t-.ji nriv^r Lu- i-.t rc:<iiaation holds. This fact can por- 
b ::;u c» brda'sl-o '. rrj ).ft*..^[j L'rt t a rrjat distance from the 

1 . vcirit riucc'^-'..-iv'> oü-i'.icnw of th? lino of sii'.ht path are 
u .ci,^ r.Jlol. :,G ii t.:n ■oi-in.' <J'Vic ? can by o-ojue. msans be dir'^ct^ 

454 



to briiifc I... t:ir: Vit v;l-^.dn i\.^ xl ;id or vi ..a U vdii bf; auto^.-.tic-il,/ ,3et 
^-^ on e coiiisicu couri?^*? with th ? corr '>;i. 1 'ad '-mj-li« 

KriiCl$:o .^ ih3 f ii-tjt cittönpl uX accojnplitihl nt^ tiiia ccni-iüt :>d of 
trans&ittli-ig iTora tii,-> {-:ixni.ad a rcio sifTiru. (in tho n di hbor-hocd of 
3 aetars wavaloRgth) /. rsc^^ivor in the ndssile opers^tii^g: xvor.. tv/o ?iiJtonxi.;.3 
and operating on a phast^ dü'ierincü direction :ß±EBtJbi;K priy)Ciple binOinf" 
turB^id. th? B3ä.s ol thi homing systajn in tiij dir-^ctici. of tii> ii.cident 
waves, öee Fl|i> 1, lo elisdJiatQ th'^i iindoairablQ off-jct of t'\y uriuvoidablo 
yaw of the Eis^ile durln?: control it w-'-s necossax;/ to ].'ix7ivin rri r*^fere.nce 
ox tf;<? f lif ht p-tth oi th^ inlysile by lao-uas of a Vi\n5 in O -^ v.lncBtroam 
ver^ siirdlar to n v/^ath^rccck* Cncs within tiio operating range ol' the 
hoi^Bg davics error voltj^ros fron this üevic-> oporat kI th ; coittrcl 
3urfac.'?s tliroi^gh a coiaputer ao af^i to adjust th^ f ii- nt T-^th in ^uch -^ 
iuiiim^r Ü3 to restore y.rror «dth reö::..ct to tr^:» rofer^^rc^; line iron. 
Iroiiichijig poijat to tarj;::et« i nuiiib^r cf cifriciilti-jo aoon b^Co:;=' -pTÄü^önt 
which r-jsultid in x,ho avrntijai ab?iiidüiimant of t:-J.3 lij^tei^ • uaonn those 
tijer^i *) .Aiiterma üijiQ due to lenrth of wavcis U3':'ci und ci) iEiccuraci ;u 
r ^^^"iltirc from djfox-matiGn of th<^ w.v>3 front dxj • to ior s;d ( ritj^^o cl 
\ .-.pollant, ( -^ith reGp^ct to tlia 2nd difiici^ltj', th^^v^i ?iicra coiii-.^vz ticnn 
ro3iilted in this conclusion that it wog iinpo3öibl.^ to obt:,in ih^ a^sir.xi 
accuracy of C«1 degree in the pr^s^iice of th jionia^d ir ;B33a. . ith th ■ uo?> 
of cm WHVoa better accuracy w^a ex[;ected but -.t was atill uoiiij)ut-?d tlvc^t 
the disir^d accuracy cruld not b-^ obtainad.) In ord ^r lo i .«t wPrnjiid :---::• 
difficult ir*s two liothods v/orj conoid er -xlj thosi ware kncv;n c;3 iCr'-cke .l-. 
Both of tb-Qsa iK'stliodö warrs d33i.i^n.;v} around the la ^s a ol ^ [;:yro-öt^ibilia ;d 
platform in tho misail^, läBdtss^-JSMtksBtxmmti^^ 
RrüQlzo B> ( fix st method) 

^ i'tifs laathod cont•:ilRplat^^d a z^/to plritfori/i iE i.h.-^ iui:joil ;, 3ot icior 
to launching to be parallel to th'5 e:rourid pL-ma^jUrxC-Jcod bsfor/t l:..u.nc'iür.: 
or wbilQ the miasilo was atill in vartic^Al fli ht ao th tt th<i ori ^nt lion 
of the ground piano would b -) pDa.^rVQd fro rofai-nca xlthin t\v^ ndoviil . 
during: ita entire flight« 

jh-> nnclQ of the iirje of 3lt ht b ,tv/r; n 1 lunchiju: yoini'm! tarv .t 
r'^}lr;tiv;;j to the f;rouDd plc^ne is ;*V'.iilabio on t^o rT<^^-;tj frcn tiio tr.icxij^; 
d'^vice, b^ it optical or r-vd-MT» If tlda :Ani'.;.ular iiUoriri;i tiers la tr-ur.M.iii. •'.i 
*.w the ipaiG3ile and th^ ndüüilo hna cont'i.inQd v>dtiiiB it3-5lf a '. yro 
atafeilized platform prose rvinß th > f'Tound r^fr^rmc« pl^jn^i, th? 'nri'l ;r 

455 



iritorin-t.icn tr:xr:ru.dttoc c.sr. b:.; u3;g to ..cüiticn th,; ':ixi3 of t ■ ^ /iordni;-: 
' -vie : r .l.;tiv.,: t.. t'.o rof iPDnc:; pl--^-- iu^clti^uü i>clnt thJ c^xiG ca i- / ; 
..c;..i!i u.;Vic.; i-'i •!:;{; 3-iii]-^ dir>cticr: :;.;^ tU?;. ll^e of 3ight rmth or to\^-.-.rci 

it-:.;- -.'i ; ^Tcimd Cv-;3J0 orul tho i:.tejt ^;c:>it.icTi c-' tii^^ -i-viü of l^li?; 

.K- :inr device r ;-i..i:;lv:5 to t-. v r-yrOvit-biii^iiid fxcuiic pl-'ä^^- i^ r- -tr;ii:-;ü » 

• ■ .^ . i^ a 2» rrcr 2inrcx'iiai.ic;; c.;riv-:d ire u.i ; noi^iinv^ drvico dir'^cLiy 
:xt:i;;w-;a ta-j cciiT^rcl aiiri-:_c -g tKroU; 'h ■■ coia:.utcr ■;<: itS- to ccrr;?:?! Hi.?' 
^-.i ,.u p. ah Ol" -^.rrj nia;:Ii, tc sirc ■vrxt5r o:' IL ^ hcndni;. r; :Yic'^» .. hiij 
r.-;v::.;j in ;. cor' .yL. ojt. b .crri/u': ccwTue '.o üiio tcxrc^t .^.3 it dc-.. aid;i a 
I .1.. ^I_-v x'iii.nt . -.t:^ wtdch !■ -Liullz in •: b-'^-;.ri:':;; llm £rct. i;J.JGil>:; tc 
;. X -« v;llc^^ dir "^c lion io lixoci iu spcc-^. *hi3 i^-; ti n:-'!; aolijiticn of 

. r ^::. :r old vrinciple, :icv;3var di3'>dviinta(- >a -r:^ pr')ü?nt, chliily 
if. -■ t oi|5ö and comploxity of vJiiipK-nt in t]."' Käsoil ;• 

xi'lcha il; ( second Eist hod) 

itiis nothod tu-so us^s i:;yro-3tabilizsticii but in a diir-jr ^ct 
i;uiinir, Jeo ^ig 4«siEgä;^ :'^ pl-itforra at tii) rroiw-d staticu 13 i>>do Lo 
i-liov; oil.; Dotion of the {^roiJiid oquipnoiit v-ildch in tr.^ckiY.r; tho targ^^ti 
:.a--' yrrmdxc'ül'j:- to the pi' no of the pl;At.icrra i.i thus ^J.v/-iy£j dir.;Ct:;d 
t;;v-r(i -ue tar; ot« Upcn 5:.xi ; jlatforra sir; ncuut ;c tv;o r:y - 03, ech with. 
:;'-.>ir arln ax»5s isitially In th - saiaa direction ^-s th'> ; jxp^^j^aiciilej? 
to tho plans of the platfox^n* uh^ fe-y^roö fir^v-^ only tv/o dorr'^/ss of 
f r ' .aca ahicli is t>i3 sasß tlurn, -;o 3u^;iE{" I'rL-it th-2 c-ai-'^r fivl;^.! iri 
ri) idly i'ixod ^o tiie pl-itforffl« .ilso i^Ii-j direction of co.i.^straiiit of 
Iji-j t7'G j-yro3 -^r-:; ia;2tiaally p.?rT-::?nüicul^:-r. rickoit^ ar? i-rcvirv^c; on 
•,/.-; jij 3 -cv/0 (;'ji'OS such thc't th? aD.{.i3lar position of tl. o v-l .'tioxi.i r-ji-itivo 
tc ^^-. ; r:,:/roB is rivon in tho fern of two uricular con' ■on.^ii'i.G. Vliis 
i.,rcr_:tion is tranaolLt )d bv a pulae radio ccntrcl J, üt ^l* on 
f.ppi^xJUi£itoly a 2 iri;tor v/aV3li;nfc;th« Jii find ccutrcl .j^i;t^i.i L d xjot 
f. - r .: ^i^n-in Jd i:vt: a tc?ntativo syatSLi b- sod on ^; s ;y; :.rot j f.f* c/uiriii3l3 
r .3 %ob3 u:33d in initial d ^V'^lcpnaiit * .h? ciaailo io vl.io vrovlu ci v;lt^ 

. 3l;-il-x pl.tfcrci and s.:yro y:/Gt'ii:;. .^>^ .d,r 3'« '-o^v if t-do .1 ti oriiio ^rnd 
fvroa ii» t}i<5 Lj.33il^ and on th.? rrcunci arv ori :yjtal-Jd in tho ^i;a. o 

03ixion prior to Ir^rniCidnr,, jici tr-^GKisGlcrj oJ' ^iJiftilar ir.fonn ,nicn 
^ . 0c;.ti2iuou3 tho pl^tior^ü ii; w. o- /-l3:3ii j • h >n driven by ixtora v/hich 
^07; Liä'» platforiü r jL'. tivc to th ■; ;;:yrü3, will Jdv;r«;.a }u:.vo ita p^^r-r^ond- 
icul r drvie^ iu a its uxia rieidly ;dfixod tc the pl';\tforiM and co'ixi^n 

•■ t ij p3in/3ndicul'.r to tho plotlorm, 

456 



, x 3v>:./) \i.„. t;;, ; hcrdir^' oVG.t::.i„ b''cc/i. ''a ovvt'A^iv-^ -üransniii^ioi) froi. th- 

io ot.cv:ilij-r?d ii^ o;p-^c-;', .■ ic;iori3 I'rei' ~ho plc.tiona in the form of 
czTt^'iolrh uoordirk..t 50 l'uniiah .^ r)x..r;isCo froij W'lich t.ho hoiiing: 
sv:;it >:.; c:p,-rat33, Aß hrior<:^ irrer ii-,lon-.;ution i'rca tii ) hoBiii^ di^vice 
is u-r^;/ to actijat:> ir. ; ccntircl 3i-ri-:c.?s thou a coüiputor In 3uch a 
m'^-nn -v :-3 tc av;.;Juct th*:? f li-jiTt j.;'iti^ to r :;3toro Tioro error ir? th') 
lK:<..±nt: Gyvit'ihi^ .: hii: oi^aiij i\,.:uJ,v;:i Im -i con^^tant b-ü'iririt: course to 






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Tiie tarr-et se-king e luipmeat Tor » lane to plane servic* ^as //orked 
ut along the Bime principles as the .^^ound to ,; lane devi^eo wlcn nao 
exception that the Krücke ,.Toblein v^bb abi^ant. Tae axis of the hoinin,'; h 
head was gjro stabilized in order to provide a fixed reference line in 
space as described in the previoue ijround to pl&ne discus ion. Hov/ever, 
in order to maKe the eq.\xipciönt lefjwS bui;<y and of li:;htef weiKUt, tho 
rotating parts of the scanner are used an part of the raass of ihe gyro 
and the stabilizing for-ce is obtained th^-ough the gyro itself in place 
of merely using the gyro as reference with pickOrfa and drivinf^: mechanism, 
driving the device to be stribilized« r e homing head, the efor, may be 
mounted in gimbals and io st.'ibiliKed in epace irrespective of the motion 
g£ the missile* 

■Velso stated that fo-' plana to plane operation they had come to the 
decision that a fl@Id of view of approximately 10 to 15 de;:^rees was 
desirable* with this field of view they expected to obt^iln a range of 
about 2 kilometers which the^' felt would be satisfactory, an accuracy 
of 0.2 desree was expected. A previous interrogation b^ ur, Zvicky has 
described certain details of this system, which will not be repeated herej 
''he technique of launching ia order to brinj^ tho target within the field 
of view of vhQ homing device is as follows» the launchin plfuie ia brouif;ht 
to within the operating of rr-nge of the homing device on a course directly 
toward the target» When it has been observad that tho homing device has 
picked up the target, tho missile is released. Ihe launching of the 
iiiissiie on a col-isioa course is not necessary. Attack my be made from 
üny an/jle, and the homing device is designed to each a collision course 
in the best and quickest; ßianner. This is done by means of the coriputor, 
v/hicb is inserted between the output of the feoaing device and ihe control 
surfaces. Äeiss described the oper <ti>ö of the computer as a function 
B-F (e,t) .here epsilon is the ei^or observed by the homing device, or 
a quantity proportional to the anj^le off target, and t is time. He does 
not know the exact natura of this f^mction, except that is muHti (1) 
result in a stable course t (2) give fche best possible pu^nuit course, 
(5) take into conaideratibs the particular Gharacteriotics of the proj- 
ectile on which it is used, anjcJ, sügf,e -a that Pr. GoisEler is the best 
source for further inf oimiation» 

^hil© this homing system was o- i;;5inail^ iesi^-ned with the intf-ntion 
to apply it to the X-4 missile, the roi. ling of tho rtiiasiie p:^ v" itoci 
its final application, 3s tho added difficulties made necer; • >r.y b> .;:f^ 

462 



oiiiüg Fiotion iie-oep-^.llat4?d sd -itionnl <3onpl®xlt;/ for p'^oper operatioa« 
Ineorporatod In the infra rod horalnF^ devices imd®r hXs cogniäsaxiee 

Bre several types of r.cannln:g sygtema. The fl-st t;yi;®.,öonsi8tied of a 
rot8i*;}in?: shxitter. ■:vhich had the shape shown in figure !• the ahaded- 
po-tion nf tho shut er is opaquö and the remainder trsnsparant. Th© 
shutter hen t^^tl rotsttn^ internipts the Infra red target pioture which 
has been f ^.cused on a screen In f rorit; of the shutter. • Th@ interrupt««! ' 
Infra red beam is interaepbcd by a photocell with the result that the out- 
i^ut of the photoc3ll has an approximate square wave whoise duty eycie will 
fu nish the in£oj]via\:ioTi an to the distance of the target from the.oeBter 
of the seilen and the pha;::e when compared to nn arbitrary reference phase 
on the r^tar.ion of the shutter will furnish the information as to t^e ^ 
angla of the target« fhus the target picture focused on the screen hoi 
its position given in polar coordinates at the output of the photoeeli, 
Rho is thus the dut.y cycle and theta the phase difference with aspect 
to the refer-'uce phar.o or the ehuttei'. 

It was felt b> Dr. '•/eif-s that better accuracy could be attalasd with 
a more cüx.iplQx shutter stru'-tarrr, -fihloh he clained aa his developem*at. 
Th$ structure of tbi;i chuttti- Is ßhowa on fi^^xve 2. Here also the shaded 

ortions a e opaque and the unshaded portionn transparent. As before th« 
infra red tar^^ot pifcure ir- focused on a screen in front of the shutter 
and l-,ho shutt:.?r when rotated inte/ruptB tn& i fva red beam to the photo- 
cell, -.t i>he center of th^-: shutter v.ho central anf^le of each shaded 
i^orti-on Is ideniiical and uhc- spa^un^:; about the center is unifo^^m. It 
will be noted from figure; P tnab aa ^e pr^^'^ced froci the center radially 
each opaque porxlca r:&3 a different shape End sise» The smallest opuque 
Bector is riir-octly opposit;e the lart^est one, and the remaining ones are 
greater fro:: this niniirsuw to inaxiniufr. value. 'Vhen the target appearo fsM 
ino cf^nt r ci" tho Bcre^-n, no output results. Whc^n the target image is 
a.vay IPO- !,b > c^inter of the screen, the output of the cell will appear 
QB a fre::uenc,v-rrodulated saua-e wave. Äs the diabrinoe of th© target 
imrie'e froji the center inc-ease, the frequency deviation of the ^Jö square 
wt*ve increase; fo thermore, the ohuttor is constructed so that the freq- 
uency' deviation in directly p: opo-tional to tho distance of the target 
itifi.r-:o fro-i tho center of the ohutte • I'ho pi.ase of the frequency modul« 
Hüiori -vlil ,;ive tne riuj^le off target when referred to an arbitrary refer- 

:C'3 phase or the ü.'.iu\j>.or sru-ift. Therefore, polar coordinate information 
i'- vbl-ixTiCd .'. -.h r-.-- I /'■;!! I'b tito f r<.? M' ^ric.y ''ioviation, and XK^aX theta 
■ lvo?; h./ .,..\f't .-jh-.;;--; oi ■.ri-:-; fr^- ;..H;xio.' !'i>')(Juio,t ion. A ■oport on an infra 

I :-D »jK ;r. 1- b .0 of .-j-^nairu'; has bcon prepared frorr, F\V iaterr- 

463 



. , . - ,' 



©gafcloa and Tsferesce ean be mad® ther#t© for furtfe®r iijforraatlon« 
Another tjp9 of scan investigated bj dr» weise im shown by the 
■itter diagram of f igu ® 3. the shaded portioa is opaque and the ma#: 
ed portion transparont as before* Whea the target in focusad at th# 
center of the screen» a sonstant otiptut result®,» Th© target ijKag# e; 
.au b© very nearly th^^- &ize of the transparcmt po'-tion of th® shistt®-^ 
When the target image is away fro© the center of the screen, an alt«rmit| 
output volt .ge- results* riie aniplitiide of the output voltaß© gives th® 
distance off target ^ or ^hö^ and the ,>h«se or the alternating voltai^e 
when "-^ferred to an ar-bitrai^y ^eferencc^ on the shutter shaft gives th© 
an:<?le off target^ or theta in polai- coordinatee. 

The same ^esuit as in method 3 can be accomplished -1 thout a shuttai 
bv placinsT r/ne infra rod lens eeaentrlcally -.vith r^^spact to the axis of 
Che oDiisirig device and x^t^jtlng it^ Tiie photocell center Is then placed 
on uhe -axis of th@ hoEing devioe and In the yiane of the focused targat 
lma;^e, The pfcotocQll ehoiild be approximrstely the size of the targo.t ims 
rne output of the photocsil is thon identJlcal .yith Tnetbod no* 5. 



464 



< 




46S 



a 



.V 




466 













467 



IBTBRf>OQATIQN OF m^ HELMUT WgiSS -21 May 1945 and 25 Ä5ay 19^5. 
By« 8/L 3harp@8 f/Lt» Stokös, Dr, Porter at Paxtenktrchen« 

dr* Weiss described his work as consisting of the design and 
application of houiing systeros^ principally of the i'lfra-red type, 
fid described three general classes of homing missiles: one 
t ^n wliich the axis of the homing deviceis coincident with the ax is 
of the missile, one in which the axis of the homing deviceis controlled 
by an air foil so that itpoints along the target to the- f lighbpath^ 
and third, the type known as constant bearing approach, in which the 
axis of the homing device is fixed in space by gjro stabilization. 
For a description of this last system see report of, this date on Dr» 
Gelssler» 

He mentioned that he had been interested in homing deTices for 
air to air missiles, and regarded them as the most useful application, 
particularly if ä range of 2 fca is obtained so that the missile can be 
fired froia a safe distance. The X«4 was mentioned as a possible missile 
in this Glass« 

The infra-red homing sjstem for theWasserfall has been tested iti 
the laboratory but no flight model has been completed. The link to the 
steering was worked out only theoretically, ^or this installation, 
the entire nose section was to be made of special glassC Jbeka probably 
iron-free flint glass) of which sereral samples were tested« One sample 
had been supplied by Irof # Kliefoth, of Breslau^ infra-red properties 
were satisfactory, mechanical properties had not yet been tested* 
This nos® section was to be 8 to 10 mm thick, and could be moulded, 
blown or centrifically cast« The max« temperatures for the nose was 
calculated to be about 200^0« which the glass could stand without 
difficulty« Presumably the lenses. If any were used would be of the 
same glass i in the laboratory systems mirrors were used. 

The range of infra-red homingSTstems , in general is one to twenty 
kilometers, depending on the angle included in the field of view« 
For Ifasserf all the range was supposed to be 3 Sni with a 6^field« 
Dr« Rosenthal was following the work on infra-red devices which 
was being madeat LeltZa 

Only two infra-red cells were available for this development, 
the Zeiss-Ikon from Dr, Qörlich and the Elektro-Akustik from the 
coxftpany of that name at Samslau« A.B«Q« were also working on a cell, as 
were many othex's. Prof« Wesch's cells, according to Dr« Weiss, were 
"still fighting for recognition** ♦ Baron ¥on Pffeif er who had a direct 
order from Flak Komraando, has developed a long range infra-red device 
with a small angle, and has designed a clever scanning device to be 
used with it« 

A radio homing Eiefchod for Wasserfall was being developed by 
Blanpunkt in Berlin» Itwas a passive short wave system, sxagc among 
otherthings designed to home on our "Meadow" system« Dr« Weisz had nevei 
seen this device but said he had heard the name "Stiel Strahlern" (Rod 
transmitters) used in connection with it* For the radio installation, 
glass, wood, or artificial resin noses were igeing considered« 



^ 



Inttrrogation of Dra Kelßiut lici&^ continued«»-«— 

Although no decision had been reaobed a. tS*?obot type of control 
>. „d to be uced, avji in fact none, were ready for use, it seems likely that 
a combination of ?..inG-of-si'3l-!t for tbe first part of the curvö^ and con« 
ßtantbeariag hcnins would havo boen at Icaot ^2;iven a trial had time 
perrsitted« Br. Weiss also ifienti-^ned the pr-obiem of getting, the target 
in*.Q trie fi(}Id of ' the homing devMce .initially, and its two solutionsi 




in 



said that the?e Tiove Kethod-s :o- overcoiaing this difficulty, but he 
preferred not to disc/asG theiri,, 

ÄcoaGtic hom.int^ uietii .d^-^ ^ere not favored by Dr, Weiss for obvious 
basic reaBonSg in spite of the fact that they were highly regarded in 
official ci"cl3s, 

R«VV, PÜ.RT.H)R 



SS 



463 



A*19 



air Ittb, IMi 



I m f ? ▼ » f 1 yn>^ »f ^^^^i^mJlMJL. 

iJLkJULJULkJt «^ «li»tib) 




A 



^ 



-/ 



-Y 



^i^^fts li^r atarw #r 1«»8 9pl^e« (fllBl QUm «r «p««!«! i»» 

«r ta «» aiOO tlati mp ••mom*) XsM9X«s 

Ap«^%«pft »f l«a« ^1$ m 
fbMdt iMMllll 8 ft » 

y : Pfc i lft<wl l> «r ftftiä « «oaiMUiir wait m FM» SntWMil »!»%• 

9fr«ftt «ft«6 «feA fttalSi of 9—iBUm9 Mfti8t«r^» 

»tift» te«ft »•« teftV Iteft ftl» iifMMrt t»»fMPfttft MCUtlMl taMltf 



470 



ouri "bo ploäed up it a rüatanoc o.. 15 Km» 
'^* V|^ up praM.-oii willy 

lri®ld unöl© s raii/?® «^ ö&isstaBtU 

1.4 a la';.;u flold-ls d®;.ÄiKlfe'4 th© photo ©#11 haa t© &t im* 

noisfcjäsaril^ l««?,s® aM tlic current aiaall« 

Ä g; aiaplifier tmii M au?^r©iit or Tolta^i© iMlöator» tsliiiili y«gl8t«r 

and tfe® dpj>ai»atus '-»ms rela^ifely r#aÄil;^ airollalBl«. Witii 
liMrrors^ avs-Dt.;« ■ ar® tri^ of the Sofeüdati Qa-aera ^j^p© asA U&e 

^» A Ilia R©a\ a^'Qtl^tyfq - ^a3 to f- «^ the ai^paula into i*üM m%it»in^ 
...eohanlawia of gaIü .'üiijailea. It wis öot Foailaed im Q^awaany liow 

ohan^^s oi Position of the target falsifies or iiif ludnoes tli« 
olpmla in the raoölTi^i • de^fioöa« On tsrhar.s© of th« laoomia^ 

iira"a-i*Kfl fe@ara tfee ifidicsatöO.' öl^^nal values ohaag« -^epy tul«&ly 
^i:.o.. .-a:/ raisG haToo -1th un& .stability of tho ooutarols' Jsofidss 
iko ,;d39il3. Hore tho real probl©-ri ba,:^!®»* w«|.«g imQ w«ix ©a th« 
a;/ to 3olTtn{^! the protslersi» T#st -".'«ro osaoutially ooßAu®t@Ä 
-li;h ho .-in,.,: rdaailo at nigbt# "Contrast" POöelvtr,» f«»? usir 
in a^^tiaio ^«PG^ eonaidorod« 

4» Otoomlo^oal Roijayka * Solution of tho dta*flöult |S?^i«iaB 
aienüloaed a;ip0:jrüd tlu* oaaiest \^ith Of>tioal -noth^Att of th*' %j^« 
describeä^ aaoordlB to the .^©©neuuad© ^oup» ^«^ att«QSi9A 
in 3«s»maa;r, ko^'ov^*» aa paid to aooustloal d^^iooftf "^'hioli 

471 



iiofflia^ 4«Tie®8s ,3?®la.ti¥€i/ r^ptd i^roi.ireaa- ^^as Kadö orilt^- vory 

reoentl^t aaäl Weiss group vnxu ejigagesi tö -vork out the Hy::^lm 

of .the radio ree^ption und the rxieohämioal flieht control 
meohaaisiis« 



■thsi.) ss-f?5iy1w 



1$M a^ta, vihMn pwitlng thrmsglt 

ia5,2 kg. 



pi Ti:i5- , ' ■ 



^^uU.^ wdianst wloeitsr ^^ %^@©® 

l«T0898t diMsmiMT of the J«t 

WI4asi% 4iMsmUT of the J«t «pprok 700 m« 

teiu4 ^(ftiii at th» «nä of ^» ^-^««tsr^ » 42Ö0 lig 

f £nj90tlo» pr999xxr9 &t % ^ 2»i «t 

€|g Pup vhMl ddaast^ @ 

]fie«B@aS7 pr«*pr«88ur® agftlast ^Bi^iag » 

BiCToIutloiifl äurix^ flight ^ 

0«i«97«r prestur» mt 3800 rpm ** / ^«2 «ts 



473 



of wheel 

RftTolatlcms di2ring flight 
ConTeyor pressure at 3800 rpm 
Turbine f 

Revolutlohs during fli^t 
Fresh streaia pressure 
Exhaust stoaa pressure 

Gesture In 1jb^&% 93äxa\mt atmam Jet 

SiesK Qonams^tiQ^ 

Degree of «f f ieiancjj of turbine 

Pressure Eedlum 

Initial pressure 

Final Pressure 

Low pressure 

Pressure is T and Z-Stoff tank 

Pressure in the disintegrator 

Amount ©f steaiB passed through 

Amount of ^stoff in the tank 

Amount of Z«=«Stoff in the tank 

T-Stoff 

Z«-Stoff 



approx 


• 326 nn 


M 


3800 rpm 


tt 


21 atu 


« 


3600 rpm 


n 


28 aba 


It 


1*8 ata 


R 


1,3 ata 


« 


2,2 kg/aec 


a 


30^ 



Comi^essed air 
approx, 200 atu 



R 
If 

R 



70 atu 
33 atu 
31 atu 
30 atu 
2,2 kg/sec. 
126 litres 
10.5 litres 



HA 

MnO/ 



Intake temperature 
Bscapiog temp'-jra Lure 
p Sshaust steaiB 



approx. 183 "C 
» ♦ ^0°C 

•• 0.3 at 



474 



AmoaEt of O2 la tank 
Pressure la tank during flight 



appirox« 4430 litres 
« 4970 kg 
» 2.2 «ta 



For pr^siar^ In taxüc while In f light, see sketch lib. 1« 

Itotal irolt^BS Approxm 45^ litres 

Total KnoBJife of Br. « 3965 kg 

For pressisr® la tank during flight see sketch No. 1. 
SltppleiaQata^ Ventilation for Fuel Tank » 
Fressi:r@ indium Compressed air 

High pressttre approx. 200 atu 



B3q)ansion over throttle diaphram to 
2. Operational data of the entire mach "^Sja 
Empty weight of the apparatus 
Startirig weight of the apparat^^^«» 
amount of O2 la tank 
Amount of Br. In tank 
Initial acceleration 
Final acceleration 
Combustion time 
Thrust (without regain) 
Ratio of mixture.s Br t O2 
Passage through the speed of sound 
Asceleratioa in the 8 t® - stage 

475 



«( 1.4 ala 

» 4000 kg 

® 12800 kg 

• 4970 kg 

^ 3965 kg 

»« 0.9 g 



» 25700 kg 

«» 0.81 

• in the 25th of a see« 

« 1.7 g 



PijrAtlon of tlw t to st«g« 

Initial aooctomtioii 
?«rtloal m^ 

Q^<$^ (f) 

idtitudo At oad of coabustion 

Mag® ®li0?0 groixaS itt ®sid of «somfoustloa 

Altityd# at «Q^Msmtioii point 
f®ioei^ ftt @8lMmti©n point 
i^^ of is^mst 



&|5prox 2-3 »«OS 

^ 0.9 g. 

** 4 soc. 

^ 50 aoc, 

^ 49° to 'rertical 

« 22 ka 

« 24 km 

^ 80 kB 

" 1200 Vsoo. 

» 900 - lOtK) Va«e 

« 290 ka. 



Soae #f ^9 «boir® data taktn f^os immßTj is of seditn Taloo« lüio 
t^^rano« of tlio iMiTiSiml values is aoao tines forj ecmsiderablo and 
ttsm Ym^ dblffoT^nt fm* ihm sop&rat® apparata. Tba toloranoos imr9 
Isid dotm OB tha atroz^tli of knovlodga gainod fron aeouraeioa and 
'Various äj9g3fmm of faltia and offieioiicy« Tha Tarioos toloranoaa vara 
obiaini^ statiiitioallj and f on^ ^le aiwragos gif@n abort* 



476 



Parten giroh«! 18 May 1945 
A abort dggcrlptloB of tba V>2 «fewar^Unit^ ter Ipig* Zelka » (t- u/ p- () 

Th© construct Ion of th« powar unit 1« divided Into 
«avaral stain grot^qp«, tha fttnctlc»i ajad piirpoaa ©f iWeh la 
briefly daseribad bara« X wiah to saka It alaar that t^la 
ia onlj s Short Illustration of the powar vsalt ainaa a eoa- 
prahenai^a dascrlptiozi without drawlnga control adbanaa o^ 
control flguras would ba imposeibla* 
A • Tb a Roäcat Ovaa > 

'Tha Eockat Ovan ia filmost a ephara ahapad conhuatioa 
chesbar for tha internal combuation of tha liquid fnal, an« 
nexad to thia is a la^al nozsla in whieh tha aoahuatioB 
pressure and gasea are trsnaformad into apaed« Ttm J^el 
fluid is injected by a special Injaation ayataai lata 18 
single pots» in which the fuel ia at(»iiaad« Tha owan haa 
double walls between whieh the fuel stmff ia conduatad* 
^bia cools the o wen snd reduces the high eotahuation taetp«» 
erstures. For a quick combustion, a "ahut-off-walva** ia 
constructed in the head which also ia uaad aa aa altaav^ 
nating waive to prevent a hydraulia thruat* (Ba^ flow %a 
the pump) • Since the cooling of the owaar la not auff Iciaat 
with only tkm fuel flow, it haa Ita own injaetion ohasihara 
in certain aangaroua plaeaa out of whiah fuel la Injected 



477 



ior coollrig purposes ever correspondtng thrcttle diaphragms* 
In «4ditiGii« th« ov©n ha« in cert&3 n placeE so called ex« 
pmn.i ion joints in order to prevent **t©n?^lon«crscl»'e**. 'lb® In« 
j^sctlon syet«B it empirically constr^acted as the result of 
■jm&rB of «xperlenc®; It» record and durability were tested 
on a slngl« pot «nd reco-r^'-toäed« The cosibuetlble surfece is 
placed a« *f «r as possible fro« the lajection system by a 
correapondlng «rradgonent and cooling of the individual Jeta 
ezxlang^red by the fVi«l* The forming of «access oxygen zones 
is impossible dim to proper partitioning (proved by gas 
analyais sessureaenta in the jet during coasbustion) • The 
Lsval noEzle Is only about 2/3 cooled, the last 1/3 is in- 
sulated by glass vool and a sheetsetal covering 

SFTETCU CF THE IKJLCTIO!? SYCTEM 



W>. 






■J 



478 



^ ^ • i>7« Turbo» t-uRip Unit • 

'ihm turbo-pusap un^.t aupolii^s th© liqulä lu«l and con- 
sists ot f "trlve turbine" an«ä & rotfiiry , ump to conduct th# 
llquiiä oxygen, end a rotary ptimp to conduct tli« fuel. For 
reep.cns of" weight, it iss constrxicted of light metal. Th« 
turbine i? a two ats^j-e Curtis turbin«, t\im bearings of th® 
turbine are bsll-baerlrsj^^s, sr^ th© packing is Slroraeringen. 
In order to prevent cavitstlr^n irlthln t\m o:xygen pusip, th« 
"liquid oxyg«!" must be forced Into th# pump wltl-i aji initial 
pressure (2,5 ata). Ibis initial pressure la mada by the 
"Heat-excbang©** during the flight« 

C, Tbe Keet £.xchang;erg > 

As already stated^ the he&t exchangera craat« thm prat* 
eure gas for the initial pressure of the Og pomp« For this 
reason, the liquid oxygen is fed fi^tm bahizid the main O2 
valve over a throttla dlaphraga ar a chaok valva thru a 
pipe fysteoi Into 3 pipe colla acd are vaporised there by 
th® ©xhßust steam* '^'he gas foriulng oaiygim la conducted 
tbn3 CO rf*®s ponding pipes into th« Oo taink* 

D. The vStae!T^ Installotion . 

The stearr) Installation is used to form the freah 
steam necessary to drive th© turbines. The freah steam 
is created thru th® catalytic decomposition of BO% HgOg 
into water vapor and oxygen. As a catalyst, « laanganesa 
tetraoxide solution is Uf^ed (Mn04) . '^^ decom position takes 
place in the 00 called decomposer or ateam mixer. In ordsr 
to aupply the T~Stoff® and th'« Z-Stoffe, compr®®£@a sir Is 

479 



M^ed whloh is rel©Aa»d thru • pressure reducer (regulator). 
Th» oompr«ftfl«d Air 1» carried in & hl^^h- pressure battery. 
CßOCatu)» 

Th« £n»X twak 1« closed thr-öugh the pneuiB&tle con- 
troled Iiqiü4 v«lir« fer the ^5 and B to stage« on the 
liquid 8ld9 Aii4 th« pnousiatic controlled re lee« er on the 

E. Fuel TanV , 

111« O9 taml tank le used for the Intake 01 the llq I 
CMtygen »ad is oonstruoted for «a excess preasure of 3 «tu« 
ftm fvml isit«k* tube run« through the middle of the tank 
to the pa»p# fh# g«« room 1« laterrconnected with the out- 
side «ir throu^ «n ««cension pipe with « double valve 
(relese^r) • Tb« fl©* to the Og pump 1« «ffected by « 
«prlng. Ihm upper t«nk I« conetrueted with a manhole In 
th® bottOK. fb«r« la a connection for a eo called fuel 
llrit^r in the electric ays tea« " 

The Br. t^l tank is uaed for th« latak« of fual and 
1« eonstraetad for an aaccef^a pre« sure of 2 atu« The flow 
to the fufti puBp is «ffected tl^K>ugh a t\ibe 3 meters long« 
which run« thru the &x^^mi t«nk« To prevent freezing, the 
tuba 1« Insula tad wi.th ^laea wool» 

Tha oigrgan tank la also Insulated with glaes wool in 
ordar t& prevent a large beat Intake and, eenaaquantly 
larga wspor lo««9s In the oxygan tank. In order to pre- 



4 • 

480 



¥©nt £ larje be«t intak« during fy«« flight, tb® Br« tank 1« 

also insulsted. 

F, Thv<^ AygclIIlary VaaUlation « 

Th® auxllliftry vent 13^1 Ion ha» the purpose of bi owing 
yp thd Bpperatus of V-2 «b It return» Into tjae •taoephere la 
order tc have the Insld« pressure hl^er thma tbe outsld® 
pressure so the tank will not collep«©« (See V-S pover«>imit 
dsts, sVetch 1) • 
• /rmetureg # 

In the apperatu« A~4^ there ere «bout 45 different 
»rrrfituree* They hmve the purpose of eutosietlöally con- 
necting the sepfiTftte processes by electrtoÄl lapuXsee* 
Varloue kinds of Instruments sre u«ed* 

Qroup Ix Electro-Pneumatic Vtilve« that receive the 
»leetrleel impuleee end control th« ec»|»r»9e«d «ir end so 
ftctivftte the indiirldu«! pneumetle .^Ives* fh«s# «re tbe eo 
celled fiuacllllery velvee. 

droup Z$ ?ii«iaii,..lc velvet that control th« fuid er 
the gases» 'Shmf receive their wesFlciSig pmssure iron tis« 
eleetro-pneissftt ic^^uxi lli«i7 »valves e 

Group S s S#rvo eoatrolled valves • fl^a« valv«8 are 
used on saall ••etions and for axall «rursNmt eapaalt&as* 
Thegr tmlta Oro^ 1 and S into a «Ingl« v»lv«* and are nara 
advantagaeoa ftra« tba paint of viav af «aighl« 

Clro^ 4i Hand aparated valvaas flui imlvaa as*a uaad 
before tba Uka-aff aad aonaaQuantly ara geeiarally af 



481 



»ij3ipio eoa8t3E?uotion In th© simp^t of usual induÄtrial v®lv«8« 
Group Ö: Kon-psturn plate« :^ To let th« fluid p«ss la 
©nly on« direction «nd by flow cfoaag^s will close the systam« 

Th« greatest difllculty in th® ciev«io|fflient and connection 
of tho siT^atures are to P)al<© them fooI«proof »o they will «ork 
Tally automstic without falluroe as in not uaual in the con* 
struct ion of ai%>»ture8» For exaaiples if tb# armatures of an 
airplsnc should fall It could »till be held^ servieeable by 
siixilitry or «stergency cofstrol, the ssae Is true of a truck 
or sny otfcer gas englnss« But, if only one Instruaient of the 
A-4 shoulä feil, the result would be the loss of the entire 
«pparfitus« Since the nver-hnr of arsiatures la very high, and 
e-^en if each instrument is 99% fool«-pas»f, the loss vould 
stiii be 50:^« Ihls then is tb© greatest dlfflealtgr in the 
whol^ rocket technique* 



482 



Part®n Kirchen 18 Mt&y 1945 
A short descri ption of the V«>2 '^Fower-tJnit" ^y In&« Zolka ^ 

Th« constsnactlon of tba powiir unit 'is divlöed into 
s«¥#y«l m®iß gFoisps, tfe« fanctlon and purpose of which i« 
brl^flj d#süi«ib©d h®r®, I wish to msk« it elöar that this 
is only ft short illustration of the power imlt since & com- 
prehensive description without drawings control schemes or 
control flgux^eg would be impossible • 
^* I!M ® Hocket Oven » 

The Rocket Oven 1» almost a ephere shaped combustion 
chsfflber for the internal combustion of the liquid fuel, an- 
nexed to this is a I^val nozsle in which the combustion 
pressure and gases are trsnsformed into «peed« The lUel 
fluid is injected by a special injection syaten into 18 
single pots, in which the fuel 1» atomized, rhe oven has 
deubl# walls between which tha fuel st^f is conducted. 
TbAm cool» the oven end reduces the high combustion temp- 
eratures. For a quick combustion, a "shut-off-valv®" is 
eonstrueted In the head which also is used as an alter- 
nating valve to prevent s hydraulic thrust» (Back flow to 
the pump). Since the cooling of the oven la not sufficient 
with only the fuel flow, it ha» its own Injection chambers 
In certain dangerous pieces out of which fuel is injected 



483 



tor coolii^ purpose« over corr^apoiKling throttl« dlaphra^s« 
In addltien« th« oven has in certain places 3o call ad ex» 
pension Joints in ordar to prevent "tonsion-eracks**. 'ilse in- 
jection asret^i is eiTtplricall;^ constructed as th® result of 
years of «sperlenoei its record smd durability wer^ tested 
on a single pot aM reoc^^ended» The combustible surface is 
placed as f«? as possible from the injection eyateio by a 
eorrespondlng arrangement and cooling of the iMi vidua 1 jets 
endangers^ t^ the lUel» The forcing of excess oxygen zones 
^•^ impossible due te proper partitioning (proved by gas 
ssalysis Beaaur^ieBts In the jet dtiring ooobustion) . The 
Laval nos^le 1« only «bout 2/3 cooled^ tiie last 1/3 la in- 
sulsted by glass wool and a sheetmetal covering 



SKETCH or IKE INJLCTIOK ZIS7EU 




484 



'Tim turbo-piimp unit supDlies the liquid fuel and con- 
el sts c-f e "Drive Turbine'* anc a rotery /ump to conduct the 
liquid oxygen, «nd « rotery pump to coiiduct the fuel. For 
rciit.crsB 01 weight. It 1? coMetructed of light metals 'the 
turbine is e two str.>2.0 Ciii'^tls turbine, the bearings of tb« 
turbine ara b.^ll-beerlngs*, &rid tJie packing is Simmeringen. 
Ii:i order to prevent eavltetlcn within the oxygen puonp, the 
"liquid oxygen" must be forced Into the pwap with an initial 
press are (8,5 ata}* This inltisl pressure ia made by the 
"Hest-9xch«n^,e'* dax-ing the fli^tr 
0» Vhe Heat j::^xcl.&n:KfiT& • 

iis alreööy stated, the best exchangers create the pres- 
sure gas* lor the inltiel pressure of the O2 Pttmp« For this 
reason, t^ie liquid oxygen If? fed from behind the main Og, 
valve over a throttle diaphragm at^ a cheek valve thru a 
pipe. system into- 3 pipe colls anAo are vapopl«ed there by 
th® e^rhaust steam* The gag forming oxygen is conducted 
thru corresponding pipe« Into the Og tank« 
^- The' Steam Xnatallation « 

The »team installation is used to form the freah 
steam necessary to drive the turbines. The iTash «team 
ia created thru* the catalytic decomposition of 80?^ HgOg 
into water vapar and oxygen. -Ac a catalyst, a manganese 
tetraoxide aolution is used (Mn04)« '^^ deeorapoaltion takea 
place in ttii so called decomposer or steam nixer« In ordsr 
to aupply the T-Stoffe and the Z-Stoffe, compressed air is 



485 



us*d which ic releaaed thru « pr«ssuT@ reducer (roguletor). 
Th« coffipr«88«d «ir is CÄrrisa In ä high-pre8«m»« battery, 
(20C atu). 

Tb« fuel tank is closed thrcÄigh the laieuraatic con- 
trol9d liquid valve for the 25 and 8 to stag«« on the 
liquid aid« and the pneumatic controlled releaser on the 
gas side* 
S« Fuel Tank » 

The ©g fuel tank is uaed for the Intake of the liquid 
tmsrgmi and Is eonstructed for an «xcesa pressure of 3 atu« 
file fuel intake tube runs through the middle of the tank 
to ^e pomp» The gas roo® is int er ~ connected with the out» 
side «ir through an ascension pipe with a deuble valve 
(releaser) • The flow to the Og punp is effected hj a 
spring* fhe upper tank is constructed with a manhole in 
the bott^MB« There is a eonneetion for a so called fuel 
liriter in the eleotrio syeteai» 

The Br* fuel tank is n»e& for the intake of fuel and 
is eonstmeted for an sjreess pressure of 2 atu» The flow 
to the ta^ ptBRp is ef footed through a tube 3 meters long» 
irtiieh runs thru tlie oxgrgoa tank» To prevent ft^eex in g, the 
tube is inmilsted with glass wool» 

The oxgrg^Q tank Is also insulated with glass wool in 
order to prevent s large heat intake end consequently 
Isrge vapor losses in the oxygen tank. In order to pre* 



486 



¥®nt « lu.t%e t-.^B^t intake äijri ng f^«e fllgbt, tto® Bi». tank i« 

Th® fiuxilliery ^entljatlon h&s the purpos© of blowing 
up th-s higp^rmtUB of .V-2 as It returns Into th« «tj«osph«r« la 
oyder to lisT© th® Insld« pr@ss\jr« hi^er,th«n tb« oateid« 
ppessisr^ go th@ tank will not eollAps®« (S^o V-2 po«er«>imlt 
östa, ak®teh I) • 

In the apparatus A-4^ th®r© ar« «bout 45 dlff«r«at 
^ü^Tr.ÄtiarÄs» Thay have the purpo»» of autoiRStlcally eon« 
necting th© separate procecses "by eleetrleftl lupula«»« 
Variou« kinds of Inatnunent» are uaad* 

Group 1? Elactro-Pnoumatlc Valve« that reoelT« tb« 
el ectrlcal impulsaa and control the cospressed air and »& 
activate the Individual pneixmatlc v^ülTea* Itiaae are the «o 
ca31ed auxllliary valve«. 

Qr&up Ml PnmimBZlQ \'^?a¥e® tfmt control thm fluid or ■ 
the ga®®s. They receive their wso^lng pposaure fron th« 
elec tro-pneumat ic-a uxi lllaiy-valveB . 

Groxip 3s Servo eontrolled valves» fb«8e valves are 
used on STsall «actions and for «»all «urrent eapaelties« 
Th«fy unite Group 1 and 2 into a single valve, and ar* »ore 
advantageous from the point of view ©f «eight« 

Group 4t Hand operated valves s The valves are used 
befor® th# tÄ®-off and consequently are generally of 



487 



8iFipl@ construction in tba ahap« of' usunl induatriSLl- v&lvea* 
Group 5 1 üon-return platesj' I'o let tL© fluid p&sB in 
only on© dlractioQ and by flow changea will close the sytjifesi. 

Ilie greatest difficsulty in the cievelopiaent liu:- cc nr.fiCition 
of the arPi8turee ar© to mske th<5in fool-proof so tje:y will work 
fully »utomatic without failures as is not u^ufil in thr: con- 
etructlon of armattJTes« For example: if tho arwAfcures of an 
«Irj'lsne ahould fall It could still b« held servlceabl© by 
sijxillary or ®Tierg«icy control, tho same is true ci: & truck 
or any othor gaa ongin«« But, if only on a Instru'-ent of the 
/i-4 should fail, the result would oa the^oss oi the entire 
epparatua. Since the nurhcr of armsturea ia vex'y hi^,jt^, *nd 
e^'en if each instrument is 99^ fool-picof, the loss would 
still be SOi» Thia then is the greatest difficulty in the 
whole rocket technique« 



488 



File Bn?.ian 

Interrogetlon of Dr. Wiarster, 19 May 1945* 

Wetterstelristr* 8, Partenkircben, H*M. Stok©« & R.Wa Porter« 

!• Prior to 1940, Dr. Wurster wes a teat pilot for 
Me3g@rsch??3ldt« H© bad flomi 109, 209, 309 and 409, and the 
163, stt&lnlng speeds in excess of 1000 Km/Hr« 

2. Since that time he had specialiEed in design, partic- 
ularly aerodynamic«, and recently had been chief design engi- 
neer for the ^Ensian*. He claiT^s that he was reaponalble for 
this weapon almost single handed. 

3. '*SnEian** is really a rocket -propelled aircraft having 
a wing similar to the Me 163, and two control surfaces which 
act both as ©levators and as aillerons. There are no hori- 
zontal tall siar faces, and no« rudder, but there is a vertical 
tail surface» There is no dibodrol, and the plane of the wing 
passes through the middle of the fuselage» 

4. The following data wss .ß;iven by Dr. Wurster as appli- 
cable to Enzian IV. 

<a) Wt. at start (total) is 800 Kg, 

(b) Wt. of four A.^'.D. units without fittings is 
144 Kg. (36 Kg. €ach) 

(c) Wt. after 5 sec. when Ä.T»D. have been dropped 
is 1500 Kg. 

(A) MbM tlrutet is 8000 Kg. at start varying 

linearly down to 1000 i:g. at end of 70 sec. 
burning time. 

(e) i\.T.D. thrust la 1500 Kg. fox» •ach unit Jl^. 
6000 Kg. total. 

(f) Range at end of burning 1« 12 Kn. Continues 
\%'lthout thrust to 16 lin* 

(g) ftoight of fuel is 450 Kg. (When it was pointed 
out that this, together with the above data 
g4ve a specific fuel consumption of about 4.26 
J/Kg sec, he decided that it was 550 Kg« that 
wes the design figure, and that 450 Kg. applied 
only to the test missies* 



^d9 



ill) Propelled is Solbel and Wisol, 1.4 to 1 ratio. 

(i) A,T*II. Hits use ElR}3@iK Fulirer» X>r» Wüster 
do98n*t know the ecmposltion« 



(J) Wt« of warhead is 

(k) Latmching Is et any desired angle* 

(1) Speed after 5 sec» Is 150 l/Sec. 
Speed mexlTiuiB is 300 H/Seo. 

(p) MajtliBUiB allowable wing loading is 7.7 g. 

The control is strictly line of sight, the probl^n being 
considerably simplified by the angle laiinching. Firing is done 
@s far as possible la advance of the approach of the target 
overhead so as to reduce the required curvature of the flight 
path* fhls gives use generally to an angle attack from head on. 

Below 6000 meters^ the target and the missile can be 
traeked optieally by ® Flak gerat 44 range-finder- In bed 
weather» or for higher altitudes, the Mannheim B'lmkmessgerate 
are used* The angle between the target and the missile is 
measto'ed, and presented on a CR. tube to the operstor. The 
Bisa lie is thmn controlled by a Saeblgerat or b^ the newer 
Brig§«>Koese (not yet In pro&ictlon). 

Thm Brlgg-Eozze uses a 50 cm transmitter, code name ''Kran", 
and a*ee«lver^ 4ode name^Brlgg", designed by %efunksn. Group S.Z* 
headed by Idol. Ing« Schwars, and including Dr. Ing. Schurmacher. 
This system, according to Dr. Vurster used only one carrier, 
laodialated with four tones of different frequencies, one ©ach for 
up, down, ri^t, and left. Twelve different wavelengths could be 
sel«eted 1^ means of a switch. The chief advantage of the Brigg 
and Kosse was la^ of fading difficulties and greater difficulty 
of JasBBing. The only anti» jamming feature known to Dr. Wurster 
is the directional reeglTing antenna on the missile which hss a 
bean width of about 45 • 

Twelve of tl^se weapons were made at Masserschnidt 's Augs- 
berg Plant and later on at Sonthofen bei Immens tadt (fuselages). 
All were flight tested at Peen^minde, at the Startstelle Stand. 
'Rim propulsion units for these flight-test models wer® assembled 
by Weither at Xanbau. Dr. Conrad in Berlin is considered batter 
a source of propulsion units trj Dvm Wurster, however. Serious 
production was to have been a8 8ir.ned to a fir» in Sberswalde. 
Dr. Vorater couldn't remesiber the name, but had it in his papers 
which had been taken to Ober Amergan. 



490 



An EoiiiaB ? waü planned whieh would hsLve att&ined »up^r«» 
®onlo ^&locitj, but non® hav® b «en built« Aeoustie» inJtrfi»7«d« 
ana radio homing mathods wer® «ilao b«lng eonaiderdd» (Aeouatie 
wsls nt^t good for this application aoeording to !Dr« Wisrstor b««» 
cause it did not give sufficient range* Xnfx*a-red end elee«» 
trioal mean^ w®T^ expected to be ready Ibr teste thl» auamer» 



Oonclusion» 



% Warater la obviously well inforaied oa the deal^ of 
i^p particularly the aerodynamie and fli^^t cbaracterlatiosji 
and shouM be able to give valuable information on other lleaeel^> 
sclMidt producta» Xt is reec^msoided that he be retained with 
the other personnel and material rroai Meaaeraehnldt pending a 
general investigation of that institution and that he be inter» 
rogated by any guided «tai a «lie team studying *Xnelan"* 



K*W* Forter 



lI9o f\- 



Lq .-lOÄi Gamp Haiming, 3t« Leonhard, in Ian Valley west of IiLasbruch 

Subject: "Natter" Interceptor Project 

Inveötigated by: Navtecmiseu Teaja, Lt. G»L. Poor, USInR, Lt. A. Hyatt^ 
UoiuG, and Dr. G.B. iuillikaa. 

Reportsd by Glark B. Millikaa 
8 June 1945 

Prior to the invest igauioa of this target a number of assessmeat 
reports were made available to bhe team, but there was ao indication that 
aay careful iavestigatioa had beea made, Thi assessments differed widely 
in their estimates of .he impopt;.:.nce of the devtlopnent. It was accord- 
ingly decided to make as careful an investigation as possible. 
EISaX)HY OF PHQJEGI AKD ITS INTBND3D TACTI GüL USE 

J?he project was iaitiated Aug 1, 1944 by the Bachen-;7erkft , vV'aldsee 
uadcr the spoasorship of Oberst Kneuayer, Ghief of DevelopLient, "RLIvI. Its 
purpose was to act as an interceptor against the Allied high altitude 
boubers« At the ead of the war I50 planes were on order by the S3 and 
50 by the Luftwaffe. The designers were Herr BacheLi, Formerly Technical 
Director of Fieseler, and Herr Bethbeder, a Dutchman who had studied at 
Stuttgart, was brought to Germany in 1940, ajad worked at Dornier before 
joiaiag ]&achem. Late in Ap.-il the factory was disbursed, Bachßia ia 
Waldsee, aad Bethbedei? -r/ith ^^group £JS of Technicians taking four planes 
to St. Leonhard where they were lirhen the uS Army arrived, Beofre the dis- 
persal Bachern had some 600 workers of whoa aboub 3OO were Engaged on 
Natter, iacludiag approximately 60 engineers. It was planned that prod- 
uction oa a considerable scale would be carried out in a large number of 
saall fac**2?ies aad shops scattered over Gerraany, The design had been 
very consistently worked out so that only unskilled vvorkers and the most 
comiaon and r«adily availajblc materials would be rec^uiredo Lightness and 
coiaplexity w«re everyifhere «acrificed ia the interest of cheapness, simpl- 
icity, aad absence of elaborate jig3ing and construction tools. The 
plane was to be used as a "one-shot" device being destroyed after its 
iaitial flight and contact with ./he enemy. The basic materials used were 

ühe coaaoaest grades of wood aad the cheapest quality steel. 

and 
The Geraam goverameat had planned to sell the Natter plans all 

coastructioa details to the Japanese, The engiaeers iaterrogated were H 

uaabl« to tell whether or aot this plaa had beea executed, and it is 

believed that they were actually igao ant ia this connection. The plane 

should be tactically very useful to the Japs aad the type of coastructioa 

should be highly suited to maauf acture ia Japaa. The possibility "that 

Japaa may be able to undertake the projedt is, accorClagly, oae of its 

most sigaific«at features. 



491 



rh? following members of the Natter group had been held for some K 
wciks at Camp HaiÄiÄg«, After careful iaterrogitioa of the key persoÄS, 
the entire group was returned to the tov/n of JerzcÄS near ^^emaa» Thig 
v/as approved by the Military govenament officer at the camp. All of the 
men were iasbrucT:ed to report daily to the Burgomeister of Jerzens amd to 
be available for further interDOgation should this be desired. The 
house auÄbcr where each aan lives ii iadicated opposite his »ame; 



H. Bethbeder 


20 


G. Schaller 


30 


H. Zubcrt 


142 



R, Graazow 


52 


K. Söhaller 


50 


H. Jonas 


142 



Bethbederc, who speaks and uaderstands EÄgliah fair!J.y well, was 
iaterrogated for several hours and furaished most of the iaformatioÄ 
oa the project. He was very coopera'uive aad appareatlj wi':h held mo 
i:a:formatioi3. ob. aatters of iaterest. He impressed the team as am 
extremely imgenious amd capable engimeer. The project has so mamy umorth- 
odox amd uausual features that it is apt tp appear umrcalistic amd 
"crackpot". Bethbeder was able, however, to demomstrate that emftb. of 
the uaorthodox elements had been carefully worked out amd cmgimeered im 
accordance with a coasistent aad very reasomable comeeptiom of the 
overall problem. 

Zubert was the test pilot f o the project aad furmished coasiderable 
isformatioB. oa the flyiag characteristics of the glider versiom which 
he XSa had flowm» 

Gras-zow was lVo.lter*s Representative om the project amd was. respomsible 
for the fuactioaing of. the maia rocket ELotot» He coatributed relatively 
little to ohe teams kiätowl-ädge, 

G. Schaller was sesit by RLä as a liaisom mam amd imspector for 
development aad productioa,« ... b was stated that he might have be em a 
Nazi party ikember, but that he had not beea active im the party. His im- 
tcrrogatioa coat vibuted little. 

K. Schaller and Joaas were talked to oaly very briefly siace they 
apparently were wo kers who kaew very little about the project© 

Bachem ?7ho was co-^desigaer with Bethbeder, reaaiacd at Waldsee whem 
Be"chbeder's group evacuated to the laa Valley, He plammed to bury a com.- 
plete set of Natter drawiaga and techaical data im the Waldsee area. It 
was agreed that he ad Bethbeder would later appteapt to establish comtact 
by leavimg messages at the lattem»£ ski hut "Eimem Bckalpe" at Ober«taufem, 
15 Km from Ismy« - This towa is near Kemptea south of Augsburg. The 
rendezvous has aot yet been effected but Bethbeder belirves that Bachern 
is p-obably im the neighborhood of Isay. 
OEARAOTjJJRISTIQS GiT THiJ AIRHLANS AND LAUIiCHER 

The Hatte;? is es:ent..ally a very inexpensive single seat, rocket pow- 
ered iaterceptor v/hLch is lauaclaed vertically from a sho 't lauacher, 
oomtrolled ^ aa auto-pilot to a position predetermined by a standard 

492 



anti-aircraft flak, cosiputer as being in he nv^iighbo .-hood of ast eaemy 

bosber, aad guided by the pilot to th« target at verj high speed« At 

i distance of a few huadrcd hards 24 73 lasi. rockets are fired is. a burst 

aja.d Katte-:^ fives away« Whea clear of the e-aer^ij the speed is reduced to 

200-500 rm/hr, the aose aad the® the r'irainder of the plajae is jettisoaed 

aE-d the pilot parachutes to the groiraä., 

i'he basic aüa^rical characteristics are as follows! 

laitial weight with 4 boost rockets — 2200 kg. 

Gross T/eight ia.cludiiig fuel but without boost rockets - — 1700 kg. 

Fuel weight — 650pkg 

WiÄg area — 5,6 a 

Wing spaa — 5.6 p 

HoriZo tail area«2,5 m 

Horiz tail spaa= 1.0 mo 

Wiag aad horiz tailt rectangualr plaia formj no dihedral, no 

cSj^arn gtrical sectioa. 
sweepback, comstaat pi-of&le 12% thickness at^O^chord^ ¥^ertic£.l surface 

approx 2/5 above fuselage and 1/5 bslowo Tail setting - 1° to wiiig. 

"So aileroas, roll comtrol by differeutiai oper -.uioH. of elevators. 

Overall -lemgth -6 m. ^d (at M=0.4)=0.08 from wind tuimel test. 

Laumcher is circular tube projecting verically 9 la. froti the grouad. 

Boosts 4 Schmiddiag rockets each having 12,000 kg. sec. impulse with a 

E.om.mal buraigm time of 10 sees. 

Maim Power Plaati Walter 509 rocket motor buraiag C and T stoff s. Max 

thrufet»1700 i^. Eegulation possible dowa to 150 kg. Fuel Coasumptioa» 

5.5 ga« per kg sec at sea level full thrust, i'uel coasuaptioa=10 ga. 

per kg. s«c at Sea .level at 500 kg. Desiga oia^Ce level speed=8ü0 ka/hr 

at S.L» Stressed for 6 g acceleratioa at 1100 km/hr at 5 ^'■■» altitude 

with a factor of safety of 1.5 based on ultimate streagth. Materials« 

Lo.v grade wood and steel throughout except for motor, fuel taiakÄ aad 

pipiag, aad aaia spars. Gonstructioas Extremely simple aad crude. 

Wood parts uaiveraally joiaed with glue aad aails. S'it.iags heavy aad £ 

simple. 'J!h« eatire desiga ha« beca ayateisatically ap.d carefully workedX 

gTggir¥«yrgYyaTy]r/igMY¥dmfl^ . 

gBPaaaflDgxiM.xicMinrmt'hfltiii^ 

out for rapid aad cheap coastructioai by iaexperieaced workers ia «aall, 

poorly equipped shop». Weight aad refineL.eat of f iaiih were consciously 

sacrificed for this pur-pose. ^M. Bethbeder gave the folio An.ag figures 

for maa-hous requi ed to construct the machiae ia siaall saale productioa 

Airfifie — 250 hours 

Motor — 400 maahoura 

Sockets. i»b»rumeat8, etc, 550 Ftaahours 

Total aircraft 1000 maa hours 

Armaüeat» 24- 75 mm rockets each weighing 2.6 kg aad contaiaiag 400 ga 
of powder ia the warhciid. 



mt 



'2ho nkotch*E below indicate verj roughly bh@ general 
arrangeiient : 







^r^ 



?.:ETHÜD ÖJ' OP:]RivriON 

The plane is attached to the launching tube on which it cam slid® 
verticallj and around which it can rotate. A standard ajati— aircraft 
director- is placed alongside and the orisnt&tioa of the plaifie is set, 
as is the elevator deflection required at the end of the verical flight 
so that a straight flight path will reach the predicted locatiom of the 
enemy bouber. The rnotor and launching r-ockets are f i :od and the plane 
ascends v.rtically some I50 meters when the auto-pilot deflects the 
elevato s and holds tho plane on the pr^edetermirxed straight, climbing 
flight path. At thin time the boost rockets are dropped, Whea the 
pilot sights the eaemj he t..kes over and when om the target and in rang® 
fires 24 rockets. He then dives away and whea clear slows to about 250 
krü/hr, and release the no.,:.e section '.v'hich is sucked "forward and clear 
by the pressure distribution over it^ The pilot then raleanes a par- 
achute fror.;, the rear of the fuselage. The. iatter decelerates very rap- 
idly ejectly '-"he pilot wlio parachutes to the groumd, 494 



y/ifid tunnel tests oä models were mad® in S©p 19^ at DVL at 500 
k»/hr, aad la the high speed tuanel at BraumschY/eig ia March 19^5 at 
speeds close to M=l. No bad effects of coLipressibilitj oa stability 
or control wer« observed. 

Approximately a dozen uananned lauachiiag tests were riade in every 
one of which the plane ascended vortically to 100 or 150 iieters height 
where the speed was suff icioüt for the aerodyiiajiiic controls to becone 
ef -.ectivBe The auto-pilot had nto beca. perfected in time for a satis- 
factory test with it to be is.ad,e. One plgtae without motor but with equiv- 
alent balast was to7/ed to altitude and release as a glider. The test 
pilot reported the flying characteristics, up to the highest speed reached 

(700 km/hr), as superior to aay pursuit he had flown (iacluding all 
standard Gerciaa fighters). Ose maimed luaachiag was attempted ia which 
it is believed the pilot struck his head and was knocked out at the 
»tart. Im &&j event at the ead of the usual ve tical flight of some 
150 a, the plaae went oa its feack and dived to the ground, the pilot 
being killed. The end of the war stopped further experiaenting. 

RECOLa:ENDAIIOI?S 

-The project appears to be interesting enough to warrsmt careful 
study of the two airplanes which the AAF apparently has, as well as to 
justify search for and study of the data which Bacheai had at the end of 
the war. 



495 



Ö-fczal iTind Ohiaii«! -Rtported Bys G»L. Poor, 5d, Lt, USNR 

Investigated by: Dr. Clark B. Millikaa, 'Doch, USN 
O.L. Poor, 5d, Lt, USNS 
A. Hyatt, 1st Lt, USlvIGR 

Date of Investigation J 6 June 1945 

Location of Targets Inn Valley, route 31, approx $5 

Km west of Innsbruck, near Lager, 
Haiiaing. 

A large high speed wind tunnel was reported to be under construction 

ijathe Inn valley, near the ötzal. The tunnel was investigated by a Nav 

Tec Mis Eu" Team on 6 June 194-5. This report presents the findings of the 

teaa. 

Description of Wind Tunnel 

The wind tunnel as planned is of Steel Construction, closed throat, 

cj^d capable , of attaining a Mach number of one at full power, clear tunnel. 

The principal dimensions are: 

Test Section Diameter 8 meters 

Test Section Length 14 meters 

Haxinum Diameter 24 meters 

Overall Length 174 meters 

Contraction Ratio 9 meters 

The power for the tunnel was to have been obtained from two 50,000 
rsepower Pelton wheels, each di ectly connected to one of two 15 meter 
ameter contra-rotating p opellers. At full power, the propellers were 

turn at about 220 rpm. In order to obtain the necessary hydraulic power, 
tunnel has been drilled through a mountain , the south of the site 
vlng a 500 is., fall from the Staumaurer dam of the Westtiroler Kraftwerker, 

the Stuibenbach river. The d.ja has not yet been constructed, although 
II pxvu:>aretioas fo- bsginnir-^: construction have been made. 

The design of the .vind tunnel is conventional except for the use of 
rect- Pelton wheel drive for the contra-rotating propellers, and for tht 
rangeiasnt of the air exchanger for cooling the tunnel and removing exhaust 
.ses du.-ing engine "Cests. The air exchang'^r consists of an annular op«AiÄg 
tween the Ifirgc section and the contraction, together with an intake 
•rangement in a 15 m. constant diameter section directly following the 
5Cond come;-. The a r exchanger v/as designed to handle the exhaust gasss 
?oiL a 10,000 horsepov/er plant at a fuel rate of 0,5 Kilo/hp.hr, 

The tunnel is unusually long, 174 neters, and has an area ratio between 
e test section and the first corner of 1 to 4. The distance between the 
irth corner and the beginning of the contraction is approximately 28 
er», and the large section continues back through the low speed corners 
about one third of the distance between the third and second corner 
a constant diameter of 24 cieters. This arrangement is apparently 
ided to give a tunnel of high energy ratio and uniform flow without 
"deration of the cost of the xaate ial required for the structure, . 



laaediatsly upstresm of th® first propells-, th® tuÄü«! diam«t@r decrea- 
ses abruptly from 16 meters to 15 Jastsrsj apparently to speed up the slow £ 

'Vimg «ir aear the wall and secur© '^. lao:-® uaiform velocity profile at the 
propeller. There is fio ezpaiisiop. tircugh the corners« 
WorkimR: Sectioa 

la order to X^IX facilitate charigiag model set-ups, aad tp provide 
for tests oa eonplete airplane models § semi-spaa models, amd full scale 
power plaats, it was plaimed to provide three workiag sections, each 
•coaplete with balaace, mounted on wheels, to be rolled into place upon rails. 
To permit airtight attachment of the test sections, necessary because of the 
subatmo spheric test section, the contractioa and the first diffuser are 
arraaged to slide oa rails for a short distance along the axis of the tuaael. 
Th« coatractioa coae is detached froia the large sectioa because of the air 
exchanger outlet, aad the fliffuser is arraaged with a sliding joiat in a 
Äort coast «at-diaaet er sectioa immediately upstream of the f iist corner, 
Balaace s 

Th« balaac« desiga is based oa.the use of oil pads for force and moment 
resolutioa, aad hydraulic cylinder« with rotating pistaa« for weighing. The 
balances were to b« remote iadicatiag, to avoid the necessity of having 
r^«jervers workiag uader the low pressures existing ia the test section at 
high velocities, Ho complete particulars of the balance design are ^railable 
at th« «it«, although «imple «chematic drawiags were found« The balances K 
were designed by Dr. Bauer, of LFM, aad the first one ( 6 component, general 
purpose) is being constructed by Firma Schenk, of Darmstadt. 
P«rgoaael iatervieiged, aad Dispositiom of Target . 

Th© personnel iaterrogated included Dr. F. Schwaiger, of LFM, in charge 
of the technical phases of the construction, and C. Schindler, adiaiaistrative 
director and expediter, sent from the RLM du ing the later phases of the 
construction ia aa effort to speed up completion of the tunnel. These person«. 
are at their hones ia the neighborhood, and may be found through the Military 
Gove L-aiücat at Lager Haiming, or 4t the wind tunnel offices. Lager Haimiag 
is a caap built originally as a labo camp for the construction of the wind 
tuaael aad th« West Tyrol power project, and is now ia use as a displaced 
persons camp, ia addition to containing a few P.W.'s. 

The personnel wer« «xtreaely cooperative, and showed complete sets 
of construction drawiags, aad reports describing th« proJ«ct aad the intended 
construction of th« laboratory of the LFM at Ottobrua, near Muncih. Dr 
L^-awaige^ discussed the etails of the tuimel design aad, together wirth 
two TBL th« contractors» representatives, provided information on the status 
of the construction contracts. This information presented in appendix 1, 

Th« office building wa» found to be adequately guarded, and the 
occupying troops were iastructed to maiataia the guard and to p rmit ao 
plans or dociiments to be removed. Th«y were further instructed to pra,t 3dt 

' mg materials aad ; the sitj, peniiling a decision as to the 

'■ ., n ■'- thn ?;i.i^a v'^.aei. T^roject. ^97 



Hl.jstor:^ of ötztal l-roDect_> 

Th@OtataI pr-o^sct was set up as aia "Ausseast«!!«** of th* LFM', MuÄtch» 
it has beea p3 aniied that the LWU shou*^ be a caatr® of aeroaautical rtsearch 
for Southera Germany, ^jjider the sponsorship of Dr. Bau«iaker, «, . 

«Th^a coiiipl®t@dj th© LFM -f;as to have, ia addition- to th» SQCHCX ötztal 
tusjael aad a possibl© duplicate tuanel at the same site intended for 
t^gin® t#3t£ onlj, a 2ö7 meters closed throat ^igh speed tunnel at Ottobrum« 
Ät Ottobruns where the central LFM offices were to have been located, were 
also to have been two supersonic vd.nd tumriels, one continuous operc:.tion 
■ Guido Ilia t;¥pe v^ith a, test section 40 by 40 cai, and th® other a 25 by 25 ca 
intermittent tunnel. In adi.itioa to the tunnels, th® project included two 
eagiD-e test laboratories, on© for turbojesfe» with six test stands, including 
•quipaent for simulating altitude conditions, and two conventional test WSS. 
stands with vertical intake and exhaust to the atmosphere. The second engine 
laboratory was to habe been built for rocket testing, and would have 
provided six test stands. 

The high speed tunnels of Ottobrun (2-7) and ötztal (8m) were designed 
by Dr. H* Peters, of LPM, formerl^r of M.IoT! 

■ The construction of the ütztal tunnel was begun in late 1942 or early 
''945» At present, approximately 19 million of an estimated 26 million marks 
nas been spent on the wind tunael, 25 to 30 million marks 'SSM. of an 
estimated #0 million has been spent on the power project^ 

According to Dr. Schvvaiger, the progr®s;u the construction of the 
tunnel was slow, principally because of labor difficulties and the diff- 
iculties of transportation. All the steel work was fabricated im plants 
at a considerable distaiice from the site, and only a negligible amount 
of local j.aL-, ;; could l-f- v^btalnö«.» D^2:,i.i«g, the ls.5t few months of the war 
when the possibility of loss by bombing of th® oaly two operating high speed 
subsonic tunnels in Germany (Berlin and Braunschweig) became apparent, 
great efforts were made to rush the project to completioiiL« Little progress 
has been "^de since February, principally because of the disruption of 
the German railway system. The work is well «long toward completion, and 
couil, in norcial times, be completed inabout six months« 
Conclusions and RftCOBuaendations 

The ötztal tunnel, if completed, would be the largest S^ high «peed 
tunnel in the w^s-ld, as f jtr as is known to the team» Th« tunnel would hav@ 
the ability to perforBi tests of compiete models of high speed aircraft of 
greater accuracy than the tunnels available at prese .j in the United States« 
lEO^aOOKglEaEC^OK it would also be uniqmely suited xor tests of turbojet 
engines aad other jet propulsion arrangements and for performing high speedi 
high Reynolds No, tests of wing prof iles,_. for the developement of high 
speed subsonic aircraft. Because of the lultipel wo king section arrange- 
ment ^ a very lar:^T^ volume of work coudl be performed« 

498 



It is not considered practical to remove the tunnel to the United 
tates, since the operction of the tunnel is dependant upon the availability, 
of large ajLounts of \7at r po./^r, -.md the value of the tunnel proper is not 
enough enough to justify bhs cost of disassembly, ahipK nt, and re-erectiono 
If, hov/evar, it is concidcred dcci able to operate the tunnel in situ, the 
tunnel could be placed in oper-.i^ion in six nonths to o e year. If it is 
not consider^;d desirable to operate the tunnel for the use of the ünin:xl. 
Stands, it is recomnended that the tunnel be desfcroyedo 



/)pP£¥Ptx ± 



SfATUS Off OTZfAL fUrlKEi COhiRAOfS 



I — - 'lumiel Structure 

a. Foundation completed. 

b. Steel 7/0 rk 

, The tunnel was to ba built under 

(1) Maschinenbau Ä«G» Augsburg-Hurünberg 
being constructed is at Maimz) Contract 

Part 

Gontractioa 

'Test Section Carriage 

{D«st Section 
1st Corner. 



2Äd coraer 
1st Diffuser 



several contracts, as listed b.>loy/; 

; (r.LAIT) (Plant v/here parts are 
includes: 

Status 

95/0 installed 

6ö> complete at factory 
40'% under construction at 
factory 

Under construction at factory, 
^^0% complete 

Vanes have been shii^ped, have 
not arrived. Shell under 

construction at factory. 

SaiD.e as Ist corner. 

^0% installed. Balance at site 
and in transit. 



(2) 



ü'iraa Dingier, Zw«ibröckon. 



Motor Section 

Air Excharger Section 

2nd diffuse» 

5rd corner 

4tli corner 

Constant diameter 
asctioÄ 



Status 

Installed 

Suppor-ting rin^^s installed, rest under 
consbruction at factory. 

Construction begun at factory 

20/o installed 

60% installed 

Supporting ring^j installed or at site, Plates 
being fabricated. 



(3) 



J'injia Kunze, HeideÄheim 

Subcontractor to Dingier, building duct uo k and intake for air 
exchaagtr» //ork is partially caaiAetea at factory. 

499 



a» • Peltoa Vüieei '2u bD^iies« 

Tliese are beiag built by I.iiU Voith TurMaeabaMf abrik at St* iolt©]** 
Oae wlis®! is complete at site, the other coniplstsd at factor y» 
probably aot shipped« The housias for one wh®tl, is complete at sit©« Tha 
toher housiag has aot jet been installed. 

_ b« Propellers« Belie^sd to be under construction by Veith, Statug 
uacertaimo 

c.^ Shafts, bearin£,-s,j and co;at:col gc^.r. Under construe tioia at factories« 
Exact locatlosi of parts uncertaia,x 
d» Dam J tu]sm.elsj and conduits * 

Dan. aoad mai®. iidet tujiiiel by Sieaeas Bauuoiioii, Tunael coLiplttedj 
d;u;i coastructioa startsd^ Steal liner for lower part of tumiel not at 
sits« The coaduit for high pressure water distribution is being built by MMi 
and is being fabricated at IW^IXÄEMM. the factory. Fev; parts are at the 
aitso 'Ihe status of the run-off tuii.iel was möö exactly deterniiiied. It 
is believed to be 90^0 conpleted, 

III -- Building 

Arbeitsgeneiaschäft Inaerebrier Mayer 

Approximately 6C7S coiiplete« Foundations are coiuple;:ej and vvalls 
are partially built. 



500 



johp-.iä Ol J et --Otoro 

!• Jet motor© usIjduj olie; ioal oiicr:;;. lor oh^ir aotivuLlou 

iay bco lasse aa followa, 

a, Jet laotors agtlvatüa b aeXx ^j -.:rG..iln o4 oi;c ;.:doal. [>?q. Füllgut 
1} Solid £.ultiö:ii3ü ,,iro,;üllaii\.a 

LTOpollaiit.s ox tÄe type ü)'üu,; bc oii-htsr -ultipi-op^ll-ii :>:' 
or -löii@pröp€Jll.-.i.rita^ 

not T?@r^ed on^ and haa vor,/ llttlü küovawd.jo of, : -o-würo 
usitt: tfeö proiiclltiat ©a.-tb iiiuitiuna al, b) and ct^^^ 'Sno 
.j^üi^ ih£Wi&:- Wi)rko4 ci-secatially onl on ulitpropi^ll-viitj 
üi^l*Aer oX thm 3pontaaeouol^- i;jni table t^pe Ta/p'.-r ;oi3) 
@r Ox .lie not aporitaneöuol,/ l:-;j:i.ltatil© typo« .ui c^i;.x.;plü 
o: hypir ;ol prö,>üllanta la ^.ixed aoid pli3 o,;;':iüliuü, - hi oh 
"^.is ua®d for tl^€ '''vi4Q3er,i'-^ll" rooicat* 
/»ß öxa-jplo oi' uot 0i>ontu.;<>'O'ut3V i :ni"U-iulo ,irü;;cllJLiit3 Ifc» 

Etliaiiol plus li^iuld o^v >-iJ (plu3 tr.itcr) 
^hia'a ooabiBcitiOii was up©«:! iü Ihü v^ 



501 



'■a:ri''^ aü a eat^iljsor ax^l ^^tei» a3 a ooclant" in th© atöa*! 

:'--3£:cllant 'iDod :;;f3to:' a^ tl>ü V^,« I The ii^dro -on p^ro^tide 

lU ■ •.^■so *:iitn ciont:-l't}':3tiO!i 0. the p€C:i.rrjjmlo --^Oiirs l3 tho 
Izitc^Mtiaa. 0. ruKitiT^:t,v -ijll :::ia-n I^iQt'i on li-iusld jet 

ballt uiia ;i:]Q Ic^l';- -x-:; jo'l i'/ilo-il do-ii-n .a.:.A a:. .atrucjtlon 
1 ti) a i.:aO:r;0:. :;I l.v vMror:':ot» tho V.^. ^ttatiUlan ahotilci fee 

i'Uh './ilcl^ t-h. "' ol-j :tou,; '^-^or^tcd o;; the r.T.f ü,:^ai^rou3 
Tü-obla.j :-hloü' ::.•.. a :.o ü^j Coli- cd to .'n li:; uhG 'fr, a :=5räotl<3al 
iTjOüe^: :■* . ' aoooril ^r*,;. ooüvr'lbi.tlon o..; the :'CQ2iOi:iUBiAO ^01^ 
'C;:i a i;-o^l::,iii.:i:^,/ aovclDT);:iOiit -■o:-:: on vho *" "^.i^acrf all'' ^ a 
hi,>i Qj)'::qC. Jol X'r-.:-:^llcd, ;.:irtl:' r:.dla ;::iidfxl, -and \iUli^^el: 
■;iül.:-l:oMi';;: -lüaiic -^felah !■" o-; ao ■;3lö.cralil0- lis^oreat® 

;'oicx'a or-' Ms t-oc :iro: ■ 

h) ''ShQ acTorc':;öiia^-o^^ ib^jzn bonb :,)Otor t:^?«'^ 



502 



The Peeaemuiide oroup (i'lelstrometfeaniaehe örke) did not 
in asij ••':ay oontrlbute to the '^/S-relopaent of motor a of the class 
3.). The general loio' ledge of tfe^ groiÄp on aorial diiot motors 
aeeraa no li.^ihle» 

-. Undc^rwater Jet Uotors « 

Ho de-^elopment on motors ol this type ^.as done by 
the Peeneiflunde group. In faot the group in G-ariiisoh :?artenkir-' 
Chen 8e«m3 to have no Icno 'fledge of any kiind on uaderwxter 
Jet rüötors« 

4« Inatmment ation« Th^'m eoheajstry eto » 

If© pa&iaally new results in these fields seen» to have 
been aohieved fey the Peenermmde group v^ioh wae interrogated 
at aarmisoh Partenlcipohen* 



993 



-;:^;viiT)mept 131 fraln at^ Pletin^ Station 

When tlie Badio Sqyipmeirfe in th& five cars of this train is 
riii-illy oxcimined it ¥/lll be dssirable to iiave preasent representatives 
fr.oi'i the Slectro Machönisohe-Worke to assist in recognising the Yariou« 

{•i"C5fi of egaipmeBtg 

The aon concerned ^vitb. the various divisions of Radio Sq^iipiß-int 
- r:..' ■:- iven bolow and these ■^^ouid be useful for the above pii3?pose'* 

a M}Ii(^^nß belonginp to_M- 

i* 'Dr Steijihoff as head of Electrical Section has the "best gea^jrai 
iv.v.;l3d£';e of tiio work in prc£:r6ss» 

2, K^rl Sendlor« Csrriod otät much of the liason with mantifncturers 
lid Icnov:« I he t'.rcund equipment g most of which was built awa y from 

? i Mioiuunde I vory well» 

3* Dr Friedrich Kirschstein was in charge of section, dealing with 

i r.-etrical Mö<-isureacnts, Integrating AccelerometerSf Telometering^ 

••'•. Joachim Muhbrier, . Has full knowledge of Verdoppler equipment* 

:>. HelLrat Holzar, Has full knowledge of Leitstrahl equipmjnt« 

•;;;. .H-lböi-T;; Schiilar. Haß good knowledge of electrical measuring 

Instruments» 



b '..Vasserfall 



7* Theodor Mevzer, Has good ^sseral knowledge of Wasserfall 

e.uipment, 

Ö. Dr. Holmit Weiss. Has good knowledge on homing devices® H® 

is head of the section dealing with these 
devices « 



- -^^ - ^ s 






- 1 ! . : , 



...a.:«..ol,.t-..:^i. t,:r .i,tu:e. 
>17 * 13-330 4*. (i03 -.11 « 



.thfcjol 



J«ie lt,tli« fHV 



'■14 - -J ..iL 



..',,1 



nitfu 



•or .--Ao ..-.Irol ; a!-; ; -; jr 

I - - «■ .Vi -Ir.; 'nt: V. -.:- i C; tll.n ti» 
<iUl \'.\,t,U'» '._" (.':«' 'fr-, I t:i, 

(■; RH ^tttir.i -.n lir..e lC -it» 

1 <r« to i;.j, l.rt^ tc lint; oJ- 

i-'.nt III » 1 km, , 

j.-;.r.-', «nt to :.-, 



tu .-.i:.!« ,.2 
^ ty „ci; ht ir-...l-, t;. _■,, e^a ^,873 Scg. 

.At.-.it : -.r c- o^ ■ 1,CXJ0 kg, 

. -.It. . (L--.i )-j a 



rue. ..l:«jr« r ■,. , .'a, 

■ ''' :.■ i::.x .- . ;• t uO 

i -,; • • . .Ui 

. • to:/ t . :.U: ■ 1 

• t ,i t)-, / ; nt .-.<■-.'.. ■ , to 

'^U I— . t^M, . .1 is"' 

,ori... ti f. .cc. ;,.;.:; I.. ,.hU ..2 
r...-oti r ,;• . ., . c « y.y ,i»^ per 
1:'0 .;■. .*. -or ;.; :;> , 



41» 
60 




4.9CO Iq.. 
...i.7V7 k£. 


U.'JcO 


s*. 


12,:.>ü 


'<»:• 


!>■■ 


'V> 



.11. uüt, 1 ■ji.u* 



i-^S.O ka. 



222.9 kfl.J 



o»3 It-». 






Trucks of the 2y/-speoial train from Hohenpeiasenberge 
Victoria ( Directing Baam ) ai^rangement complei^e for V-2 
Victoria examination arrangement (screen) 

arrangemant for the total exaiulnation of Victoria. 
3 model -transmittors B, 
2 Victoria- exaiaination disks 

1 side integration arrangement with a measuring head 
1 stabipla (stabilisation platform for gyroscope outfit) 
10 Treibumien ( gyroscope outfits ) 
5 models of the rocket-course 
1 eiserne (iron virgin) Yungfraii impart of the model of the rocket course) 

1 Illingj arrangements for thtal examination and the examination of 

regulation for the Mischgerät 
5 Mischgeräte , ' 

2 Häusermann pendulums, different measuring instruments, exaiiiination 
arrangement for Mischgerätie Wj motors for electrical inidder-machine 
and necesssiry examination outfit. 

Sclwingtish ( for examination of gyroscopic outfit ) 

Gummuoand (special regualtion arl*angemant")Cfor Wasserfall^ 

Chests, NO 2241/46, 48/41/ 185/187' / with a model of the rocket-course 

and measuring instruments. 

In the Truck Nord Edge NO 10450 

1 electric tfaoisformer 20X25X25 cm (for radio control) 
Kleinbahn (above mentioned) (little model of the course) 
chests of the lüllcwing NO 2242/ y,14,l6j26 with four tubes for 
electronic ray oscillators measuring instruments, measuring oscillators 
from 10-100 Mcls and a brddge for measuring of capacities* 

40 receivers of commands 
50 Verdoppler ( doublers ) 
5 electronic ray- oscillators 

3 galvanometer oscillagraphs 

measuring oscillators, examination oscillators, frequency generators 
bridges for measuring of frequencies and inductiveties o 
measuring instruments iwith different ranges tubes various 
electrical matierial several equipments for V measuring ( Lalemo) 

2 traasmittors of commands II examination arrangements for BS (Brenschloss 
examination field equipments for the input and outjiut part of the 

V measuring transmitter, 

1 Z (additional) equipment of the BS arrangement 

2 pha.qf;-c hampers for LS arrangement 505 



o:\R 



üh^V'^'i 



I.' 



L94n 



ITK.I 



Box vilth approx. lOOö receiviu : tubes 
Develop;..ent radio rndta r> pane 13 hi,;;h & 2 ^-VIq 
Helay roclc radio units 6 panels hi,:^k fr E28c;/'34 
J3ox-also« radio parts raet er s eto. 
Box tubes (approx, 500) & parts 
Po-wep units 

sjToa in lor :o sphere a I about 2i't. diaj) Sß 66 
Cabinet '/ith breadbotird ciro ita 
:iOX radi® tr^t inotru. iento ineters 
Box lal)*'j oifioe osiuip* 
Box ii«-4 control ^^or (.370und) 
Box rjlae» radio :©ar 
3oz test meters & equip» • 

Box telephones, ratlömi^ etc (ratio. _.3 'rc-irioved) 
Bgs: radio {^ear 
PowQF • supplies 
LaT/jG taöks 90 ;. e;,;:pt-/ 
Speoial rae 



i bIi 



? Po*7er suppl;/ units 

2- p0|i rescrdü-re 

1 SigEal -lenerator 

1 Br@adlio^d osöillator unit 



no. 



each 



eaeJi ( ?liotO:'^) 



^.0 ou. .,t, 
;-?> ou. i't, 

1'-^ GU, it, 

1^ cu. 

1^ 

10 

15 

10 
10 
10 
Ö eaoh 

10 oaoii 

10 

15 

1>0 Gaoh 
10 

10 caoh 

10 

9 



506 



< 



^ws&e^^<«<9<«'tre^(nas^»snMBa»es9R3!!8ifK:t?^^^ 



B#tM^ a 









X 
I 



I 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
I 
I 
1 
1 
1 
3 
X 
1 
2 
1 

a 

/■ 

1 

a 

2 
X 
X 
X 

X 

I 

2 

1 

40 

1 

3 

X 

1 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1 



X2 ¥ BatÄÄPy 
Box ifm^i© liast!wfö«« 
BoxmsL w^Qm x«dio geasp 
m2^2Z /1%/t (Xatlj« XJ&«) 

iox radio ooi^}Oimats 
dax radio ooanon^fits 
Box rftdio eoRpoiMüts 
Oond«ns«? BteareplK'Tia 
OseiX ai^llfi«s« 
I'nb« boe«c 
C&bX« ooBDcetcxp 
SpeolcX radio gear 
Bcac z^oeelTijqg t\M^ 
Optieal "^'^e^ril'fr^ 
lÄrg.» rfe«^ :-- ^' {r"Hoi» a) 

ft* »aehe 

OT't.icd r'^sas ir/-504 

Box oaatlQgs 
X27 batt«ri** 
Bojr 1 F ooiXe 
OptloaX dtfio« 
Fr«queiiay eoav«g?t>ft-e 
Sox of fio« «qoipc 
OptiosX d9ViQ« 
FladX i(tsr««§tlB OKi^or 
(hi !«Mtm«r 
Wid« band (S7 «apUf • 
FrcqwioQjr jMtfHr 
Soimd FMordiP 

^ s«oUfl«p 
Sat«roQ« 



3 of e®«^ 

S ©f ©AOh 
2 of o&d^ 



6 

30 

4 

4 oich 

3 

3 «aoh 

a 

X %iiQh 
X ©»leh 
X 
2 
X 
X 



|> Uox S F Xoop« 
1 BC'.5C radio 'p&Tts 

10 SV batViri«© 

X Fraquoaoy r^^oordar 

4 l!^>o«.'4aaoo bridgoa 

1 Box !Si.>e<äi&l ru"!io geau 

1 Biiskat olotiies 

1 Scix radiü tN^f'S 

1 Trsaroo^lrar 

X H?G 

X OiJtioal ö?-?lc6 

X m^ ractifisr 

1 Bex docjET-gnts (t^iscit??^^ 

1 Box labo p>art.3 

X Bojs ra'lio har^'-'-ar® 

1 Sox hci^thirdd ^^oods 4 

X Dox relajs 

X Sox aw? tor« *: c^sar« 

1 !Bo:c radio har:!^.M-r« 

X Box polyn-^iTis^ :iuM.a^ 

X Traj slaralator 

30 Ssßll r®dl.. T>nitf» 

3 Bojc relays 

1 Powar imit 

3 Boices r^laj'js tubas 
X B«ii>c« raf^to gö4ir 

2 Boy. optloiil gaar 
X £k:<i: Ti^ä' ^ 

X 30T. r*1ic3 p^arts 

X BoK cs')le raarkars 

X r5.--Xd s^ound rftcordinr 

3Ö Lsii^Ä© r«^lo tu?-9f 



jao. 



3 
1 



<ri. 



Is A«4 g.1 

X Bo3C opiioaX gour 

X Boir dry eoXXs 

1 'fe:< ra>t«r» 

X Bctf toltph «qijdp, 

X , c;p-'cial radio t,«Mit 

X raeor^^^r 

2 Bex nxine^ 

1 Cnn i)ri"f«r r«elstoi« doTloQ f«ar 

1 .Box Q'T 

X Box oortdonsera 

X Box timcra 

3 U«c«ivflfr»flXn«r ualts» 
X lAr^© t,rl?jod 

X Raotinor 

1 Dr P.o««athal twtsr 



1 

1 
1 
4 



2 

2 
3 
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3 9&« 

2 

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6 

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in })oxm altog9tl29r) 



32 

31 

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35 



iDars» (1,7) 



(ifar bo c«. ':fl?wip) 

6 pasMl rack 
2 RJf • ooaaaeter«« 
Box U« oo^« 

Box KL* oofiTp« 

Oulilsrfttgr paml {tiagi^ smXk «ait 
fld-Üx meet f&r Ttfplmmhlm takomm 
midiag Rebber poSm) 
QmXk wait liavi?^ 4 ditLl» ooli» 
hrat«d ia sec, i}^^ lalAtd 

work books for all «se^cyei»«. 

Parts <sfd®r roear^s, Cu# <0ood«ii 

box« 

Traa». ?©lk« Hliih IVi«a?ity 

??2 (S Tob« 

Box ®1« oon^nsat« ledU s»;di 
08«lll^rttph, 
Monitorliis reek i^tül« 16 paaols. 

Spot jnroquoiM^ t^asnlttttr« 
llatfliils^4 swltdli 

«alts for not«?- «<»F« eonooiitri« 
with moh plitffiMng l«g^ tmltf 

8w olootrioal « ea ue w a t». 







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BoiX fpiimte *yal<mzifis» ?^POfT«««ar 
Sohloah 

Stell« ftt? )^*^*. ©«s» »•noai« to 
bo 'Wmhmt, trs»@nltt«r» Ur eooldd 

Fol? Bot^tX bo^ewe t^il« oablo ft 

■OfiSiviqg h««<l (txrobobl^ «ovUIoyoI 

InA.} 

Signal Q9fu or 'wi»v«r«ft.'ftr F}'«^« 

unknowB« eablo 

Box eoat^iriß «i'i'?r»i?'0^fn*ph priotor« 

Bnw^p txnit 

A JPam»! fr Mck looks liM damii^ 

ironssdttor* 

Conti^l & Mtcr p&«ol about i*x3* 



n 

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44 
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49 



52 
53 

54 

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f6 
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21044 



S2Il?$2 






SI» Wt 3t-ai6» 8 Ik C 



iK&cm&iuai 



units« 



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Box lab enyxipsBBt itm ?«eet« 
}>r©ssiur© g»Ufe'«, l»«lc ea» 
gAt;^» out. 
Appier to be tost p&Mla tW 



Test fmiiol fop i^ "<f^ tippst» gy 
fyro 6 rud«?»f 

Iö«t p«ßel fo? Ä«4 9^t^ g^T«« 
Otli«r tost vüMthmpsv^ttA^ for 
Ä«4» but axaot pivpte^Q «dcaowa« 

CoQblaed Uist panal fosp BeriawBi 

Ji»oir« X 

C||bIo «s««abl7teeeda nor« 

ABU T3npo ir^ V n & ?j.^t«osio 

asaonl^amall« lAdks Ws» Z«f » 



509 









23 «17 3$i$ 


I3F" 




1 AaSioSIcOwi 




1 lar te^u^r 




X ^g9 




I SnUSritaft 




1 Bbk titaa 


J «I, ft. 


lawMMivii« tateB 


3 «a. ft. 


1 taE tites iMrtMte 


3 «B. ft. 


1 » « 


3 ea» ft« 


1 • ta%t0 


3 €91« ft* 


X BBS «nttail* siQT *MK taht 


m 3 oo« ft« 


llK W^tf JtiM> tMMM 


3 en. ft« 


1 •» lAtentasar «qpliMrt 


3 oo« ft« 


1 Bbk »Aw ft lifeii «9ri^ 


3 9SU ft« 


1 B»nisro «M^ 


3 «a« ft» 


1 m&i^mBaämmm 


3 OB. ft« 


* Bkk piitSiS 


4 oe« fl>« 


H INK ^i^® A^^lb «Qi^^ 


a 


1 B» ^lÜA SM«#i^^ 


X 


1 laeSeteff® 


3 


1 WamimUm 


X 


2 Ifl^ ts^ 




1 SS^obX ißemm^m 




% mtm» M^^ 




1 mmSSkmtäbim 


2 «I« ft« 


X 3» 1 4* «irai PSBA 




I ISm Safe tm%$mmmmA 


2 en« ft« 


1 BKJWi» IMU^WIMÜ iwtfto 


3 Oil« ft« 


1 B«lafc«wt«fi% 


3 OS« ft« 


1 BKll^MtMB 


4 «u ft« 


2 Bl^pna fwamtflf« 




1 Till iirtliiinMiic 




1 SheIoB««!^ 


3 «B« ft« 


1 tiwtlart« 




1 Bnailstoäte 

1 WgfWMfP 

1 BKirt» 


3 cm« ft« 


4«« ft. 


1 BBOE SMii» «18% 


3 m. f t« 


1 Bntvitani 


•3 


1 WomnU»9V^ 


2 «u ft« 


X Boi •jypar» giiinwiuitir 


2 «0« ft« 


1 Bofttnkv 


iM« ft« 


J, BflK nito «r«^ 


2 «a« ft« 


1 • • • 


4 


aoo t% &•<:• OdA» 




X 1« rwlitce« 


3 


1 «F«sfliltt«r 


1 


1 BfiK TCÜO 9qcdl|^ 


3' 


1 • • • 


1 


1 fox Mhtf 


2 


1 RoU«lm 




1 Bssi-MttUiiMr 


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2 mM& tnmiim mßh m 



a Bos y^Ub gßmtt . 

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1 Bqk a3»i&afli «MtlJ^ 3 

1 iox att«s« a 

1 aoQK aiM« »üA 9i«if a 

1 WßäU tmt ••% X Mdh 

1 Bbk toSMS II «HäRl 3 

1 7«o tote iFslsB^tar 

X BmawOl wifit« a 

X SXii9trl«a xvMsMta* 1 

X ShtodMlgrt« j 

X 

X 

X Bes iijai» »1«^ ^ma^' 1 

X B» «is« ft raiS# iQüF a 

X Box Mnä«Hi«iü @^ 1 

X Box MMiidiig tst^g® a 

X Box Cotvüa tti^SS 1 

X n«2A «^Nuv^li Si«^ 1 

X Box «in 1 

2 Ub tMt «Bit« 

X Bex iasbm, UOamtamm 9U 
X Bex wmtmn 

X • • 

3 BoaBM ffttdi» ««It UsU 
X (l^rre sMttM la a ft. »iOmv« 

X Bos>aA lHtfi6 4l9«a« . 3 <m. n. 

X Bcdio Mt cXi^MiAX) a 

X BP 8I9 ftaaPRtOP 1 

X 



511 



1 BsssL »pag«tti 2 

1 ^2t idx« 2 

1 Sax tmX»ptaam w^ßiiß 3 

I £3qp«rlM»iital IfefiVS 3 

6 Leb t««t lastr 1 Moh 

^ Tripod» 

1 Box tl^&M 1 

1 c^ti<^ davl«ii 1 



3 imm 8^) 









u 
u 

13 



17 

Id 



20 

ai 



22 

24 
25 



M IN I («LIP*) 
?Mr «iti im «m 



•wif 



«uptedBAf fir aoi 



« 



Bbb^ B0 aonbcr 



»OS 4Mat<«ini 20 units cs mm» KS^ 

1221 (ri«ldk^n)M gMT) 

aaAtfiJJW ttlRM&t S»10 ualtc stM «I 

Iteal* 

st«taA«rd t«l0plwai@ «qpliflw 
relay «eptip. Ittft «i!»igr. £11 
Sf!stlfb[i awi«l Iishm «dtli «%)«rl 
12 «Mil 9btm9» ijo^SM. 



pkod 



P^lvmt« staff asM Butae 

AppMT 1 dos. yOl. Iffi^ 

Pae.lu<r70U Grats eoat« 

Ssteltadvll SaftlMs« 

•1 sas ta 100 aao« ^bsat 

«1221« 70a3fMiald TfP« mitsk 

Aadia ar9« gaar load mpmaB» 

r% 1tM|/l579Q4 rUHA^^n» oastaf«! gs^r 

li stsp oQidaassr astwevk hl^jb aasa 

mtsr 600 ▼ 10*000 

!PMit paasl (soysrlatalAl) Aw ;6^ 

f'-'^ aqalpasat 

1 ^m OJt. lights 

la Salt^ aaits in «iMst not aU saas» 

fxptsm k apparatos posslMy partaiäii« 

to wMi suffs a sa ts af VIT 7. i« atvatoa» 

vSmm O poldsrs taksn oot) 

soar 

S ia^ mu mtsiOmg^^ («Isvaa iffiito) 
About ü 
»Olftte« gtrat ffp9 lib . 

Äboat 24 Osr&t 375 Tjp^ Eoovsgr I 

0Ma2d«Typo oentrol goar) 
5 StabiHadd p&mt aupplj oaits« 
Kttoli parti» posaiblj to «la^ (»0 
Cbassis« bsuk 

Bos priYato stuff papers vAftt«r 
goto books boloBgl!^ to Krsasr 



513 



Inventory of Documaiits Hsisoved 
From Raiitray Cars at |%ö3,ttag 

This list was taken oia 14 May, 1945* &^<3. inülmdes all documents 
removed from the following cars« lord B®lg© KKZW 10450, French 
Ho. 182142, France SICF KKnw 212157. 

K 1 List of Cables, instruments and accessory parts with re- 
ference to some of the wagons mentioned in K 2. File. 

K2 Classification and listing of specialist vehicles used 
for field testing, Notehook. 

K 5 Hotes of telephone conversations, many with firms on del- 
ivery of apparatua etc. Contains cable assembly for wa- 
gons PpI, PpII, Absch T., Panz, FR, etc» interconnection. 
Folders, loose papers. 

I 4 Reqiulsitioasj orders, deliveries. Mostly cable. Loose 



K 


9a 


K 


10 


K 


li 


K 


12 


S 


13 


K 


14 


K 


15 


K 


16 


K 


1? 


K 


18 



K 5 'lAst of addrege#8 and telephone number» of various firms, 

Fro'lsably "balöaged to crder clerk, notebook. 
K 6 liet of einiars. Notebook with loose papers in it. 
K 7 LaboMr list®, lotabook with loose papers. 
K 8 Ord®r®5 deliverie®„ ^ and memoranda relating thereto. 



K 9 List of correspondence and telsgrgms, probably belonging 

to radi« or electrical stock-k««per. Notebook . 

Saaie as E 9 on general equipment. Notebook* 

Stock-k«ep®r»8 letters and memos to suppliers. Folder, 

Isose papers« 

Notebook of travel permits, loose papers relating. 

Small file, letter registers, destruction lists, 

parta loaddng plan for wagons mentioned in K 2. 

Progress charts, order^ materials, supplies. Folder, 

loose papers« 

Shop orders and deliveries. Eiag file. 

Drawings and parts lists for Ziegelsteinsender. File. 

Production schedules, Ziagelsteinsender. File, 

Production correspondence, Ziegelet@ins@nder, File. 

Technical abstracts, Siemens-Halske Tech. Library. 

Bound book of mineographed pages« 
K 19 Correspondence and memos delating to Mot III. Contains 

©sSgissAls to Fa G^jer u. Sohn. No a«ise» of persons on 

our lists. Folder, loose papers. 
K 20 Same as K19« 
E 21 Private notebook apparently belonging to expediter b^ 

name of Lammy (?) whose signature frequently appears in 

K19 and K20* Bound notebook. 
K 22 Inventory lists 7040/ Los 2 etc« Folder loose papers. 
K 23 List of firms and addresses. Folder, loose pepe^fs. 
K 24 Lists of parts and requivements for wagons, K 2. Folder, 

loose papers* 



514 



m^ 


m^ «;«> 




f.f ^ 


Ka4 


' 


m 


t' 




foidff 


K2B 


C^A^r^r 


Kn 


LMv^^^ 


K30 


f 



*^'"S» J*öXd®rs loos© paper»» 

t; of tHl.ng.^ ' ■ 
fc-d^ücö ®j:id instruct ions roi».tiag to mw , 

^üd »^^lÄtX^r oo^-rcapondenc©. foXiSLev^ loosö pspera, 

^on,t 'to sjiu sigxiaJ-ures of couriers« Foldor* 
1 -.-^ dis®®?tftti^'ia by Wft.ltet' Söh«srid®ts^', Berlin ■ 
1*1*0»:.« .sv^or.sabul^, 19^1, Ring fil®« 

re©hni?^l foldars on ae&suring »ppftr&tusj mostly Phillip«. 
iil^>c> -jr^'^ias iQQB^ latter by Dipl, lag« Grötrup oa 
r®dia ffia-SK^u^anörts of' Interference .caused by A4». ' Folder 

153 Li^ta of 3imt@riÄl8 deliTered with Wi&reEelBg&xig wimbsrs. 

fold«r5 loos© ..'a:;®rSe 
b:34 ■ J,.iÄt-of cabl®® for Mot III. Folder, lo.ae pÄ.u©rs. 
K33 Letter register ^ small notebook« 
S3i lot® book of l^iüsier, details of' some radio e ■ulpmeat 

incl« ll@asina II« Also looa® papers» 

ilss» papsrsj bills etc, conascted with Geyer and Soa« 

Specifications ®.ad digrams of testing apparatu® for 

Bucl^oid'a &cc@l@roset0r»' , Stota Eberbach. Folder« 
ä39 Drawings for Ysntilkastea, Largo hydraulic ualv^ bos 

which might be used for static testing or ground 

control of '»A-stoff" rocket* Polder and loose ,dv/gs, 
IC40 Stock: lists for KoiBiaandopult, Stromyersorgung, etc* 

V*» 3V<3f 5/»-^c, etc« older, oos®^ , <ä.i.e s. 
K41 Lists of material for Yentilkastsa (£39) and others« 

Folder, loose .•^P'.'-. s. 

Parts and material list®, a. . drawings for c*blii3g, 

irobably A^. 'ox of loose papers. 

Circuit diagrsjoa and discription of 50 volt power 

supply« Folder. 

M^-^-t4,m ßf de^.lvsrlts -"^ machine tools to HAPil» Ham© 

on foid«r Fulil«^Mr>rf ^- Also loose sheets. 

Corr#©pOöderiOS -€*latinc to work- of Ewa29 and S®- 22^2* ■ 

Folder, loose pap®r@s . 

Poldor with packlagslips, papers and oorrespondeno® 

relating -to dispersals' and .f actorie®» Including 

Dernau/Ahr and other®« ^ folder, loos® papers. 

Diap steh 'book, letters», Bound book.. 
YAB iloteo ©Jid manuscript on stability of rocket, from 

aervo point of view» Shows tliw sketch of wiaged 

rookat launched vertically« , folder with lo©®^ papers« 
149 Eegittter of oorrespondence« Folder loose papers. 
K50 yühlendox-f notebook of truck loadiiag®» Small bound book« 
t% Organization and personnel records of EM 22^2* 

Folder, loose papers» 

Administrational papers of BW22^2» OonÄaLlnÄ records 

of dsvslopments of ntw measurement instrumexits by 

vwious i^eiabsr® of group»' This lat@r has nam© 

Bangerttr on froat. 

Wagon loadings, evaeuatioa» Folder , loose papers» 

5^5 



List of spp&ratus r«quir©dfor '^Bnuws-k« 21'% folder 
loosö i^apers« 
-'55 Delivery not^s and specif icntions for HF equipment 
if»€!iud©ing "HoniSÄf**, "Ortl®r'% «ad "J-^isrÄt?©"» 
Fold^ft loose pÄpors) 
■3^ itotebook» oont&ialrig ro-ugh not©© of B«agört«r« Mention« 

A4, aiatorlaed troops > Irof • BucblioldB eto« 
57 Outlia« of aaööuating proeodure« £bw. B@ot»«l k«y» 
^ali bound publloatlon« 
r:>SA LisW and dranlag« of tehx^acht EF labl©»» Sairtlop«« 
K58B Saffi#. 
59 -'^-v^ ti&astoraer lis^s« Fold® • 

SO Tachüical not«book (rotigh) by Frledl* M«nttons M5, P8| 

61 Iiistruotloa book foi? raoic truok tnat&liatlon Including 

d«aiia®t®r8 7 se« iapuX»« ©qulpsient» ,the p^irpose of 

traicli is unknown« Titl© is "Boddnstatlon« Potsdam-» 



Xilsc of about ona hundred oontracts for raw aatorials 
and pa7t@9 lilTlns the name and address of tha oontrsotor« 

3om@ relating correspondence« Connected witb KTa Prüf 10. 
Folder loose papers« 

Order ob. Firma LßW for rtlays and tel. eciöipaent and 
related papers* 

Lisfcs 'of buildings^ 4r?^Mlags of test apparatus for cable» 
InTentori^s» and In purticular a drawing of the overall 
pl&n for "Liegende u« stslieade Prüfung" of rocket siallar 
to Ä4e dated lü,«7*^» folder loose papers» 
Wa^a loadings and inventories relating to dispersals 
352 was apparantXy at Hepperain in Setp« 44» Snvelope 



'67 Folder of Dipl lag* WaekernüLgel with letters, arid lists 

of labori.tGr-j equipment» 
i68 Order book and InvoiceB* Bound book with loose papers» 
".69 Stoak list® end related p^p@rs, iiW22. Folder loose papers. 
/:70 published list of Yaouiim tubes and sockets wlith ratings» 

envelope» 
£71 Folder of quotations ^n& bills« Soma personal stuff» 

?older loose pai.ers» 

Order forms for trisnsformers» Folder* 

Organiaatlon of Er« Folder» (Sxtremelis valuable) 
74 Lists ©f eauipment a.nd related papers» Includes 

drawinge of PrOfgtrÄt für LOW ' ichtleiter» Folder 

loose papers. 

Prawings of Eeldeprüf gerät I and other pape s relating 
to priority of supply of test equipment» Folder loose 
lapers« 

Dsslgn details of Siemens polariyed relay. Folder 
with Fri^del's name» Loose papers» 
IC77 frassformer ctesignand test ftata» Folder, loos's papers. 
&iore transfo^-mer design data» Folder looi'e i-apers. 
DlagrasB and description of 7000 cüs tuning fork 
Stande d frequency generator» Folder, loose notes» 

516 



ri 



mo Tr^Ase on theory of b:.:;o,»4 band amplifiers* Ho mm© 

or dÄt@» Dous-d voluij.6 oX 97 p&.f^es* 
Kol Di^/ioui'-' Arbeit ILsiuiS ...üox'i^-..i:i5Ärj,jJiö GcUi',„Äi-^on,iide ''atioas 

for the g^ine ^tian of hi.v;h-> vol tage DC. Bound voluaie 

#5 pages* 

K82 ^leffisatary di*gx®m f or FR^-Bä tt cot*!!, -^x^Dea-^-s to ba 
complete diÄsr&Ä of gt-ound e^iuipiBünt for ..-A firinf^; 
and testine, in toider« 

Th© foliowiiag list waa taik@n on 13 May^ 19^5 1 m^ tnoludes 
six docuiaeata removed from the followim^ oarsi; F S It^i« 
11010731» üpp«ln 5^59 örs. 

S 1 Orgaai«Ätioxi«il matarlÄl Incl« org ch* t for :i?#22 

with n«m@@« Paper bound rlag folder, loose papers* 
B 2 AüQ&mktu and Koto® relatliag to adMBiatratloj^ of Jif. 

Foldejp« loos a ps|>'$rs« 
3 3 Hula« for eonduct of Corraapoadeao© dated 31 •? »1944. 

foldsi?» 
S 4 OoB5>lQte orgaaifratl©© of EW «us of 1»8»194«^. Poldar 

looso ps^srfl« 
S 5 Idat of fir»® »upplying PeanoBmado Ost, Folder looses 

papdrs • 
3 6 KetQa on ptirehftse of app aratiia and materials. Fold or 

looa® papsra« 
S 7 Story of ä4 davelopiBQßt in monthly reports and general 

xiotas* foMar loos a papers« 
S 8 Hota» of Ealsuth I^aff . Card indox of ^.itaratixre he 

W» ift1r«pa«taä in. änvalope with foldar ®ad cards ia- 

aid®« 
S 9 5^^lo riöta1»o<^8 referring to ä4» ä^^ and -rarious alectrical 

8i3b u&ita» In envelope, 
SIO MathaAatlcal Analyala of Hange Control« By Striding* 

Tlkil»ouiid aaiBOi ATOhlv 87/166 g Kd®s. 
SIX itaidanental ciirv®» and data for. Kajag«» Control studies« 

Also two bopiaa of story of evMCuation of Baraatadt« 

Foldar loose psspara« 

512 . Schwidatalcy's privatonote book« 19M, Small Mack 

.book « 

513 Instruetioa® ©to« for diapers al of -»232 to Oberkam« 
ftmgon* Folder« 

514 Hot®«, probably of SchwldatiOcy on administration 
of 2232, Fcidjr. 

B13 Hotoa, probably of Schwltotaky on adoinis trat ion of 
2232» Fold^^rg loose papers» 

516 Xdsta of Xsar öarit® raclovad and disp itched« Alao 
some gaii-:fral dispatch not a». ^M 2232, Fold -t« 

517 l&iso« Xsohaioal papora relating to I, Iniis» ;md Isar 

g«»Ät®, Loos© paper® tiad la a bundle, (Wsr^ found 
»eattoarad about iii eai*a aM box®«#) 



S17 



%XÖ 



Par^ers r^-lating to Mss^opf#r\if gerät, Isar and Iiingeräte. 

asd aassina 11» Mixed CQ^r^Am^mdmCQ . foüdar, -locSQ 

papers« 
d9 H'Gcords of telaplicno ■:^^^vyr%r^.'^tton3 betw^san StuMinger 

and various 'finus rägara.,^i^5| X»-G®räta. Folder« ' 
^0 Drasrings aod ,3pöcif icatioös fox* BMia, Stotss, ^erbach, 

i older, loosj pspar. 

i'apers relating to d st ails of expediting and tasting of 

If Isar» and Inn Garata. Kot of tochalcal intorost» 

(Found loose« i^t in invalopo) 

Gcsitonts of boxes mark id for JW 3232. Filo. 
%2l L0tt^2?s (outgoing) ralating to Isar and Ian Garato 

up to 15«2*45. Polder. 
^4 "Bsneing ©rrors wMch would havj occurröd to date in 

firing trials usisg Talocity cut-off with suad without 

tim- correction. 27a2*43 b^ Scbwidatsky» unbound 

paper of 4-? pagesg ArcMv Mx^ X-19/4 gfe, • 
^25 Bsse2»iptioa of '30 cpg Ä^espesacy geaerator oontrolled 

Ijy pocket wateh essigpemesst and .pSotecoIl, Developed 

fej Prof, :fesel?te3lv4® FoXdarg loos^ 'p^e^i, 
J26 Set-as CS 'T'imSj^; sisltchg Schal tiihr II and 5C>«oy©l® 

generator« Foiday^: looa^ papers« 
.S7 Scl2W®detÄ.j*s file ob SM« Correspond >.'nc@ with Stotz 

®te« .Foldar^ loose papers* 

Reports .0® various range coatrol device» i Isar, Xnni 

^e^imtegr* asd thrust ragulating^ davlooa. dated 

15*2*45. 
jg29 ?#rj c©2^1et8 calculation end plotting of v^locitiea 

fieeelerations otc« durißg tha BrözmaohluÄ period. Also 

oth.r tra^jsctor^^' data» Papers by, Btouding and iitrobol. 

Folder* 

530 Fotsbook, aaich of it in shorthand j poasibly belonging 
to Horn. Some Iöos-j |;ap^rs» 

531 Kotsbook, aiostly shorthand i referencas to, Homaaf I 
snd II, 

JI32 Diary slthjr of Schwidstzky or Stuhlingar, röforin^' to 

ov.'ry aspect of work carriod out on BMK« Corroapond »nco 

with Prof, aenir. Prof. Buchhold * Stota .:^börbach, ate. 
'^33 B^K» Adjustaant of ffloasuring haaa and ^onnoctlona 

to circuit. Instructions \p Stots jiborbaeh. Kotes 

on Isar. 
S34 Dotailjs of t'33ting Bnd calibration djvicaa for 

B-:K. 
K33 Collection of Hiports on mö<3tine,a regarding Isar. 

Pr* 3tuhling>r*a. Folder loose papers. 
S 3^6 Specifications of Stabipla and Inp. attihllnsar 

15.2^45. Foldir. 
S'^7 Drawing:^ 'Jßd t.n^t sli5.^ts for BMK. Folder ^> 
B 'jfB 1'ra.j^ctor^ c ilculations snd plotting of toat shota 

V4 to V40 18^9.45 (ä4 rock it) 
JI39 i'.riport by StiihUiigor ob ßucliJiold Innanachaltgorät. 

vcrk dono at yarjsasitadt. Ifoldor, Ioosj pc^xära and dwga. 



518 









full d4.i?s.riptiTö ropos-t t^y pi?of^ Wapi^^r« 'folc^'^-r« 
Klr€Mst#ii3,^i .foldar ©a r«ig:-i BTTorn and tla^ast control« 



SM f#e1mieii @pe© if legations for alaotrical «ppaxatts®* 



S47 Hotebook of sketches and i^u^h notes , aiostlj la short« 



Kotes ön Isaar sasä masskop^rOf gerät <, Foldar» 
S4f K0t3s 931 I^Te^tigatioBS of Is» and MBSskopf ace assort®® .» 
'^'"^ K®port by Stots Sberbash dat@d 27,12,44^ on circuit« of 

KO.» Buboimd paport«» 

G^eral notas hj SttsbliÄgep, r«^ge control and ä.'^lcm« 

fil# dat©d 5.5A3* 

Betes oa BMS:, Folder« 
SSf GeiQ'jral sota® eonferoneaa ate, on laar, and Ism* 

Sti3MiBg®r, 15»2,45« 
S 5* SangQ control« Roports on various metiioda and dwice». 

Fold®? with looa© pap3r8» ~ 

S55 Specifications and notea on I^er Hatasteil, FolAei^^ lofetS^^ 
S% Calibration of IG2 and ietatoil detail». Folder^, loose 

p&pera» 
S57 ßataila of Masateil (for I-g^'-'it) iaad-5 by LoreaaH, Foldar 

looa J pap era« 
B3B Detail raport on Innenschaltg-^rät, with phctograpaic 

illuatrationa« Suall p3i%iiaat« 



Cf^ ÄOTe. list of tivCtim^Ät:r i^..^Si ^«rry "S" tmabars wer 9 

in a>b3Pok3n cardbDisrd boic^ or ioosa in ths esrs) 



519 



'Hl® 1« Spjclfie&tl«)Bs (B^uteohd Iloarai«ii) 

2 Mtt® 

3 Dltt0 

# Bitt® 

5 Bitt« 

§ Bltt0 

f Bitte 

Bitt# 



Is^igSi &dt#boolst&l]ii@at diitlx«9l7 lU«gil>X« 



F#@t be^ f€^ m $115 



Ateinisti^tiT« w^ btaäiai^ I«tt«»B.** 



Atoiiiistrati^^^aiia dIaelpliRasy ©ifmd«»». 

»one p->i«eiial data» 

@f eulii^«»^ p^«i*s few ^gesk^x^ mt Bff KäirXfiha@#a« 



la^0|rat«9Rr iJuitruaMiita» 
@l«iixie«X data. 

5 lüstim^tiQSäa fw^ mm @f IddHI«X'fi%« 

6 > OseiII^psmi0 ^@Xatlsig t« flxl&g tri«!«. 
? P«i^ ii«t of th® g»@^tl« 

i fi^X#s ®f figur®®« 
9 Oiä«@iiit dimgr^rati for Xdisb»Cf«rit • 
10 Biff 9r«mti®I pf'JSSBj?« gmig® toT t«X«m9tflriast 
trasisf 07m#r data* 

"12 B#s4ggi of i^ t2*^iiifo^aas^ 

13 B^tlaa-ot £iodlfio«tl0iss t® R«X S9jid t009« 

M Heü^Hcs cm tha raj2g« tabXi»a f or tbi» i^f Q«^t« 

:^^0ts of various &lt0rati<aifl ^9^ th« rm^^ of tbe A-4« 
If Bosoriptiosi of th« BuoiiboXd £jit«gx«tisis «dooXi^Mwat«»» 



520 



file S 16 Photostat copy of articl© in '"Physikclische 

2eitschriit** for Fob. 15th 19^3. on a high reais lance 
bolometer« 
1? Papers on the "Sratling-Gerät" ^aerial (PuGe 25 A). 

18 Papers rel Siting to ;! metrical ruddar inotor. (driv©)« 

19 Wiring schodul :j amd tost data of I-G^ratt inventory 
of electical instruments on ch-'-rge to Ing. Horn. 

20 Boscription of cathod© ray oacillograph« 

21 Information on iron corad filter coils. 

22 Br awing office numb or bookrf» 

23 Ditto. 

24 List of secret latter®. 

2$ Top secrot report on errors in ran^^e wi.th the 

Buchhold accoierometer. 2. Jrrors in range with 
siBspl : integration« 
2# Circuit diagrams of apptxattis carried on the rockst« 
i27 Results of 14 firings of Ä-4 to test acc^lerometars 
under op ^rational conditions. 

28 Fila of dsStruction certificates. 

29 Odd workshc^ sketches« 

50 List of nu»;ib©rs9 possibly drg» nos« 

31 Test schedule for* unidentified apparatus. 

32 I>rg8« nd circuit diagreffis for various acceleroiaotors« 

33 List of SGcr.t &. top secret doos« Grp. Ill üinutas 

of minting to discuss specification of Iller-Gerät III« 
Note ofi suppression of Verdoppler before start of 
rocket. Report of type ap roved tasts at Pe meumend© 
of 24 production models of iller-Gerät« Corrispond^^nc« 
betwjen ?.e measuonde and Soiss-IkOB about Illcjr-Seräte. 
Minutos of Eiieting -.n testing of I«üeräte. 
paper on vibration measurement in Gerat oraum of A-4« 
(Signed b^r Kirschstein Horn and AIITI Other. 

34 File of firine: trial r3ports (9 & 10 1944.). 

35 Circuit diccrams I~Gerät, Tost and o,- -rating 
instr-uctions for I-Gerät. 

36 Coll.icted drgs for I-Gex»ät« 

37 MS draft report on thrust regulation« 

38 A'vG frcBQiiency neters desdriptito & instructions. 

39 öbscl tc circ^ait diagram«« 

40 Photostat cf p ,; '3? on a lüagnotic amplifier by BucSshold« 
Ot'^er tectmical papers. 

Sevent ?en oscillograph records of prograsjaae timing in ii«-4# 

41 Miscellanoous technical papers, including; some 
circuit diagrams rolating to I-G^Mt, 

42 lest data for I-Geräte, 

43 Sjcret and top s :cret circulars« 

44 'iop s crot papers on 1. Prisont condition of radio 
contrvdled '^Brennschluss** 2» Cours-i correction by 
tima corr^ctioa on the '^r ^nnschluss" avr.aratus» 

45 Papers on rudder shaft design* 

45 Drawings of wind tunnel 'laod sis 
CHlSSf MABfC-",]) "0" GO.NPAIKS fliikmUL PAP 'm OKI J ■ 

CimST SIAHK.D '^i5'' GOmAim OBSO.i-::- T Ciü^ICAL 1.1) 

ABMIIISTB,A2!I?S FAPi^mi 



ünast iiarkwHl -'S" coiitaias a liteerf of toclmical publications 
and books o£ lut3 dato, h;vtying coiiaiidorabl-^ technical interest • 



'JocuM8Bts cataloged and invastigated by the following« 



F/iit. Stokes 

J/Lt, iCennay 
Br. R. Vv, PortQr 

Dr« <k)ljji 



522 



imi^ te Äffi ftoiit« steftags ®f r&ewm "äU»® |tli« 3*®«ult ©f izjänstriftl %wrgß% ■boaöl%ii} 

stoppe« Wmmw ijgüirMml labep&tori^n ■mr® «i%@om^Ag9d to eoisti!»» d«v'elc»piiwfit 
work 8<^ lj9i^ @6 primt@ ®^^ ®f %x&!tm wa?« aTftilalsa««. 

$^d#^&lj l«d t9 tlia ats^^^idi^ @ir all »flak ?ook«t prelaota. Of t^ eaa^ eoiiti?c>IlcAI 
^!iis@il# p?o|Mt®' &sti^f<i Ib.®. rtsaarah etattts only tiro wtra bidi^ sarlctaslj QQmiA.^:.^ 
fm poasibl» tas«« V^i^$ w®y« ^a® »-i Ca»344)f aad tha' Soliiaatt«rl4ag (i«»!!?)« 
Bcswev«?» aifflM fMNMBPSli «ea^s «aü eo^tlmad oa raaalsdisg projaats, th« iitf<»nsati$m 

«Tailabl« at p8Nie«3it @©®8®^iiiii^ suoh pxisjaot« is Äiscli:d©d in tihi« r»port« 

Xt is t@ ^ mtad that «ith tiie sola «ssiaptioii ef f%^ all of th» Qapaaa sP^iäad 

misslLsffl u^ÜisoA t^eoicat isfiir» in on» form ©r aastfeasr» 

:^M® rüpöpt-wlll b® di^^ä«ä iat© -thw« saetioiisi 

Z« ^1« «rialr XQ^afl »« 4« 4« slssila launohad ff^a tha groiuaii« 

He Tha Air to iUbr «Uislla« 

EU« loml»s aq^db^asit aM foeaa« 

.„„ igß^vasä lanss^esd eont^©llad slssilaa eras 

WassarfaH, Hhainto^t^ 1^ Ihaiatoöhtar, Emimift Seteattarlls^ (8-117). F£25 

(li^erlilia), Fi^« 

1« Quotixts ^« <^@^^^11S 



523 



m4ßk Commiaä of Va» Inf ^saff«, Ghi»f öf tli@ m©lmic&l Air AirsKaant Orottp 
f^p 44 d«v»lo^3d&t of sdx eroBauuat» 

FUS-.^V^ 4». 140 Ho 194/45 Seor@t 

Bia^a^r of ta^^ 

icSfi^^ Coatgc^ CoatTQl 
S«isBatt«rliqg 

(«) apcjoct»d tfOBgrcuod 59 2(1) ^ 57(31) 

(b) LBuaolMd firo« alraraft 21 « 1(1) 20(6) 

SsmiaM 24 24(15> 

Bh»latCK!iit«r 88 42(16) 21(8) 25(5) 

«Bd. 3 TR 

iMMTfaU 28 1(0) - 27(10) 

«(»iit^^ f fldUUd« 

By ««d«r 

!m4aSX<iTZ0£ 

«W4SS25BFaIi.e 

Sp«eä Raises Bupdrsoii^ 

C«vdU|Md t^ s £l«^rcn»Gbaiiisoii» Wsrk« 

0la»Mii(iBef JL^Mgtls 7$| «B* Span 251 «b« Diaast«r 88 ea« 

»•l#«i %>1gr 1331)1«« FuAl 360 kg» UqaM O2 1500 ]^, 

Oomps^sa^A uSr 65 kg* Ssqplosiv«« 305 kg« Leunohls^ 3540 1^« 

4t target 1615 leg« 

total &qmls«9 360,000 kg. sao, 
EtarÜiig foroai 8000 kg« 
SpMd at targatfl 4-5 caeosOs« 
XataUaganaas 3)tf^ra^>rad hoal^f « 

SboIobobmi 2 - 

for OC/Ohi«f 701/44 « S5A As. 101a ^ 191/45 Secret 

D^waihdpmnt «tatas «f iMsarfalls 

(a) ftotas 

T««tt9*-flTa tafft ttodala vara flrad of iliieh tvantg^fMr «ara with raaota aontral 
i» tallad« Vropaltion gear diffiatdtlaa ansmmtarad at first bava new baaa 
aliaiaatad« 

(b) Qsm&nH davalopaant atatuat 

Slf and lax^ f»a dlffleultlaa axiat aa to tha fuaolaga. Thara are two aoatrola 
(aarto), oa» hydraulie and tba «thar alactrio^ io tha daralopaant ataga« Naithar 
iflPtatigatieB haa aa yat \t—n ooneludad. fb» problaa of pro tao ting tha f ual 
taaka agalnat oonroaioo aa» ha ragardad aa aeivad« Addltiood taata In thla 
fiald ar€ a till bail« aoBduotad« 



524 



Op®rsiti.i^ %N»®d.j Abo^'B and bulow aoid..«» 

I>®nr»l©p«d by i 

äp&n 275 em« 



SacöRa »tag» .650 k^ 
Stoln 4r«t 22Q kg« (powder) 
feiaoaiiTOfl 150 - 100 kg 
J4^ta!«shing w®ight 1750 kg 
B^ht at terget 750 kg 
I^unsMog i-s^iiX««! 80000 kg» s«o« 
Laxiaehiiig attitid«» A^le 
knyaehiag thrust* 65000 kg 
Telocity «t ®i»cl of bur»i!igs 1300 km/hae^ 
¥®lo<slty at T®rg«ti 1080 ks/hr« 
S®3©iii3«»t«g« roökat« oa» dry powdsr 
Soooad"*» ':«f<i impitlssttf 4.0^000 kg «•<»• 
äeooii^>»9tage bumlsg' tie»« 0,6 »«o» 
S«co!id-8tag® thrust g 650(X) kg, 
Maines tag« bicreli:)^ tl&ws 10 seo« 
IJat«ll«goco®f ReiBDt« radi® ooatrol 

%boiatooht«r 3" 

Sp®ad lUu^ei Abov» and balow sonle» 

Develep«d %t Rh»i2ffi8tal»Bor0lg« 

DlBMfisioziBs Length 500 «mo 

fcpaxi 313 OS« 
DjiJ^mat«»-»» 53 #6 cat 
EJEpty " i5 kg,' 
^tartiqg »tag« 44>0 kg 
Mala stag« i\i«l 38 kg 
Main stag« sti O2 336 kg 
MiM stage aiy 18 kg 
IxploaiT®» 160 kg 
At lÄUSioMag 1570 kf 
At taiget 685 kg 



LauncMjqg attltud«« ai^« 

Total laurj«sM.Bg iinpidaes 105000 kg« &mm 

Laifflohiag thrusts ^700 kg 

V®lo«ity at and of basmingj 4IO M^sai. 

Valoclfcör at tapgat« 400 to 200 l^/i«Mi« 

Asaisi, rookatsi two day pwisdar rocketa« 

Assist rcKxkat irspulaai 25000 kg« »ac» 

assist, rockat burnisag tisiat oas aacioM« 

Mala jetai Liqtiid yookats, prasaura feed, 

ImpiilÄäai 80000 kg» aao« 

iiurnl.ng timt 45 söcoöds« 

TlMgaÄtt 17O0^i30Q kg, 

Intall^ganca« Üssmot« raclio control« 



525 






(a) T«8t«8 
Of tlM first dm^lßpaent aod«! Rl» SS wm^ firod odT «hieh 22 b«fi x>«&otc 

oo!i1s<^« lüoßm thM« fiQir f lU^« Of th» saooai nod«! (^» s«v«ral v@t>« lat]aä)4& 
9c^ with poKOor, sand «ith liqiil!! as th« aala povcp« RM»t« oostrel wa0 m% m^ 

(b) OsBsrai d«v«lfl|aKmt etctsast 

Ths eoatrei im^ä in tha app«r«tets Rheiatoeht^r bi^ prov«n Mtisfaotoxr« ^t« 
contawl ui&ml ^eamtiirmtUm (rMolTii^ of tb« eoatrol •iffaal» into <KMp4»tt&ta 
correepoadiiig te th« i»t«ataiiMiis roll position) hsM aUo i«09riew! 
v^stififAct^iXj» FtaBdasental difficrulti^e of rtaoto oo!sf^«>el thotild b» %» 
ic£ig;dr «E»a^mt«rod* 

Ihe starUog drii^ and tho aaist drlv« of apparatos ^3" «ill hacn to bo 
'mmU^ßU^ mm» mbaml«® tr^ fi»s#l«^ and tl&o oontvol iriiioh liad boon 
ta^-Uid. in tSm %1^ appas%t^ Im'^ . bo«^ ineorparatod. fireductieB aehednlo 



4 



%@ad rastgog Siib&oiiio 

äpm 4^ OB 

Diaaistsr 90 lEs« 

isolBt taSeo «ST 32D %, 
Bain r^okot faal 109 ii* 
üs;^on 455 li^» 
Ür prosinir« tmtofir 3f 
Ix^XosiToa 300 %• 
Laimaliing «oifiht 1600 1^« 
loiC^ ftt ttt^ot 690 Isg« 
LaiuMhing attitoSo« aagl« 
l^uaeMag iMpsl8m$ 124000 kg^ aoo« 
I^!i?ioiiix9 tloraott 6000 kg« 
V^loelty at and of borniaist 270 Vaoo» 
Yelooit^r at tflOfgats 2^ l|/ eoo 
Assist tak« «Cft ftoor dry^ povdar -reoleota 
uaiat inpolAOf 24000 kf* aoo« 
A'^slift btamiag ti«ot 6 aoo« 
kasiiMt tbruett 4000 1^« 
' 'i«in povart LiecoiA rookot>"pigBp food« 
ISain ponair inpiil«»« 99000 k(« «oe« 
l^in Toaor bomlQg tinet 62 aoooada 
liiftU) powar thrusti 1000 to 2000 kg, 
In'«2iaK«n»f mt dooidad« 



Sasloaur« U) 

For Oia/Chl«f TIA/ll « 15 As. lOU Ko JÜ94A5 SmtH« 

ÜtvvlbopiBent dtatu« appftrattiB ^»^ in, 

(a) Tadtai 

T*r»nty^thr«a tMt nod«ls w«r# flr«d ali without rmaoU eoatrol, a«d «1th m 
«usULliary driviiig g»ap (aft8lst«d t«k»-^jff imitat« 

(b) 0«nml datnalei^Mnt atatu»i 

For appiPOitus ^^^eaiaa" tvo piropiilfiioa units ara In a stag« of dsvwlopsteat; os« 
propulsion TJBlt id-th pp«s«urs fss<ä (Vri:)^ on» wlUi pus?) feed, (nraa »alter, 
JfarlOlasa), Th» WK pffOfHilslois «nit (Vierjahreaplan Inethrut Pur Kraftfafersiei;««) 
is «xmpUß^ alnor chaBg««, the saao as the one which is used id-th the 
Rheiatcchter 3». Flight teste with both propii2*ioB imlts still raaaisi to b@ 
dene, The eontrel of the apparatus is &till in a reiy haaj et&ge of dewlop'tent© 
Pirodugtion »chsdijle has sot je% been plaiJ}«id« 

»»scHMSTfSFium" a»n7 

%>e7a ting speed t belov soaic, 
Derelaped hart Halskal FlagTsus Verka 
Maeneionii Leqgth 429 oi« 
apiA 200 OB« 
SittMtar 35 <»• 
lalgMt l^^tgr 250 !«• 

ÄsaiiBt take off 1^0 k«, 
Mai» ptmmt ^fml 13 kg« 

lauadbtis^ wai^t 430 kf « 
lauaoliiagt angle* 

Lauadiii^ ispulaet S6000 kg» sec« 
Launehing thruati 3400 kg« 
Talooitj at ead ef borvii^t 240 ^^sae« 
Yaleel^ at tBrg9ts 240 ^/see« 
Aasiat taka-«Dift t tm (by pfmAmr roekata« 
Aaaiat lapolAat 13600 1^« seo« 
Assist throatt 3490 kg« 
Assist bomlng tlms 4 saooadUi« 
Sain powert Idquid roeket with prasstra faadU 
Sfala Impulse 12500 kg* see« 
Main ^mstt 3^ to 60 kg« 
lain buraiag tiMi 57 saoDsda« 
XBtallegeaoai Kadio rsBot a eontrol« 



527 



For OKViailef IIR/aa • S$/b Ab lOA So. 19^45 Star«!, 

iiaBy test »odeia war« f irad, of ifelöh 20 w«r« 'iy,'»inht^ fron alrör^ft. Of 47 aadilB 

fir«d ftroa th« grcmisd with rwaot© oontrol, 20 war» satdLsfaetcvv, whil« on« 

part cf aaoiliay failed ia Z* -»nd-ala, 

(b) Pr»ciucUoii Eohedttlai 

Start ©f production is pl&mi«d fgr Marcb 1945. »t awi larg«, produoUoa of tlM 

fuaalag« «aa go ahaad, although tfcor« stm »till wiÄl<*tiinnol axsi dov«lo|»»iit 

tast in pao^^ross. Ae to the propulsion gear, th«r© are still ooiwidoratlo 

difficultio« aacaasitattqg ferther t^sts» Das to insuffioi#at p?aT^-tiw o« 

tho part of tho flra Bffi a dsl^qr of throe aoaths la ths ps-odnsUot sohSdul« 

is uasToidablo« Control no loi^sr prs*«ont« basio diffieultiss» Csrtaia 

quMUoas rofardii« tho gsatarator ars bslx« solvrnd. Tssts «1th ^tarlMS Uamf^m 

Mstttm hsYa startad. Rsstdts can not 70t bs Jvdgsd« 



528 



sicnoif n 

The air-to-i&ir oon trolled id»sll*a «r«< 
Hü 117-H 

rx 

Be 117-H iß eaiB® EB Hs 117 cxcwpt •qulppod for alporaft laußobli^. (This 
ioforaation is T»t reliable) • 

HS 298 (S-.?9f ) 

Oi^erating sp^edi Sub-so nie. 
Developed byi HcBschel Flug»«u^ tiierke A« (»• 
Dli«nsiünst Laingth 25A»5 ca« 
Spaa 124.7 oiu 
Diaatates' 25 cm, 
WeifMi LawM^dJBs 120 kf. 

Explosive 43 kg* 

Aseist unit 33 Kg, 
Spe^ä (t»orlyo!itel) t 240 B^sec« 
KaxiiBim ras»^«} 3«5 ka, 
IKJiiinm rango 0*6 ka« 
2«illi^ (ftbev« l«iiiioh)t 1«3 kB« 
liain rocket! dry powder. 
Thrust (lai3Böh)i 350 kg« 
Thrust (afger 0.6 seconds)! 175 ]i|(a 
Thrust («fttr 0*6 xooalx seco]y!s)t SO kg« 
Thrust duration 31 aeconas« 
Fuse proadnlty 

XateHegea^f R^ote radio control« 
Ees tKo ehaiuiels, single jet eagiae« 

COSrSRSSQi; RKPCF.T m, 6 Bcrlla 19« 1« 45 S«ar«t 

Apparatus S»298 - Susmary 

T3m fira«8 iQ7e^tigaticn of the iLSt fnsal^M 298 Iferlc X «as i&t«rrtq>ted beeaw« 
auaerous ohanglr^- (lis turbances in the funoUoa of tha eo^poaant parts leaS to 
^r«37 unsatisfaotory results» and bcoaaso bd bo» iaforaatioa oo«U bo 03q»eetod 
regarding jfur^her aaß develrpaent and imrostigatloa of Mark HI 

la on^cr to la^ the foujkJation for the imrostigatloa aadi to ^thw gonsral 
oi{>erlenoe In lauacliing teetr of tho ISao^. ZI sorioSf tho ED 1 Karlshagoa Immi 

ladepwidently begun flight and launchinc tests« 

The izrestigatlosi of the BC II fusplagef have not yet boon started boeaaso 
dellTtry dlffiouities (of fusolageos) aeoessitatod a delay of approsd^atoly six 
«Mko« As a oooBoquoncOy the total iarestigatioa is sabjoot to aa oqaaXly 
longtlQr aelsy« 

Za staBBarisi]^ the sitostioB it oaa bo said that as to dovolofaoat and test ao 
Bsw poiats of rUm and no progress have rosultod siaeo tho fitth oonferoaoo« 



529 



X-4 Ö-ÄU 

Laogth» 190 «n# 

Spam #8 oiB« 

LsoBAfaing w#lghtt 70 )tg« 

W«ight «t 9nd o£ hüTtxLogt 60 kg» 

lp««ct at 6500 meters) 250 &l/a*e» 

Bornlag tiB»f 30 saeond«, 

CrucUorm la .a>rdigitat®d r,l<l-^¥iug ay«a»tH.aal rooScet with a apoil» oont*«l 

OB th« tail« 

lateHl^enot? Mx* oontrd or acoruatie homing« 

C{M«vi.fO hrpim m, 6 Börlin 19,1»45 8«er«t. 

Apparat\3S S»34A Suiofiöry (X • 4.) 

Durtilg the Um -sines tha last oonf»r«ne« th« «pparatu» d»5U stood on tho 
Uis^eohhold of a cimnf^e^'OTer flron os^ecrlMtBt«! proäuotlMl t« pxvdttotlon« 
Mfflouitioa, to m «upoetod In this OAttor» «iQ>oeloll7 a« to th» perepaLüoa unit 
and tha oottt«LX)Jl v»iro coll, «er& ozwläerablo ead in oonjunvtiea «itii xattswn^blM 
woathor oonlitions <l«Xayod ths IsTootlgatloa« 



Tho first projt^ütüo« with stAMlisod (lagootaUlisiort) «quipaoBt 
prosdUiBg p^iiitef hemm^r, «& rogsrds ooatrfll tlior« «r« «till diffiflolti«« to b« 
«olTod* For tim 'purpose of lixresitlgatioa of ««rodiMuido« of oontrol «ad 
propolsioB itMlt 'imimxiff satd for th« piarpo«« of ooaoldoriai it «a «a «pp«r«t«« 
po88i?ay tJi» be tuiod,, th« viii'« oont^z«! aothod «ill (d««pit« «a itBfavor«%la ataal 
tak« br th^ a, d« i.) b« rjrthor ooaaidaaM« 

Tb« ooopcHTfttlun botw««is tlm dovslopeMBt Xlfm^ th« Idl. KurlJh«c«B th« •oi«vtifi« 
iaotitttt«« and alli<s<i finis ««« a«do diffioult •xp«oi«llj teoawso of titi« ^^«tii« 
of th« flrn F>*t}^3takl in Vm wost waä hoocoa«^ •« a ooinaquasM, oooaaaioatioa 
asi traaaport /a^Uitias «are bed, Thts« diff ioultl«« «oold Imy hmn ooaaidsarati« 
l«8««a«d «£d dervtilopatat visrlc would hav« ^«OB «ipoditad had th« dirootorato 
of »ohratahi A« G. oo«7«d ti3« ora«r iaaaod 11»I2»^4 ^ tho AnoMat Staff to 
shift tb« loo&tloB of tho Wiarks V aa§ of th« fin 



530 



m^iQM in . . 

Masli d«Tftl«^pa^t *Ä&rk f«& iu process la GftSMajay ooajArsdug »:?l©l»ueh Gwöt«» 
m' larg9% musing «qtiipa«Bt» Tli«r« is m 09iM9m& «t pemmt thftt «j^ «K»K>lat9 









lii£hiH«d Hostile 
SAdio Amu 



Dr, Hföcht Cat ESäI) 

sue 

Dr« Kutscher 

ksac 
Am 

Dr* Qrtls:jb«r 

Dsp. Alfni«! Kk^Im 

&aiQhspo«t 

I«lts 



n 1400 

MlMittt®oht«r 






türi'or epMd 16 cgrolos« 
Bm«0i laOO to 1900 wt«r« 






rstdsr a»Drdtor®dj rsdlo eontroll«d n'-oject» v«re iind«r csonslderatloa 6M «all 
as opticÄl2;r Rxmitorftd schoa»®«» So far «e c«ti ba det^nnltsed «t pi'»s«nt ten» of 
ii5®»@ seb^ise had r«aöb»a th* flight t««t st»g«. A xol*funk«a laboratory 
(kl*U«iiburg«<li®l9«i}rode, Dr, Ii<iixk> BttssBa») «ras äois% r«Be«rdi on b«aeoxi tTftMait|He« 
aicr»-waT« ©ootsp©! liidc» sad dir«ötloml b«aoüa r*<jeivers. «ork wa» In e urtJüitll» 
«t«g« mod tht wsv®»l«T^th« uBdar oonsldoratioa at thia laboratory *«•• gT©at«r 
th&Q 2D rtg» 

Hueh 9ff0rt baä b@4»ii ®xp«sd«d in GanMiy oa th® Gl«v«lopm«nt of acoufitlo proxiaity 
M»«», (^® 0isoh f^i»# iaas boen «oriMd out by th« Roaentbal-^IaolaUriA ft,iBb,tf, 
locates a% S«lby B«itt« B«tr#uth« ¥hlB partletslar fuse op«r&i^d cn an eeho* 
souBdiDg prlasislSf axiä ooa ainad aaoustlo aad elect rooio filters for tbo pvatpmrn 
of rsBoviiig iadMir«d «ozdo diatvrb«sie«e« Ihm rang^ is between 20 and 100 Mtani 
aad ba» b®es -varifliia ^ drtyppla^ boaibi »quipped *dth such fuses. Xhi» testing 
was p«rfor®ed at K^ehllB. üb rrldeiM» of any^ largo production of thea« foaes 

FrosiBitgr fti84i^ 

fijmi H909Btt)Bl^Iau>late3f«a G« » b« H« Selb, (Gau Bayreuth) , Fosiol nunbtnr 13a» 
Sectios d«T^«r«ant aad Re««ar<^» eoi^peteat authority. Or, ilei^ler, t«l. Salb 
6<Ut ?^ A-06 a^ t4ilegr^ addr«S8» Roaenthaliaola Selb* 

Code ^sm»i a&t gtvtMi 

Precedtiraa 

(a) ^rkizkg prlBBiplt« Tbe dflfv«lepaM&nt ooaoarao itaalf vlth the oraatloE of u 

gromsS pr«didty x\ai« for laonched aissil«» flying boaha ovor 250 kg, by 

saaa« of «a ftocüstio a^io oooadlag procedure* 

Tha boafe ha« a »trt/ng »ow^ generator which ia iwpellad during the fall \3j the 
alp ciiiTent, Tiie soujn^ (irog +h» güxieratcr in r fleeted from ^he grcmid , v»ith a 
frequency ii^borecse con^espondlng to the Doppler effect, 1» taken up by a ajcropbrpai 
ittaohed U, th^ bcrb aj»? ia vu?e^' by inc^pns of an REpltfler%"or tiio reelease of 
i& electric tvs9m pallet» For details regarding the wcrklnt; princlpla aai tha 
irogrrtss of tha covelcpc^ent work b© f^r, ve aldk you Ic rafer to the altjr^ched 
repca?i ÜD. 502/43fc du tad 17-e--t3 of the ISAniticna Coar.isslon of the RelehöjniiJiat«» 
Per .aiaaaeriw ani V'ar iYoduction, 
(bj EefirJLr-ely eets.blish©d rai%e, 

Acoording t« seavurwMata aada ao far ai to the aound intensity of the sourcre of 
souad anä as to tha raflaaticc of sound waves cf lower frequency a^j^ainst iprouad 
surfaces, a furs nroxiaity of about ^0 to iCO iMters has been es .abllsiiacl» 



532 



■->aa3itd"«» p»r tfi of t-h» BcxSj^ and h&n tu^ air» attached. 

kB seasitiT« sderopbtn^a are n!*©d whloh ar« Ina^^lled in ep olal sondtn pla«»« at 

the tip of ÜI& \x:rth^ Harox>fora electrc^Jünetic üürpiioueo of tao typ© HS3 'iHplojriAl 
by '^G Luftwaffe were rtaad, aHd tba dosirert frecuoricy pc^eu^Q (fil :er) la thü rsiiig« 
of 650 to imO ico wae obt^md by m^ax» of acou«tlc am 6upr,J<<3rje,.i>,ikry felocUric lilt«nia 

Dlstsirbaooe p«:^siMliti«s« 

(a) Wtttui^jil üiatisrbanc® infliienoes, üs nas-ural Ixi tai-i>..nc.ö .■.nfluericei^ «aD b* 
con»ld«p«d sols««, ©. g, detonation qT 1^ ^renagee, chere .ixüite, höwarai*, .h« 
iiAaaibilit^ to aak« t^ rol««sa of thj f-:ae dapeixlant on the Tiiniuivm ("•arii-lon 
©f til® eff<iC(Av9ili«8 of tba noise in tr.e oaaaa^'a ragilca of ^ha iüici'Oi)x..'Ä-rf., so 
that failup«s of iUe® r«l«a»a caused bjr detoc&tioa noia^ or ühoi :-. GuT« -.Ic* ceOl 
ba aToid«d* 

(b) Diaturljeaees eaossö by the body it»o3X. -uch r.l5 -.urb-.r^cee ,ire U'l^-x^fe 
inheravit in tii« body, body aouad, azid oonducslons. The fir orfoct c^^n, J:öv/s^#rg 
be «liffitssaüQd to a r&rj gr«at extent if use is mace, of ;;-;'-äja-t *nani .latr;; ^>-lii*dl 
iii thö field of lEh^rt^t sotmd cr^aticn of ftdllr^- ■ko'is iu c.cr ^unotioYi wi-Ui a 
oorrespondisg tuaiing of tha aei»itivity ©f xhe fuao, 

(c) DistyroaÄß«« eausad by th© a&ai^» IfBata^/ ,T.&y cause Cts uroance br^^ tJi« taa« 

of noiae geaaaratox^a* ifoiee g®i»rators which ara instelied on \he grouwl aijd ivhldl 
cauao oouxd of an iBteaaity of about 100 »., raqidr© an ex ve^yly hi^h ^n^rgy Pt Ik 
ttemnrawy &e tim,t thair installatioa on a I&r^c scale on Ma part of the efai^y 
would hardly s«««a E^ssihla, Mora dangaroua are HealgrajaaU-': aiul siudlajt- ik^ias 
producing «pfÄi'&ti^ ^hlcb are pro ja o tad ags^lns bcfc.U^ fi:Lecl. r'th proximity 
fuaoi« KHÄimUon of thoa« di?tiBrfencftS rould ho ^c.-eible to a eertrlr. j'^?^!-«» 
ifp iaata^ of tha eontiiaicms souca souröe of t^e borrt'c l:pre-^-c.'forH provided ^y 
d9vai»p«ent m^fk^ aad iaimls« »ouad aourca »ere ic £>« im; Ir^ e5, Haf, above 
nentimiad rmp^o of tha Honitioni OoaadLasion, 

(6) £t oatus of Bsr9«lopa«it 

(a) Raault of «9^:>ari»aist8« Suitable fuaea in Fary variaVitrki Juivo bean 
devalopod asd ar« being iapaetigatad. Iha lir«t projections wlüch took pi *<i« 
at ..h© and of last year at tha invaatigation pl&ca Rechlln, prodixod t^i-iitl:ii3 
whiofe had to bo eiwdiiatad aa Uiftarangpvinkta and net aa release Iry zn:j&rai of 
the «oouatic ach«» InrraatifatioBs of the cauc'=» of Ihts orafr>.trir€ i^iilMon 1^^ 
to the daoucfeion that bocauJBO unauitabla (not aufficiantly pro'ac^^d) w4r« 
arrangejr.ent betwi»«a tlio apparatus installed or. fche b-,!pb c«<use<' ?olf ^c'-ln^ 
«xeitaiaert of the aüplifier snd tharafore releasa or zlse fua« -.,ellat. 

S«nr functional i>cat-8 could not yet ^»« .tävo b'sc-v.tia 01 tad r-^e^thar jcndi- l:r3 
during th« wst weeks and montha. They are planrvö 1 to Uke plac: ?Cv2*i il V-.^ 
inveatiijatlon plsc© (flight atafi engineer Dr. »nller)» Suitable fuaa» aad 
Bior«phone9 aondea isftcludix^ filters a>e ri»<ui|i« 

RWP 



533 



jyiaalM^ 



U« Sei. M. €ioma % U. I. li.^ti»fkr 
flft» 9b^«et of ^klm psport is te 9vmm;^im ^set^fl^r aad < siBMSAaril/) £roa Maofj 
^Mi Coaenl sit&AtiG& regarding a«rm^ ü^M s>ofi^1^fu«ls «a w» kzxyw it toda^« 
Wm^mtaAtv «iiH 41 % l^xrt m. VHtS hr S/h leath, Id April 1945, will bt Msuatil« 
Si»M «faAt n|»«v% mm inpitteny mi hnire iiitorviw«d th« fa«! «sqwrti nftsaetettaäicMki 
I msjßXp «Bä 'visittd B» aMur Itoi^« WiM mm ot m (MJl^U ) Im» 
i 4 «tart dm r^Kxrts teom Semith ^ t(irg«t8 i@7Mt%ftt«d th«r»« 
I IBi illÜÜii B^'«* tbougSi it glTM the highMt «i^eifl« ii^oltd» liquid osygmk 

mmmä h^m» äliS^m^ Mqj^M m^m aad «Isek^ ««r« stlU t» b* waplp^ %m Ai^ 
Cfh» mi^St p4^^ mi tn^^^sm'^^ grfsvi^ that th« p^io«! diffidttlti«» («vafmrAtiea» 
fäEtasffii^ «If «§@Mi^ f«r^9 ®«^P^» iiBAbili^ ^ «tor« ttM leaded «Usil«) MBooliit«d 
idti» äSi|st^ «91^ sr« »KP® ««ri0^ thflim thft ohMdaal diffi^ultiM «saoeii^ with 
@^Hr fMA «esMmUasm» U «till fl^pMuns t4» b« tes«, lMw«r«r, timt fiMl ooabiaatiow 
stlaMm Ui^pM mmgrn a?« tlia.liMt «uit«d f(»r iaititl stai^ l^r iJBv«ati««t«Ni idtk 
ffi» ip»f(«i««@ mi^ptrUmm Sa tli« fi^di Hap diaaarded llisald aoorxaa for "Qsrat ffaaaarfaB." 
«Uls flSMOa «as to bd a&pabi« ef b«ii^ atorad ftOIsr iMidad« 

M&i^*l«Hitii« fml aosMn^tifiM ia ahiah aitria aeid is tlia ooddaatl 
Mm %S8A faiali« in ftatmti it la aftoa aeaaidaiiad daairaUa to add a aalalTai «uA 
m ffttSSj te Hk» aoMt «al 2«|| salfufia a«id ia alM eowtimw a^Mad (at alifM 
rateatta» ia ap^^Ha ia^palaa) far raaaow af aaaaaagr and ta raduaa aavraaiaa» 

ftfm mmum m «r WS lAalaa to hw9 «iataatad« thaa« fnUl aaaUaatioaai •• da 
variaaa atbar paagia» fir« BMasath ia «xaaadi^lgr «Btkaaiaatia abaat ^icb« la adaita 
ttet wmm kaa «wr toaa aaad ^paratianall^ but wiataiaa tliat »usoaaafiil aperatiaaaX 
Ola wm a farcgM» aaaalMiiaB« fiipl.aliaiii Hallar of JNaaMRtada ala« baliarad 
atra^glir la tfiMwa faiS». 



534 



Igaitiaa d«la^ w^-th äUs»!« acid fiwl oomhimtlom ar« likely to b« demgiarom 
owi^ t& th® possibility of t0-FSiixig &3splos±r9 nitration prodiscts« SxpXosiea» trtm thJ^ 
eaus@ 3e«a®d t® bd falrl:r f¥@q-a®at at BiH aad oIt«a wrecked coablaation chambers. Of 
eomi^ct a gr®at laaisy «acp«Ha^Rte w«®«« no doiibt nan tharei Dr. H«ia©»ath clals» 6000 f«^ 
•osbimtiöSi w©s« t©»t#d^ bat this flgur« wofuld «oem t© be hi^, Dipl.chea Hellar 
m®Btioii@ t^t »mBval lassidred w«r9 i2:798tigat«d at HAfliLi thera 8««bs to haro been 
»0 gr®st a^jtaat of ignitioii ti^i&l® at th« latt«r ataticjs., wh»r« « si trie aoid fual sk 
eoi^la&ti^s was «^eet«d f«p «Q»rat Wa«a«rfall" and fop »Taifun«, 

AiPdli^ &t a eiMlar toi^Kmiad is turaallj add^d U> tlie fu»i i^i ordor to mak» 
oitrie asid fuftl eoabinatioBS 8«lf»£|paiti2)g, Certain s^abstaneos iuid«d to aiailist« 
giT« ao^blaßtioas titat igoit« aer« r^uiily «ith thm aeid used (issually Hiaeli saure^ 
lOSi M^^CI4) thus de«fl mHis» alon«« Tisol^ etfajrl visorl «ther is auoh a «ube tanoa« 
Kff««tif» fti^U ara tb«r«for« ooi^oTuadad trom aailiiMi aisd visoli 10 to SOjl of the 
fon^r^ aad abonfc 50^ of tha lat«r \mtsg a good o^blaationu What «la« la add«d 
is not so «ritioali ba&sol, scgrlol and^^optol» ar« tha additiTws that saks "optolla", 
whioh asaos to be a fsverad fual with Paeaoirand©« pptolia was orgioally coa^souxdad 
Mdaly with a-wOlabillty in «ind, for tha OtPBsa fual situation was baooaiz« csritical, 
Xta spaeiflo iapfulse differs littlf^ if any, t^om. that of sisLUr ociä>iiiationfi^ izi 
ia&tg a^sr frntmrk^ ^m% rssotii wül with nitri@ a@id k#«sji to gi-rs about the same 
sp®eifio iapiilss« TKjji dsasity of optolln is rather high, whioh is an aovantea««« 
TtM optol is a wal tar preduet that oontaim the phesiMe bodies eonsidered 
ebjaotionable in many oilS} In optoHn, thss« phamba prevent the cjrystallizatlon of 
benzene, läiidh »eans that optolin nay be used at low te^^raturej the ii^lol de the 
saa« thiflg« 

IWr<^f| fumMf ^ Iftr^ftF^ jtar^^^^i ^« Banuf»oture of ooneentrated (ov^ BOjL), 
stabl« l^ydreges peroxMe and of nearly soae i^3$) it^pAtaodam hydraslne hyd^irata i» an 
eutctaa&ij^ «arti»a aiMsrvnent of eheoieal industry. 

Wh«i li9nir«g«ii p^sfmdäm im 4e<3onposed oatalytrially azsd the resulting ®ss^^n is 
dlsearded (as is tiis 4^6 isaehim), tfa«n the greatest «dnuxtage Is net bsix« obtAiiasd 

535 



f^a t^ h3Pä2'«»gaa pero^Mm^ Tim way to xme hydrogen peroxide to b«it advautag* i« toft 
h&r9 it osddia« aaDth^r »isbstama dirmU^, Uafortunatoly, it doss not s«raa to Igatt« 
sati factorilj witn meh mms^a f-^als as aleeliol or dacalla. Tha graat iiap«rt«iö« of 
hjFdra«!!» feTdrat« is öait its us« aakss it iK»«ibla to laaka tba bast us« of hydraaio 
percsldm &a an oxidase 

Srörasina li^drate 1« ast laed without a oat^lystj in tha ateaas« of a oataiyst, 
i^gBitloä dalagst msmw^ asd tbes« «omatiiias rasult in «^losiow. 7h« »ost «omot 
^taljst is poteasiim €upf^ ^wbMs dissolvad in hydraaiaa jhydyat« or a solirtioa of 
l2ydraai^s h^dm^^ Tha reason for «boosing a ^i^as salt lik» I« au (OH), is that 
tl» «ssesatraiion of flra« «eppar iea oust b# maintaixiad laflnifeiafa«^! ©r ihm 
l^jdraai^ ^r&at® would r»duoe it to aatallic oopperj which' would pracip&tat« oat» 
SGdlmt ud^P© p-^xsid», Ws2 f« (!»)(€«) is a lass aucöosaful ©atalyst, 

%t^a«ia« lia^drata is ussd in t&a ajle?. as e3cplaii»d in 8;L heath's raportf it« 

tJEs# ia t05fp«do«« i&hfsg. with deaalisi} is given in a (}«nMui decuaant »Fstuff Tagui^« 

that win b« traB«lat«d« 

Hspdraasiaa« faQrdrat« was b«ii^ »ad« for ^4 to f fU^^} oono«atnit«d l^rasia 
pentid« 

for l9»3m 



Thm othdr ussa «f h^drasia p«aUd« will aet b« Mntioasd hmr9 sino« aotdUiv 
läsw r^ardlisg thaa kas eoea to light en this trip* 

liw F"^"** !« ■• bav« aot hoard of ai^ radieallj asw fuals. Um wo of attal «llQrla 
(sias and alusdmitt eoapooads) to Ignit« roekats is aoatioasd ia «aa^r litcrataro 
airallabl« in ^ndoa« Iharo has ba«n B«!ctioB of aa latorostiaf f^tol oontaiaiait 
«uopoadad alaaiaisB «i^ ^tltsi Saoqgsr iu ':aid to h^v« bo«n woiltiag at T^cnoB ia tb« 
GioMbu^gor loido* (fbis fast was reportad 1^ fir* Zwiskj ia • proriouo roport and 
t^azif iraed bjr hi« hare asi ia an intarviow with dipl*Ch«ai ttoUoTy fonwrl/ of fOonanuadio«) 
Ifct^gi rials ia Storago A^ loliisgol« kroath, thor« is «terod iOO toas of IDI tagrdrogoa 
p«raxid«* ^ino« tho ooneoatratii^ plattt is ready to aporato^, tido aatorial ooold bo 

'./^eatratod^in about « woek« Tank eaa« for shipoant «ro a^ai^Ublo «ad tho roil 
^r«bl«M was boing oolwoA» 

536 



It C^artthofen^ ttmr« is «aid to l« 50 toiw of h^färazli» hydrat«; «on» 20 tox» 
b^<r^ of the 95^ graäs, um rest §0$, 

Steps should obviously be t«ken to gst both these storss of aaterials out cf 
Osraany« 



iapulsss 

ApjwrsBtly the opdratlonaX weapoos worked at spself le '■■■* ' it I ' l r eonsiddrabl^ 



bsletr th« theerstieal and also bisloir ihQ b«at results obtainad in statlo thrust 
ehsalwrs« In 1^ cass »f th« A»4, although thej had obtained S.l.s of the ordsr 
•f 217 0/«o/sse| tha wsapoa ©paaated in an averag« of 207 ü/io/aa«o 

For th« Htsdl« • Tixol, mtrio •• Optolena sjoä aeid STstene^ impulses 10 to 

15JJ below ths theoretical wsar© acceptado This produced impulses of 1S4 U/Oo/sea. 
lixed aeids gav« slightly lower impulses» Tests using Tarious fuels with aeid 
«ere reported as only oakisg a differexsoe of 1 to 2^ in the speeifie iapulse. 

The disparity between the theoretical ana actual ia^ulses adght tsitxBstx: 
laäiMte that they tolerate inooinplote reaction for the sake of the additional 
eeollii; effect the partially reacted fluids gire to the surfaces of the ooBbosted 
ehaaber and Tttsturl^^ 



537 



■Z:hiM^:S,\Jht Interrogation of Prof, Dr. HAIB BUSCH, Kitzingen, 21 April, 1945, 

• Te 8u3ch was interrogated by F/Lt £tokes and Irr, R, W, Porter, 

Dr* Busch explained tb^t ha was in charge of all negotiations with the Rustungaamt 
concerning transfer of personi^l from Darmstaat to tha aervices, etc. However ha 
claims to hav« had nothing to do with the assignment of technical work or problen». 

Ris own wo:.-k inqluded daTelopment of a low-frequency oscillator (1 to 50 H») e»3l a 
FrsÜHB-type frequency meter with a special photographic arrangement to enlarge the 
picture in the directiv.^n of vibration, but not in the other direction. Both of 
thase af^re don© for the A. E.G. Tt. Busch thiiiks the ts?o Probleme were related and 
that they had so-athlng to do with the Navy. They ware finished about two years 
ago. 

The PeenssTunde, l>r« Busch has developed the receiving aö3 indicating er*3. of the 
telei^ tarin^ system, Ih^ transEiitter «as developed at PeenemuaSe and probably- 
built bj Firisa 'Ir« HeU in B«rliTi. Twelv© bits of infonnation are transmitted 
five huirlrsd times each second. In ad ition there is a thirteenth signal which is 
iised as & utÄödard lot tlis gain control for the systeE and for synchronisation« 
Itiese signals are all ^■snt bm pulses or steps in the carriBV and appear on tlie 
OaO as sljmiltaneouBly di'awn eurves. at first he used only one G»R.O, tiibe, but later 
d0velo|^g,arrange2n^i>Tö oising two ^or four separate (210 tubes, with a oorrespondingly 
fewer number of oiirvsäs on each tabe, 

äe also d%ä aoae v;ork on g r^oblem given him by Dr. Stegnaier of Peeneennde, whioh 
involved measm^jsjent of tiia effect of acceleration on qiiarts-crystal oscillators. 
Two crystals fs^s vfi&ä in order to eliminate the effect of tempera tui'«. • Results 
Wh<md 5 X 10" frequency aecuracy whereas it was required to be only 1 x 10*®, 
Results were purely nfegativ®. Dr. Buacb does not regard this as VL^ry Important« 

His Esost recent job was a traasBiittsir for twelv« frequencies using twelve 
erystals and a switching arrang«Faent, He did not know the application, but did not 
äiink it was for the Hs293. The problem same to him from Peenemunde this year and 
was r^,iired to be done in six to eight weeks, 

T>iS talemetering vork was controlled at Pesnemunde first by Dr. Mailer No, 2, a 
former pt^il of Dr« BuHch arid later by Dipl, litg, Sraemer, Its coda naaw «as 

ties 8 loa. 

The fact that this cod© name was the same as that ueed for the W/T type of 
Bremischlusö conts'ol did not come to mind until after the int®rview| Dr, Busch 
-7a9 not asked about it. It does not seem, however, that thenre could be angr 
ccnnactioa, Dhe tel«^eterix^ equipment is to b© built by Permielda u Apperatefabrik 
öberspree, S.S.Barlin, in charge of Dr, ffuchel* 

Incidentally ftr, Busch was Vorstand of the Arbeitsgeheimsohaf t Pfesnemunde Vorhaben, 
D,2.-12, 

E, W, PCRTER, 



538 



ß ippll 1945 

Dr. mptsmi ntta not lBt«rroSftt«d in any fox« of proiffMim interrogation du« to täi« 
faet that thara was quite a bit of aotlTit^ praaant in installing lights axvl isi 
ixKVSstl^tiiig and saaroiiiag et tha Tsrious lavals of his faetory* 

Dr. Hsisann is tha soXs ownar of this plant* Ha usad to hara a siailar, ab^yfs groozd 
lOaat in Banstadt» aed in addition usad to do aost of his own work in a laborator7 
of his own wms^ tlia aaln stati.o» in ths sa«a town. Ha mm producing thraa typas 
of OFOseopss^ a sneJl oaa ^f ^ioh two sao^las w^ra B^mr^, anoth^ ona ssall and 
for varti^ isetsHatioa of ^^ich a saaondhand laodal was sacur^ mnd a third ona 
1^^ aooörding to Ma was an old nodal whioh waa dael&rad obsolete vdien the Ger»a 
arnaaent iadustsy tried to sorsalise their girosoopes« 

Soaetiae ia septeaber his abora ground plant mia uttssrly destroTed an all produetlen 
eased» Jkfmw&'g tie l^» reoei'ved orders froai the Rustungskoumaxxlo to transfer hie 
aetiidtgr te the nrbie ai^ of l)r. lAsk in BenühaiB« fhis mim which has it» 
origin in £^Ma ia^ consists of a nuabar of levels and shafts, driven into the 
■osmtaia for the |fiirpese of obtaining crushed Btarbl^, whioh was usad in Tsurious form« 
as bailding material, fertiliser ®to. 

Za the be(|ianing ef the aineplant period, attempts ware nade to saliFsge whatev«^ 
■aohinarjr eould be salvaged from the bumad plant in Danastadt» This shop was set 
«p is the eour^ni<d of the old nurble grindii^ «ill. As this operation progressed^ 
Sr» Idnkp the original owner of this nine prepai^^d it for ih9 reeaptlon of Dr« He7a«Bn*i 
Faeterj« A unit of the organisation Todt fumiahed the labor. The first branch to 
•ova into the noimtain was the salvage shop, next the ^mll horisontal gyro prodvetimi 
unity then the vertioal gsrro repair xinit. 

Aocerdiag to rr« Segraannp the factory in Darmstadt had produoed appros« 3000 tmitu 
per aeathf i& Be#s^^^ ^m produotion inside ^e ssountain aaounted to 150 units »snUalgr 
and at the tis^ ^ i^}^ -^r^op^. in'imi®u of the adi» the prMuotion figure was up to 
1500 units. It Ikifti ^smn hoped IMt i& thäree nore fieeki t^ plant wouM prodaeie 
the equivalent of the original Darns tadt faotory« 

Apparentlj 2>r* Seynann would not tell or did not know i^ere the units were «It&mteSy 
used. He elalas tliat the «Fuhrer**, froa the Besirksrus^u^skooBiando would alloeat« the 
speolfio produotien of parts to the most likoljr aaaofaoturer and he would knov tha 
overall set up, as far as aaaeably and destination were conoemd« 

Qhfortunatelgr, due ta the United personnel on hand for the job not aaagr 
details could be aswertained during this investigation of the plant. Another drawback 
was the faet thsil tha Dr* had, under orders fron the Rustungskoaaando, destrograd all 
seeret and oonf Uaslial aiftters and eorresponden^. Then his nain produotioa aaa^ a 
Toung Mr. Bopelf who perhaps is the kejr nan to this whole set up was not at tha 
plant or available« ^Ehis nan, fron oorrespondence found asde frequent trips to 
Berlin axid surely was a Masi and knew »ore of the whole work and its position ia tha 
iadusts7 thea eaa be obtained froa any interrogation of Dr. HeTnaaa, 

ofiie minor itens feuad worth asntioning arei The mine is in danger of drowaii« sloflily« 

539 



The Io??er üohie or levol, which contained some experimental machinery was found to I» 
w®ll uisder imt«r. lb® pmcp, which was originally installed for the purpose of 
saYln- th© 3iQ© pan on 380 volts ^ which voltage was not obtainable with the 
mchiaery at the disposition of the ü*S. engineers which are now supplying the mine 
with lijht and po^sibl® pcswer^ 

Ißien ?r, Heynann was ordered to cripple the factory, (not; to destroy itj) he had 
asked for sufficient grease to preserve the large amount of machineiT', of German arid 
Swiss Qsirs-ifactore, But grease was miavailab^e and so the rachinery is, due to the 
hucldlty of the Bine, in progressive stages of rusting. On a rough estimate this 
siacliiaaiT' presents an investlaent of approximately 60,000| and is of secondary 
Gualit^ at that« 

A second shaft to tlje outside was contemplated and found by our military police. 
Froa the ^saeral aspect of this project undertaken by the Germans to rehabilitate 
tha destroy^ liiiistry it seems very probable that the mountain range here and 
farther to the South contains a great amount of theue s aller factories. The 
investigation of all presently worked and formerly abafidoned mines in this area 
will in all probability yield more discoveries of this kind. 



540 



MEMORA^-T^RJt: In!;«rro,vi".lon of Dr. Ing. HANS im^/iN, K5.-.zin^-in, 22 April, 19/+5. 

Dr, Ing, Hjnnan v^aR x-iorvi^atsd by nr. Porter and F/Lt Stokes i 

He claim's to bo en export in producln-: al.i kinds of oaciiia lions -nid v br«». LI- 'jri, 
and correspond liv;j J in the meas'irement and renoval of vibraticn. In par 'ricrular 
he belkves that he has dove loped the science of "symptomatic anaiys 3" of troubles 
in rotating rach.' lof! to a high degress, 

iLarly trair-ixig of '^i-, H:!man vran at Karl Schenck, Gir.bH, at Dferinstadt, Landv/ahrstr rrje. 
This firm wa" sn.'T^od in th -: design and cons^ru-tion of " uoh'jna chins" or dyui.- ic 
balancin,.; machines. 

He eventually loft 3chenck because of some personal uifficultAes betw'?en hi is sli aiid 
the owner, and sbar^^ed in bueiness foi- himself, About 1940 his i^crk began -,c \ 

be recoe^nizod by th3 various military es tablißhmonts and he was cilled on b:' rh,^ 
h.L,».i, to devslo;? r'e';''cds of testing all äorts of gyro^^coidc devices for aircrn "t. 
His particular cTairi is that he developed instrTimanLS' which ('a) allowed the 
gyroscopes to be tos »-gd in the devices in which they are used, i.e. in their 
mountint^s, and (b) .1 a t he reduced the testing procedioro f 1 on one requiring tv/o c 
six hours by an e^c.ort x) one requiring only about i'lfte&n ninu >e8 by a girl, nQ 
describee his methcds as being comparable with the electrocariograph idea in 
medicine; in fact he says that the idea was first put in his mind by a disc-is.« ton l-fh 
a physician duriaj; troatmsiit for heart trouble, from which he has suffered <"or a 
long time. As nearly as could be determined in this short interview, the »ns'^o;- 
consists of a pick~up d -vice of some sort, an amplifier, and a cathode ray oscillo ;-u Y 
tcgothor with the 1.3chniqu9 required to analyze the resulting trace an^i deto/'^' na he 
source of the vibration« 

His reputation in ■■ris work--- as such that he '/fas asked to manufacture gyr»csco>e3, 
which he did at '.iurrns tadt, IVhen this eutablishmant was boTab.:^d out, he ncve.i to an 
underground locatic:« at Auerbach, Sergs trass e, near Beu&heiigi, His maximum raoa hly 
production reached 3?öO per month at Darmstadt, but had not got underway to any 
great extent at the underground plant at the time it y/as occupied. 

Other companies with vtiich he worked on gyroscope proble s u-re Kreiselgerate ■? 0.9, 
Berlin, Firw\a Horn in Plauen, and Firma Chnig in Hartla near Scheinnitz, 

Eis orders for gyro^c-^^^es came from the Rus tungss tab, Berlin from a Herr von 
TfVedelstaat. This Organization gave him half a million RI»i to expand his facili.vles 
and to s«t up iJie underground factory after he was bombed out at ?amstadt. 

In addition to his ./crk on gyi-o proble, s, . r. H>-maim ha? cart-ied cut experimjilR 
in the compression of povvudered materials by ruaans of vibration, separawion 01 
fiaterials accordin ,■ i.o size and dancity pn a vibrating table, and datonati-'a of 
mines by vibration, 

Ihe comprev^sion exj-iroirnents seem to have been rather extensive and apparently - o 
successful. For exi' pie, Lf, Hyroann clai'iS to have reduced the voluii.o of i 1. tir v. u: 
otlier powdered food-stuff to less thfin thirty per cent of the original vclure. 
Powdered explof^ivcs called Haxogen and Gelbpulver furnished by D..i.G. were 
compressed to a density essentially the ssmo as that of the homog9neov;s iTiat-,»riil, 
Itetal powAer was pressed into bullets, etc, rhese results are obtained, he cl a. 3 
by- the suparpositton of vibrations of Hifforent frequency in at l^ast ■■vo a^ces* 
sinrultanoiiSly, The exact values of the various frequencies anil thcii* magnl'ude 

541 



äepenc on tJia size, dansity, and hardness of the grains, for seme kinds of work 

-.' ;;rr-:,ia vibrati,:"^ are osed. 

Lack or tisie unf ortUi-iütely prevented obtainlrjg .tiopo datailed information froB this 
i=ubJQct. He was asked tc draw a sketch shcwin- ^"bo IccalRLon of his various 
-?: TcbZ ii.'h:;e:it3, -lii^ slijtcii is attached, ■ It shows five different units, one of 
v.'iich 5?ds ^e gyro 2vj mif a c taring unit at Darisstadt, one of the uniarground 
«>3tabli5h.Tie.. ts at AuG3.^bach which replaced the first when it was bombed out, 
,d3si^-iLit>;d as i on -ketcli) a \inlt in Parmstadt later moved to Hallein (?) 
-^,^i^^a:5d as 2 or^ ha .sketch, one nt Nieder Ramstadtbai rarmstadt (designated as 4 
uA thö sketch) and one at Parquai (?) (d-signated as 3 on his sketch). The unit at 
liieder -'ai^slait is the place where samples of powder pressings may possibly b© fouud^ 

iK^ -Jio one at rarquai (?) is the one in which work en mine detonators was being 
carri»^ out, 

UrJ-ts li3t»i as 1 and 2 on his sketch were incorporated under tpe name, Dr, Ing, 
Hans ^r&n, Forschun^-s u Prodwtion Messteclmlk, whereas those desigaTted &s 3 and 4. 

*ent. by '^ä came^ Or« Ing^ layman Ü Go, Forschungs Institut, 



R. ?/, PORTER 



542 



UT..RG1;T NOs Tarjet c^ Cppcrtmiity. 
2,TiTi': ::^ T.:^.a::T. ^^r, Ing. KA?CS Hir^ii;?^N 

3,LC0ATICK, 3'^*r:r'T:-j •-3rTnai:y« 

4*CC,.' ITIlN CF XiJur'/j C/A^hATB:a C.VIT^TTION (See attached report) 

5«I--3Cid :IwN' C7 ü- •-, Small second quality lathaSj drill presses and planerp, 

a fjü-l iiivonlor/ is available from tlie 54th ris;irmaPio--'i ■ 
r-'iu^idron- '.Thich Include." */e-;t-y ccr.ple te assortment of 
gjTO rotor parts, notarr, and tenting equipmont for 
balanci'ig U-ie g:/ro3. The gjrros w^r© of the 110 volt- a.c, 
500 cycle ty e wh5ch ODeratod at an rntTs of 2'', 500, . ojiioles 
of the t^'ro «ure cbLa'ned an'^ dccuments explaii-r'n,'^ tho 
Bictbod used for dj^-n^üräöau 17 the gyres are ceirig 

fur lushed to R.x^.E. Farn:x:irough ani V'ri Ait Field for T'üj: IrM 
s tudy, 

b.ITEÜB GnAHDSB: 

a. Ebxiipment ) Guarded by the A^IG of Bonsheim at the time of -his rypcrt, 

b. Document« ) 

c. Personnel ) 

7. PF:Io:tIVY H^üÄ>.>vl,. . /f 2 

8. CIHKPl R.^:?.'AFACS I 3ae ; /- aciied report of Interrogation of Tjt, Heymann, 

9. L.^^3 CF ..;rBS."rr' j 8 a^^ril l%5o 

10, ASfESSC^S rL>/E3: liijit Lt. Gadric Goldia. 
A.ajor W. W. Harkinson, AC, 

Ar-rry Group - 6tii Army Grouj^ 
r>3m Group - QJCS Team ?^ 4 

;. lAT>J3A?IC!;t CJ^x 

T Forco Gojnr ander 
ri"'.e. 



543 



rrelimin ary Heport of A Target of Opportunity 

JT; Rocket l.lotor Test otation of Bayerische Motor Werke (BM) 



ZOCaTICN? .-illach near Ivlunich 

YJ31T-S:D Bli Lt. Col. G.J.Gollia, S/L 3.J*Kenny,Lt. Ozol, H.A.Liebhafaky 
( British) (British) (UlSIOrd) ( Civ, Tec.) 

This target has been assessed by a CAPT team, and Squadron Leader 
RobinsonC British) (CürT) informed us that a C.I,O.S. team to investigate 
it has been requested. He did not object to a preliiainary investigation 
by the above loentioned members of the C.I.O.S, 
Team No, 183, who stopped here en route to Garmisch-Partenkirchen« 

There is no doubt that the target is one of the outstanding 
German stations for stationary tests on rocket motors. Stations of 
coir5>arable impor-tcince se ;m to have been only at Peenemünde and Berlin. 
Tor tha^ reason, it is of interest to coirpare it even briefly with 
the Ordcit Station ^t Pasadena and will tiie plans at Schenectady. 

We were conduct ed through tha station by Dr. Hemesath, chief 
chemist of BIJW for rocket fuels g who claims (along with others-see 
1^ earlier reports) to be the inventor of hypergole fuels utilizing 
nitric acid as oxidant. He claims furthur that some 6000 rocket -fuel 
combinations have been tested at the target • Nitjric acid was the only 
oxidant used in these tests,- many reducing agents (fuels) were tried, 
the choice of these being dictated largly by supply considerations. 
Hydrogan peroxide has been studied for submarine purposes in the 
laboratory, but never in a rocket motor. 

The station was feegun early in 19^3. It was to consist of 12 

pairs of test pits, each pair having one control room. Most of these 

pits were built, but nou all were operated ^ Thrust was measured 

hydratslically through a membrane* There was also an electrical method 

of thrust lüeasurement, but this did not involve a quartz crystal, 

a reasonable guess is that it involved changing tbe capacity of a 

coxidenser by a mechanical displacement proportional to the thrust» 

(The CIOS team expects to clear up this matter and to obtain samples 

of the tbrust-measureing devices) The reactants are delivered by 

pressurizing, air or nitrogen being used. Reaction is begun by having 

an explosive rupture a metal membrane; this steirts the flow of reactants 

(Lt, Col* Gollin says that he is throughly familiar with this method 

whirr, he uses) The hypergoles are self-ignitingjf or the other fuels, 
ignitioK by means of gunpowder, by means of an electric spark, 

544 



n'- ->^ .-..«ans of üypergoles in dioall H.u'^^"tit,, h^s ..-ijöü u.eo.. 

Two features of this station are particular!/ interesting. Ona 
is the central storage system for the reactants* The fuels are kept 
in m large tanks centrally located (they seem to be made of steel) j 
the nitric acid is kept in a large aluminimum drum. The tank can be 
weighed before and after an experiment to give the fuel consumed« 
Pipes lead from these tanks to the various test pits. This central fuel 
system had actually ne^er been used because there had not been time to 
complete it» 

The second feature is the means of getting rid of the exhaust 
gases, Sach test pit exhausts into a replaceable sheet iron circular 
duct aboiit 3* or 4-* in diameter, which is located in an enclosure 
behind the test pit* The opening of the duct may be 10 or 15» from 
the motor« The duct leads into a square brick duct, 5 or 6' on the side 
which has a stack may be 45* high at one end. Ducts not in use may 
be closed« Attached tothe stack is a blower, which sends air up 
through it. This moving current of air is made to carry th^e gases out 
of the stack, (It is hoped that the final CIOS report will include 
plans of this gas exhau4t system) 

The excellent lighting of the test pits is noteworthy. The glass 
protecting the lights has been cracked by flying pieces of motors. 

One man has been killed or seriously h ^t in experiments at 
Allach* Nevertheless, their xhjl safety precautions seemlto be well 
taken, and there have been no injuries of operators who followed 
instructions e The walls of the test pitc are reinforced concrete 
•about $0 inches thick« The peep holes sxe arranged as shown below in 
sections 




0'>'^ ^ 



The shaded sections are safety glass built for submarines. dJaeh sectioi 
is about 4" thick. The space between the sections can be heated 
electrically or a dyhydrating agent can be introduced into it. During 
a run , awire netting is lowered to protect the glass from pieces of 
an e3cploding motor. Such explosives are not uncommon because nitric 
acid tends to form explosive organic nitrates M the oxidation of 
the fuel does not proceed rapidly on mixing. 



545 



Needlsss to say, Br« Hemesath feels that nitric acid is the most 
pronising of all oxidaaits for rocket purposes. He admit* , however, that ii( 
cperational use has vet been made of it in Germany^ but says that 
-::iere have been trial flights. Most experiments were done with 5.1 
raric cf nitric acid to fuel, which mesns the nitric acid is in excess 
Cnly fuel and acid rates and thrust were measured, 

Lost experiments have been made on motors like that for the X-4, 
vLere the mass ejected per second is near 0,8 kilograms i duration of 
~:ie experiments was usually about 20 seconds* Work has also been done 
on assisued take-off units for rocket planesjthese experiments were 
on a 10 fold larger scale and were longer continued. Specific impulses 
sx'ound 20C seconds seem to have been reached^ this point requires 
checking« 



H, A, Liebhafsky 
T/0 U,3. Ordnance, 
Munich, Germany, 
May 12, 1945. 



546 



THE STORY OF PSEMMÜI©S 



PART II 



TEg ASRO-DINAMIC-BALI.ISTIGS 



RSSEARCH STATION, KOCHKI^EE. 



fj^ J •' JksO'i'if^'^^ ^, e^^l^J yn^ex^i 



■yf^ ^'^• 



Lt. Col. J. Ä. O'Mara 

Lt. Col. G. J, Gollin 
Major J, Iball 
S/Ldr. E. G. A, Kermig 
S/Ldr. a. A« Sharp« 
F/Lt. K. R. Stokes 
DTe Ro W. For tar 
DTo Ho a, Lelbhafsky 
Dr, Frita ^wicky 



ÜSSTAF 

(Team Leader) 
Br. M. of S. 
Br. M. of S. 
Br. A.I. (2) a, 
Br. M.A.P. 
Br. A.D.I, (k) 
U.S. Ord. 
U. S. Ord. 
USST.iF 



CIÜS Team No. 183. 



segrü:t 

547 



t^mriptimt ®f Wsm «1^1® •fuip^nt» organisation 
A^ n^U «^ |sr<»M®98 of til« Hs^ärstilios 



c • @ « • « 



'iS»i,ä» kf.-fcwwswAis-M WA «x^sas! >»»J&« c • e « «•« 



s ««I 



2« teB^ml i^anrks ®b th® ©fni-f^tnt aisd in@tr^Mnts 

1«, Si* dicing @f th® air f#r tb« wind t«imol8».. «, « 

&« Op«)?fttiitn of t^ Dfii^ tnüml .»>•..».•..»•«« 9 

Ö» fb® bsls®©t f©r th# wind .tsfei^l« , U 

^m «n^sriWii® wlni ti^stl», «,»•'»« .,»«•«.« H 

io %ti»lftpp@i^%aü at lo^lwX«*..». ...... .....»,•. 15 

3» ^»»«y »st^®ä for #1« dot^FmififttioQ of fas 

isQSitias ia rapi^lj ne^s^ straai» .»^ S9 

1«, lllinili»itiois for 3@hlior«n msd lntorf«r@fitt«r 

l^t^praphs. «,..,...».,.« «» 51 

X» t^mp9'ta.txiTm im thm «iod ^imssl from nioasiirt* ^ 

asBta of »omaä ¥®l@<3itf- ' .•«•«>•».••• 32 

J* Taking and Ivaluation of OseiHograoH) of 

Vibrating «ode Is in th« wind tunnel......^...... 33 

i« Pl!^J««t A^ iocli®!..., *..,c........... *.,*...,. 34 

4, Otfaor st^rsonie wind tuiin®!* ia G^rsaaiiy 38 



Pte 



ö^te ®r m® W¥l«c » = ..«.«*,.,.,««..»..... 39 



6* Pls««««loa «f tias •ffleiano/ and posaibllitios 

til« f?A • , Af. A*'^'.^ '^<« m 4 g^^ ..•«..,..,,;•.,...»,, . 40 
km BftSle point« of vi«» Ter tke «fficisncj 



B« 5fflei«noy ©f tfe«» wind tonn®! laetÄllatioö 
©r thö WVA 

(1) Iteattiriiig s«etioiif8 aod TAGiiun sphoras.... 4>3 

(2) Iteohin« ins tftllations. «..«.... U. 

(3) Air-Äryiog ia»t«llatioii.,. ..«...«....,. ,, 45 
(i) Optra tirnial hour« ,.....*«. ^ ..,,,.« « 45 



0« lffi9i«i^j of th« s^amiring app^rrn^ 



(1) Otnaral Bsasuring app&rat« ......«,, 46 

(2) SsMeiftl »«aurifig apparat«.. «,.,,..,.. ... 46 

B« 8iErv«y of tlia oapasity of other ««ipersooio 

fdnS tusuMls 1b Q^raan^. «.«........../..,,« .., 50 

S« Inor«aBSng th« «ffioiency of th® stipsrsonic 
wind tunn«! inatallations of tha WA b^r 
Inor^asis^ Üia eaehina installaiioii«.,. . . . , . «» 51 

Genar&l Survay of Rasaarch on th« D«velop®ent of 
optlaru» aerodynamic shapas of bodias ®ith subsonic 
and. «mparsonio 8p««d8 , .,, ...» .«.,.».»,,,.,.. , 1 

1* Eookat propallad aissilaa 

A* So«k«t« fin etabilized without win^s ,...,,.,, . 1 

!«> Wing born« and fin etAbllis«d rockets,...«.*.. 15 
3« lafluofic« of th« jot on th. aerodyiaaisice 

«f th« mis«il«8 ,.... 23 

D. Spla »tablU»«d rock«t8 ....,.,....,... 26 

a. lauziehad froa launchers .,.,,...,.»........ 26 

, hm launched fro» gun« ,».,..,..«,.,,..,.» 29 

Z, Proj«otäl«8 (without rook«t propulaion) 
^ A. m» «tablll««« 

a. D«v«lopB»nta P«©n«Bi\md«r Pfollg«8choa««, , . 37 
b« Furt&ar d«v»l©pa«nt» of «l^tilgoacho«»«". , 4I 

E« Spin at4iLbllis«d con-nintional projectilt« 

a« Gonvftntioaal proj«otilaa ...«,..., 44 

b, Und8roÄlib«r proj«ctil«8 (aub-calibÄr).. •• 45 



549 



B* A 10 ,,«.,»,.«,.....,..,.,......,,.....,».._ . a 

B* Hoohdruokpwip®.,.. ce e.« «..«.... A9 

S« Al^taract of r«port on th© }Q ce 

r©ek®*j assisted shall. . , ,...., 51 

P® Baport on possibility of coolinji hot g«s@s 

fr©E rocket J®tB ^ »«,««...«.»... ,' 52 

G» Reeeat work @f th® «V4, . , . . , » , ....,, 53 

H, Photo «laclric proxiEjity fuz« devwlcDsd 

«t lochel. ,..„.. , , 55 



Basic R®@®arch©i of GaEdjmamioSg aerodynamics 



Biet: .,....,»......,.....,. , 1 

Mathematical iinYestigatione for the 

stability asTd aero.iyf»anical damping of 

fin 8t@,bilis^. projortiieSc =, ....,..«.., 1 

il irwes tig&tions '■oric-rniiiti 

gactcries -of prcjoctiltis , , . . , 2 

4* Galciilatio-'.s an.-' experiments .o slow 

down rccke t,s of hijh velGci tie;. . „ , 2 

5. ©'-her theorsMcai inv-^stif^atirr.u , 2 

6« 3xaffiiBa>.ion anc suppl6:r:en',a of *.ne i^irvi 

Lunrsel experiatents 'f^irh fly n^ b'-dlop . 2 

7« Tiieore '.ical anJ oxf-erimentj.! inv«i: ligations 

concerrilrsg the heat truasf^T ». c ................... . 2 

8. ;!.orcdyi.,arr:ical ba£" ic rüaonr'jh. „ ... ... <....... . 3 



550 






Iv- 



mmi^%$^it m^ for- 



t MimiiioSSA 






(for S<si«iio« Mt RaaittTdh) 









551 



^* I ^ Ql^ e^ prot^L#n»_ef tlia Hydraiilic l&x^v i mnUä. Station. Kochal«^iy . 

pse BySr*iLLies «xperlBentaX Institution Koch«!««« is &2s äätö- 
dyaaaio-balUsticB •^perlBental iMUtution which, for ^asen« of 
»©cr«ö3r, ha® r«o»iv©d thA mm of Hydraulics Experiaontal Statiwa. 



TliÄOpeticÄJ. and ©3q?eri»antal reeearch of QaaprmsaikUm »trÄaa- 
iag prooo88«6 »it& tha oontor of gravity ia *ttp©paoaic oarrant, 
partlcttlftr3jr at Mgh m&tk. figw«». For inataBoat Gürraat» throuÄh 
Lami noaalas^ rataipn gain of ftrasaura in diffuaara, cmraat flow 
aroaal a 119%®^ ooaa, feaU^ eylindap^ omraxit f Ion aloi^ fOataa 
ss9wa& j^^tllmu Amlysia on «xtraaity or bouadary layar»> aaalyaia 
©a tisrbalanea, dav®lopBB@nt of saaauraUon, ©athöds for aiactricitr, 
opti^, thfty®0d|rmaics, aceouatios. 

i 



öi^iBg Um tiM8> trm 1939-1945 th® aotivltie» oooaiatad of 
©a ^i© foU^^iiig «far problams (op oontraot«)« 

le ^M^ gaining of r@.§iilti tärough aaro-dyiiaalo rasaajroh to 
sad as a baeis for the ooaetraotioa ©f the gPfAt diatanoa roekat 
,s.% aad th& m.p^rhmnU.1 rmkmis Ä-3 4nd A-S^vdftVald^WHii.of '«ueh to 

!?f! at ""- ------ 



2® ItotbKp darelop^Et of' th® dovioa i-4 frnpffm^^r tiring 



3« . B:'®parati.o£:£. @f tha &@ro«Miyaaadk atsd oftt©r«ball3Ui^a 

iomid&tiXfTm fori " ' '. 

(a) Satira development of projaötilae and «ball« fop tl^ 
(^ämmm Mvlaioa, Wm^ Dapartraant* fwm or »h^ps giTlBg for 
pf^Jactll®® for fiald artillery. Long rax«« arUllary, aatl-tank. 



(t») £to aas««dynaiKio foi^ givan projactlla» for fla]^>artlllary, 
r«K$lcat pft>jaotilaa for arsa (aountad en aironit) for inatanoa 
^^VrsLGhmtP CSragoa)! aontrollad and nncontrollad flik'^roolcata Aroa 
^ ^masä %& tfa« plana, aapaciallyi Waaserfall: (^ISSFALI.), taifcui 
^, thaintoehtar (&hin«<*datsgbt«r) • 



C0) Hia araament Indus try t Kr^^p^ Seaohlilsf 9 Shaiiawtiall» JHcoda» 
■^m&g^ Boobimap-Verin (Botlnsi Assoelatlaii} lit^ewit*. 

4« Baaidas tha abova-naaed aaro-dgras&Bio problaas^ tha 



552 



eon®trueti¥© de-Telcpntont of tha so~c&lled Peenemunde^Arrow-PiTj^c tiles 
(PP G) was u-ndortaken and c>j^.r led out- after liieir own 'tero«uynairjic 
and constructive points of view. 

c, ' PlsumlQ^ aiid con s true tion of the "Super schall-Ä indkArials (.Super - 
sonic wi nd cb-Himel (Uinnc-l) 57'X:Q i^cj, 

Oröss-secticn lis x la, ccntinuoiis operation, Ma*?, deraloping up 
to Ma s lOj to gain the üero-dynamic foundations for lon^ ui£-:&riC9 
rockets for ranges of saveral thousand kiloipoters for tinö coiii.'srca 
between the coritii\©nts . 

^« C^yono logical g^rirvgy of the develop i aent of the WJh. an d its proc;eces3crs 

11^ t 4^0 h en , _ ^ V^eimu-Mid^ o 

1934-35 Conatructicn of the first supersonic winü zniinöl by 

Dr« Hermann, Professor at the Aero-dynamis Inis:.iiuUs of 
tJie Technical High School, Aachen, Pri: ci p«l i-'rofeasor 
Wieselberger. ( Grose section lOca x 10 cr:. ka r 3). 

1936»37 Carrying out the first raöasuremente for rocket .projr^ctila 

A-3 (first diep for A-A). Building of a ;iöooiid supersonic 
wind channsl at AacheQi, cros© section 20cib x ^Ocmo 

1936-37 Layout and drafting of th« J^Qcm x J+Oaii supörsonic wind 

tunnel on order of the ordnance (Sfar Dep-ertrosnl) by Dr. 
Hermann for the experimental station, Peenönrunde. 

1937 Founding of the Aero-Dynamic Institute at the 9xperi/:.ftr;- 

tal station Peenemunde, Principal Dr. Hermann» 16 Co- 
workers, Construction of the channel, Gro©s section 
40om X 40cn, blowing time 20 seconds, capacity ölO KW. 

1939 Setting into operation of the wind channal with 1 ükeas« 

uririg range, approriüiately 6C co-workers. Kxecucion of 
3 -component mensurations. 

Till 1943 Steady enJ.art^ing of the Institute due to iricrease in 
order», expansion of the experimental plant, erection 
of new laboratories and increasing the number of co- 
workers. Speed up to Ma s 4,4 (corrsspondingly 1450 m eec), 

Aag®1943 5 neasuring ranges, approximately 200 co-workers. No 

destruction o€ the Institute suffered from air attack 
on Feenemunde. 

Bad of 1943 Beginning construction on the supersonic wind tunnel at 
Kochel/Obb. which was drafted in 1942« 

J&n,1944 founding of the Hydraulic Experiiaental Institute 

Koahelsee G.».b,H. by Dr. E. Hermann and Dr. Herbert 
Graf for the purpose of designint^, buildiiig and 
distributing stream or current- technical devices. 

553 



severing of the Institution from the Experiaoatal 
statioa Peenesiund^ and ajoving saia© to Kochol, 

Oct. 1944 Completion of the plant ia the rough and p-ittir^ 
into operation on measuring range of 40cm x 4ückj, 
up to Bfias UA» 

Q* I'KvrisiQti am work distr ibution of the Wik, 

ih£ hyüraulic expsriiaental institution is divided into 
departinents, aain groins and groups, which in their sizes and 
persoKQel strength are capable of solving the particular problems 
of the various fields, namely^ the theoretical and experiaiental 
research, execution of fche experiments, maintenance and improve- 
aents on the technical plant and inptallaticn.', as well as genaral 
operation end cMasercial administration. 

This organisation plan was not adhered to too rigidly but «aa 
left flexible to the extant of readily adapting itself to th© 
changes and needs rBquired by the temporary ehelfing of one project 
and the moving up to priority of another, Ihe following statements 
»ay ser¥© as an illustratio». of the special kinds of work carried 
©ut« 

^ ' I>epsr tment Eg|>eri!aent4l ^_ Lgbora tory i 

Dr » Phil« Hermann Kurzweg «« forking out of all questions and 
probloas of aerc-dynamics, Jua thematic», thermo-dynamics and related 
fields, tlaeory, as well as experiaentai testing of aodela, 

Dr« Piiil. H. Lahnerta - Main Group « Aero-dynamic mensuratlona, 
Th@or©vical and experiaental analysis of the deTslopment of aero- 
dynaiaically favorable fonas and shapes for fast flying bodies of 

their own. &nd roreifc,n designs o 

lUpl ^ Engr. Ma x Raffelt 

Qroup ^i Three- component raonsurations. Mensurations to gain 
knowlödg® on resistance buoyancy, and body momentum , 

Qtovsd 2 » Miscellaneous uensurations. Mensurations to ascertain 
stabiliiy and dirigibllity. 

Qvoxm 3s Photo Department. Photographing and filÄtng of 
experimental r#search in all departments, sain groups« 

Dr» Peter Wegener (b) Main Group - Aero-Dynaaics basics ressapch, 
fheoretical calculation and experimental rechecking (proofing of 
aaro^-dynaado cbaraot«ristics of newly deTsloped bodies, wings, 
guiding gear and rudders of Üieir ovn and foreign ideas, 

Plr>l» Enjgr^ Hang. Ull rich Eckert - Group I t Dynamic Experliasntg « 
S3Q)erisients by dynaiaic methods, on siririging or osciHatlog models to 

554 



flrd tfcQ basis for stability^ capability of ßupportj »give or better 
stÄbiUtir em dirigibliity. 

j^rp pg.fl Statistis S:/4>«rim©jats -- Ei-rperiiaent-® for finding th© 
diatriiaution of prsssure on body, wir^, guiding gear and rudder on 
a rigidly held model* 

Dra Phil«. Willi Heybey » G Main Group«, itothenatics biireau. 
Evaluation of the Ei@nsi\ration results, trans figuring the roeults 
of the laodel 8xp«riinentö to actual! tj of free- flight, 

Stde Ass> F^odor Schubert « Grou? 2; Theoretical gas dynardcs« 
Research and e&lci4ation of the aathematic-thooretical basis of curreat 
procesaes in super-souiK! and compresßible sub-'souild, 

Gas^ Mth^ Wft Zettler^Saidel « örou2_Js Calculation of 
Trajectori«*s« - Application of ths theoretic and exyeriisental 
knowledge gained, on outer ballistics« Doveioping of systems for ti» 
calculation of tb© actual flight course in free-flight, 

Br« Fbilffi Wener Kraus « D Group i ^ermodynamics. 
Theoretical calculation and experiaoental analysis to gain knowledge oa 
the heating up, the heat trans forma tion and its influence upon t^e 
aero-ciynamic and constructive qualities of flying bodies. Dervelopwuit 
of tempera tur® laeafluring methods on currents of supersonic speed» 

Dr. Phil, ernat-Hana Winkler • S. Groups Optics, 
Developing and improving on optical devices and instruiaeats, necessary 
for the experiiaental analysis, Sspecially on equipiaent used in streak 
optics, the interferometer for qualitative and quantitative laonsiu'atioa 
of current prooeesee, 

Dipl. Engr. Siegfried Koh « A fcain Groups Electro mensuration. 

Developing ©f electric measuring methods for the mensuration of current 
prooeasfts« 

Dipl. Engr. Gottfried Arnold - Group 1; Physical a^asuring 
flw^odt. Application of X-raye for measuring the density (pressure») 
of current processes. Analysis on expsmsion of sound waves in super 
sound with electric measuring devices. 

Group 2t General measuring methode. Development of eleetrical 
systems of the three-component scales to measure the foroes on a model 
during the wind tunnel test« Development and application of electrie 
pressure gauges used in ascertainir^ pressure distributioao 

Dipl. Sngr. Max Peucker - B Main Group i Electro-operation, 
Planning, extension and superintending the electrical end of the 
experimental plant and maohinery of the Hydro *sxperiffl8ntal statiAn« 

fiipl> pisi» Josef Cergy s Group 1^ Planning and Construction - 
Sreotion of switchboards and construction and improvement of machines 
and control apparatus ©f the »ind tmrnel« 

555 



5r£k2-^* ^T^rüiion^i Supsr%'isicn « Servicing and eup^rvlsi-ig 
cf mßc::^jr.$& aai ccntrol appar&tus during operation teste. 

-^-Q"^ 3 1 Congiructicn of EquipiBsat, Davelopssnt and ©onstructloa 
of ©lActric-al measuriag apparatus and circaits for th« sind tunnalß and 
their operational obsertraticn, 

C BepartiaeDt of Technie&l Deyelöpsant; 

Chlfef Enf.p Ha ns G assnsr - Cons true ti-ro dev^lopaent of the wind 
tanr.®! iastallations aad prajmr&tion of foundations. Construction of 
»©dels €Uid mechanical parts of the De&surin^ apparatus. Cosastruction 
of arr^r projgctllas as & result of Jiew aeroö^aaÄies digcoTör®d aial 
the preparatioBS of completion plens for the armaaent indoatry. 
Coisstructii^ of scdels and Important parts of Üie wind tunnel in th« 



M 1^ f ,, J OS af^^ Juck &Tt%i 

{ £ ) ftiain Grcup-i Construction: 

Gci^lstiois of c&lsul^tiong &M preparation of the cona traction 



öi'Söi* Is M#ESia'ati©s n 
^ 3? mdmlM. 



^.^.M^M.M^MM£$M ^ i-feig-.Sge^^ FiahricaUoa, 

le Sumrif±B±&n. fmrm&u - Shop dir@stion and adminiatratlon. 

2« Job prep«ratie2i* 

3e Warfesfcop - Matäiiisa fitting DajMirtffientj latha department, 
aiillng i^chtQs d«pto, plaiKür d?*pt,, cabins t-aiaklng, 
prscisioa d®partm3ntj. tool srib and stock roon. 

ä» Dg|ja rt£i®nt Wind Tirnael » South (IS} Dr, Bngr, Gerhard Sbar. 

Problen^s i Dasignii^ and constructing a wind tunnal with a hydro 
power station batwean Walchanse® and Kochelsea of Ise x Is crosa 
section for 7 fold &p«ed of aound (Aia of devslopsentj 10-fold speed 
of sonnd) with and installed output of 57000 Kff. Hie project was 
^tarried oat by the Hydro research institutioD in collaboration with 
%&% m&tsriAl supply firsa. The hydraulic end of the plant project 
j^s^ worked OBrfc by goweriBient building engineer Schlegel of Ifemich. 

1 ^^ Phil« Karl Heirtrlch Graenewald - | Maiii Group? Scientific 
4ua^ Uonir~Q!ear inig" ' ( explaining) of all physical and techn?.cal questions 
sL'^isirig dui-ing the building of the wind tunnel for in!».tance, in regards 
to air drying, bahaviotir of the air during the expansion in the LaYaX 
nozslss« 



SS6 



raogö. CentrsötiOR üf the monsurativn rangö .TUi ir^'low~f um.el, 
aiarißuratioß ch&iaber, diffuser thi-ee-compoKenl scales, and Schlieroa 
opticß, Sr«ction of tha mensiiration range ia oollaboratlon with th^ 
ftra of Diiigl&Tg Sweibrucken. 

Oipl* -^^g* Albert Haller - C Groug, Machinaiy plant., 
G^loulatiag eisd designing of the ttr bin® unit, conalsfcing of 4, twin 
'iV«istrsfel (fr«© stream tiirbiaäs- of output, each 12000 kW diröctly 
coupled with ^laöuiM pumpe &i)d j single stage fr©« stream tui*binta cf 
3000 kW Output öach for the generation of elactric energy m 
co-opsration with tte firm of Vailh, HtsidenJiaim. 

Caleulating and designing of the vacuum pump asseosbly^ oonsistiüg 
of 7 bldwsr stag©s with one suction line of 1200000 bj3/h/ t© produc« a 
YECuiiiB of lUfflM 03 (^I9rcury Column?) including the appropriate oool«? 
and switching: apparatus and auxiliary usAchines in cooperation witU th« 
firm of Brown Bov«ri and Co, Mannheim, 

DesigMsg «f the air-drying iustallation for Ui& drying of 
approxiaately 870,000 kg of air per h. from of 12g/kg moiatm-e to l«sä 
than 0,5g/kg through the aodima of silicic acid-G«l in collaboration 
with the firm of Silc6-G«l-G«sellschaft, Berlin. 

i^lpl. EQg r» W« Schlesinfi;er - p iSain Groupi Slectric Inatallatfens. 

DsT«loping all electrical ©quipiaent necessary for the opera tion of the 
inatallation, such «quiprsant as was chosen on ground of experiaenta nad« 
in rese&jföh on th« axis ting wind tunnel«* 

®* Main Groups General devices and installations, fabricating art! 
procuring laboratory equipment, measuring instruaents ^tc« necasöary in 
the operation ©f the wind tunnel. Fitting up of several laboratoriaa 
in conforaity with latest standard methods. 

Data OK th» Bulging Construction; 

Begianing ©f th« building Kovember 1943, tiuie provided for the 
building - 2 y«ars. Operation of the installation in its first staga 
should have begim in Autujun 1945. Work on the building project ceasacl 
in iäarch 1944« The geological analysis and surveying works of tha 
^lydraulica part have been concluded. Building of the machinery 
installationa aarried on until September 1944. Detailed parts of tha 
inatallati©» (auch as driving gears, ai^ blowera) are at Koohel. 

^* BapaytBfot Admini strati on > Dr. Phil Herbert Graf. 

Handling ©f all operational and commercial administrativ» quaatioöi 
wer« normally dealt with by an aeeocistion of limited bomb (guaranty) 
Detaila alossg t^s« lines are taken for granted and do not need ajgr 
spaciAl mentioning In the organisation pl^n, 

55/ 



g» Assistant of the Management «• Engr, Guentber Herriaaim. 
^* Power iBst ftllatioa, 

Sie MM st Koch®l takes its power from th© Walchensee power 
plants which is tha largest hydroelectric plant in G«naany with a 
peak capacity of 168^000 H.?. It is undamaged« The power demands 
of mk ar© only about 2^ of the plant's noriaal load. 



At ih® pr«g@iit tlMs, f¥A i@ served by two traneforsiers at th® 
powar plant! th« larger of thes©^ 6000 lc?Ä, 106050/1^0 ¥ölts is 
en loan fro^ Eäeia-Main-Domiu. Munöimn^ and »ay bo reegilled at any 
tia®, tti© s®c©iö transferrer . which st^ps th« 1900 Isolta up to 
6000 tN^ltSg Mä to b& used bscaiise th© first wes not adapted to thi» 
J ob J this sesoud transformer is overloaded when WA is at full 
capacity* A ta?ansf ormer to replace tb#s© two, 5500 KVA, IO6OOO/6OOO 
volts has been ordered from and isade by OH (Italy)? it is presuiaed to 
be in Bosea (BosmBo) 

ips ar© operated on 6OOO volts j the lighting, 
dl&T circulte operated on 3^0/220 volt«. 



Iho wind tunnel pi 
irjlng iiistallationg aod 



558 



A. g» todM of Air for th» Wind Yaan»lfl> 

Xa tlM yrcMBt inlwraitt^nt vind tonn«!, air is adaitied thro^h 
A «#%l»97linärl«al Motion e@fit«iiilng 7 tons of siliea gel. 2h« Aryin^ 
BjmUm Lb d««erl!»»d An thm HVP report Archiv Rr. 66A9 ^ ftr* anja«w»3j*. 
C«rtAin iafcrsAtioQ not givdB in the report is glveji below. 

The aSr yftss«* throtigh the drying »eotioa «t & velocity nwur 1 m/^m^i 
thm aeotisA kas « a«rfftoe of about 30 sq. a. aod gel Motion Is 30 ea 
tkidc* lta«tivatioa le hj aeaoe of a oold blast of ikry air, this Im 
nee^ssar^ Iwaausa the tiae between the 20 sec» rune is only 3 to $ ala», 
which 1« «at lo«g enough for a reactivation by heat, k re&ctivatiaa 
fallowi iW«ry ran« Bie blast of oold dry air is generated in aa 
installlttLaa eaaprlsing two absorbers» of i^ich one is reactivated by 
heat whlla the ether is in service, heater« and coolers. In general^ tha 
water content of the air delivered was about 0.1 to 0.2 g/kg; in "^mrf 
hiiaid weather it was worse. The present charge of siliea gel has beea la 
usa 5 yecrai the only deterioration observed h&s bean a gradual 
pulverisatlaaj the powder settles to the bottoa of the section and 
inereasas tha resistance to flow. 

Ihe teyiag installation planned for the continuously operating wind 
tunnel will be different. The aerai-oylindrical section will be replaae4 
by two plaaa drying sections, which aay be shut off fron each other ta 
perait sa]^arate reactivation. ( Ihe seal-cylindrical shape was originally 
adopted ^ give radial flow, but this w&s ^ound unnecessary) • The 
throughpa^ will be 4.00 ou.n./mln. of air, the dryness expected being aheot 
rhat now attained. A wind tunnel run will last 1 hr; reactivation of tha 
silica gel is expected to require 3 hours, 

1. The dryli^ systea is inta(^l£»oked with the «^Schnellschlnasveatll« 
in such a way that the strean of dry air froa the fonser escapes throogh 
a l^-ass whaa this valve is open, but goes thro\)gh the silica gal to 
reactivate It whan tha valve is closed at the end of a run. Ibis sahaaa 
must of coarse be aodified when a "hot activation" of the silica gel 
becoaes aeoessary, as it does one' s day under the worst conditions. 

Such activation requires about 3 hours and may be necessary only 
every 2 weeks la winter. 

2. Changes involving the aodel being studied are made during the 
period required for the reactivation of the gel and the pumpii^-out of the 
reservoir (750 au.B. capacity^ another reservoir of 1000 cu.a. is balM 
built). 

3* Safety measures are taken to rnake the entire installation feal^ 
proof I aaually these ere at least two safety measures to protect agaiaat 
a given haiard. In the puaping Installation, the switches cannot be 



559 



•U»9A »r rttnalQ olos^d if th® cooling water is not running through 
tlM pajg»! if th« air being puaped ri>ee oTvr 280O0., the punpi 
I**',JL™* I»»^«»««r« ia the Um Inoreeeee abore 3 Äta., the pwpe 
•top like«i««; there ere «Iso bfureUng neahraiMe to guerd UfaiMt 
?"* «M« oeptlngeacy, Slallar preoauUonB «re taken on the wind 
t«HMl itself • 



_^ . 4. Ifee gTMt h*B«^ la the operaUon of the tnnnel is the daiMer ft-« 
"y*2f «2j^ *•*•» th« «!*«• wall« of the chaober fall. So far no one 
BM teem IjiJvsrad la the opereUon ef the tunnel, either here or at 
Fe^aeaRMd«» 

5» IB» Ä%M»t the tvaneX» a f©et owitch sua t be pressed twice, 
OBM t« «i^vtrt tlw strMA ®f dry air lato the by-aee and asaia to epea 
tÄ» ««^hMOlAQiaBesirantil». Uds wins e@rtaln that the dry air is heiotf 
hgr-yoraod hstw op4^retiea eaa begin, 

6* A goo« fit «af the "Sohnell*Ghltt»swaUl« i» very liaportant to 
pemm^ lamsm im to the geaen^Uoa of ohook «avosi these could bo 
Bmimam «mm^ to pro^nt the etotalali« of supersonlo flow. 

7» difr«ift9i£l m@k auab®re aro e^talned by eh&agin« the aoisle la 
tiM «iai toBDoI« ^t^m M@s can aak» s^h a change in 13 ainutes. 



t» fkm jfm^B oro rotary «ir eoapreesors contaialng aoTshle bladoo 
ia «a 9®&ma^pi9 SMoslng. the blade« are held agaimt the housing by 
ooatrifqgai foroo idtoa tho p^ipe are ia operation« The eoapression 
TotiO; «tiioh my fiaavo Talao« radglag up to 10, depeisSs upon the deaiga 
sM upoa tho loalBig® past the bladeo« 

fbs folloaias «tepe are taken la order to resune opera tloa after 
a BcmaX shtzt downt 

1« Close eiretilt breakers for the puaps and the drying ins tallA tloa 
(3 Biautee). 

S« itart the ecoling wat@r flowing through the puape. Start the 
pai^io« (3 ainutss)« 

3* Start tiM coolisg water In tbo drying ins talla tloa« 
f^oMP huttoa to start the installation. (2 alnutea), 

4« Xa0«ri »odol lato wind tua&el. This operation roquiros 5 

5 aiatttoo la the slaploet oase when only lift, drag, and pitoh 
Of ta ko aeasurod, fhe aouating of sodela aay require se^wral 
Itoiar« «lion proosur« distribution is to be studied; in this case, 
both the iODor aad outer glass walls on ons side oust be replaced 
b|r «tool; aad this r^ulres the use of a crane | the manoaeter« 
ati0t te eoanoctod (ther« nay be a hundred of these), Sereral 



HO 



b» aate; h«r« th* stsdl plat«8 aast b« u««d also, Hhsa 

3okLl«r«ii plMt«g?«]>h< ar« tAk«n» gl«9s «alls «r« tw«dt bar« ^^* 

atdt Oif the tlB« required goes into setting up the optieal 

8|nit«B* ft» ««Be thiqg ^plies to the laterferoaeter^ with 

«hi«h speeiel glm^B ßi^m au»t be inserted into the toaael* 

$• Wn9A Ufty «kmg %aä pitch ure to be seesured, the eleotro- 

Mfaetio oirouite «net be closed e^ut 10 ainut^e« befere e \ 

WA eo that ste«d;9r ctete conditions (teapereture B&inlT-) v« 
rvetited. For irery ypeeiae work It is desireble to c&libret« 

a» bftlAnees pre^iaelj each day^ ^leh requires abcut an hour; 

tmt lese preelee work, only tvo or three points need be cheeked» 
Wmn the »8« hftXanee systea has been introduced, there will be 
BO need tot f^requent calibration slaee a linear relationship 
win obtaia between the forces and cumuitB recorded, 

6, The 20Hi«ooEid run has now begim* 10 or 15 seconds suffiew 
for the aeastireaBnt of the forees. (Ste foscees on the nodel 
«afl telder «re ueually aeasured first} the subeequeut 
aeamireaeat en the holder alone requires, of course, a separata 
r«uoi)« n*eceure distribution aeasureaents nay require up t« 
40 people with the present systea} when the elactroaagneti« 
raccrding preasure guage systea has been introdueed, all tha 
ptraaawre readings will be fully autoaatie 

?• At the end of the run, the '«Sohaellsehlussventil« is closed 
99 that the pressure in the reservoir drops to the desired 
ialtlal value for the next run. (The pumps are kept in 
eentiauous operation). The peraissible initial pressure 
▼arles invomely «Ith the Mach zninber of the asset experlaeatf 
far ezaiqple, 1*2 Ma requires **60)( ewaouation", se that th« 

nitlal pressure is AQ|jK of 760 aa, 3.1 Ma requires 95^ eirmou» 
«tloa; 99»5)( evacuation has been attained. The puaping tiaea 
required vary froa 3 to 10 ainutes; At Mach mxabers below 
2«5, the three pairs of puaps (capacity of each pair,^ aboa^ 
200 ou*VBi&*) *3re used in parallel, itt higher Hai^ nuabara Htm 
third pair of pumps is Ul series with tbs -atlwr two pairs ia 
parallel; the change from one pump hook»xip ^ another emk ba 
aada by preesing a button« 



Sil 



0* ft» BtOmoMf for t^ f^n^ Tn^U 

'Bm bftlABoM for la^Muring th« thr#« ooapoaeats (lift, drmg ©ad pit«h) 
aro 0li9«ii ia the attaoliod Bketeh« 

It» di«t«rti©ii ©f the sprißgs 1« rtad «Uotro»Rgi»tlc«Uyi « 
roeordiog a^ppar&tua i« co»plet« bat h&e not jntt b««fi iiiit*ll«d. Tte 
ooBpl«t» «Ijrlng äiagras is shown b8l»9t 



Pnnupbild der Diflfrrenzwaoge 



lit th® |xr®p$g^ tijfi«. th« ßppärftttui in ufe# is nraetioftlly tltet t» -th« 
l«ft of-tis® linear s!»p.lifi®r (Eeg^l'^araitis^ar}, Tliis «ppwflitiM i« 
new ooxniestai t<d aE A6 aHliaawt«?, vhieli has tik« diaadvmntft^ tJutt 
tb« spriqg i@]^t b® T&r^ fitroßlj dietortdd to gitr« «m mj^pKWtlaVit 
eurr«iit« |N^ this t^mmg&s th« @u£T«at &t»l mij^t r«lAtt«iuiki^ is a»t 
lii^ar« i:he iww arrangs^nt will b«^ net ©aly sntonatl«» but Uamt 
btaaoi»® täo nur^ijissit $f i^@ spris^ «iH b« sid'f ieiaiitl^f r9«tri«t«<l^ 
and b^eaus^ both asipllf i®r ^std r9«tifi«r C(|l9iofarielit*rbrtlok«) btiw 
lifMsar "ohß^^«t«ri« tiee ,. 

fh» issiial Tajpiations in rex» tenpArat^o« d« not affsvt tha racKil^« 
MaMsar«fii8&ta ov«r the ranga HI f to i Isg vill bo aado to « 2 g («ppr««) 
»itiiGut changing th« balaifäaov Bgr ebongiag th« air gap» thia rang« «ili 
b® diaplAO«d to higher er lonrer ««ItMS« 

at$#® ^»oaditiona «ill obtain whoa tJi« ooeplat« olootrioal a^stbA la 
xtm^Mll^t laboratorjr t«sU to ahov this hav« baoa aada, Ite apparatetfl 

,'v# r®^j to ins tall« 



t^j igr«i»«nt arrangosant has th« drawbaak tiyit tbo diff«r«neo roquirod 
w.' «atabUsb pitch ia obtainad by tho «ubtametioM of two Iwrg« 
fj^^fitdtioo« k "Difforans waag«* was accordis^ly eoiastraotod ao thftt 



562 



Uits diff^rsao« could b« isaas-ar«d diraatly ov9r «i r&nge 3M»strlot«d 

te tasur» Idgb procisies«» IM0 mw !»l«ao« ha« not y«t l»«n lB»tAll«d| 

it haa be»is ««lütmotad «nl t«#tod, 

fhd krldg» for thu XMW "df.ff«r®no9 ^I&bo«^ wllJI ha?« tvo IndtifttAaoaa 
l%° »aob 9f th« t»e syrlogs Qoxusers^d in tkf pitofa »MLSurräMut, aa shovn 
i& thtt «if iisg diagrttB* 

In tba pr«lMiiit brldg«» tvo iadudtaaeaa aro coBrpar«d witJ& tue atAodArd 

faaistancmt« Tb» '^iffar0fiS<-««iKga" la daaeribad la WfA ir«Mv Ü^« 

f\m heXsms^s ara e&libr«taä atatio&lli' witii walghta» 



500 0m m d r ennh^ife 



E 



fiamera 

Schlierenblendi ' 

Plans piegeK 



tJohlsBiec iel 500mm ^ 
5000mm Rrmnu^it^ 




±. 



Planspisqd 
- - Bo genlam pe 



10000mm 





564 




Auffneöikomponen i 



H^tdc-rsl and ikon iponcntv 




ft^/d^r^taniis^oniponctite ^ 



565 




siwi spring for.dragafyx*' ff) 



s'w/ ipring for , drag behiv'C?) 



[!fet# th@ t<i\& horisoisal 



s for th« balaas«, 
guids wires for th« springs). 



Mlanees wlthi|i Wind Tim nel M odelg.. 



#3rfcerBai balance sys^tam has the dtsadirantage that the 
fc>ro0 actjjiig OB tha moddl miiat b« obtained as the difference of 
tfc@ for@@s oil holder ®r^ models and on th© holder" alone. If 
\kX^ diff$»reri<5® is susfill, as in tha case of a good aerodynamic 
body, it is iiabl« to \m in&ccurat©« fhifi inaccuracy Is 
mitigates by placing a balance iaside th© mod«!, the balance being 
attach^ t© the holder« 

Ibee« Imiancee are identical in principle witE the eleetro- 

2sag!i0ti® pF®s«ur« gaxjgasi here the uembranes are ir«p3.ao«<i fey 
1^ balanees ara isade in a wide rsr^e of sises« 



566 



PrttS9ur® inäio«tor« for swill pressur« in th* nuporsonle vind 

tuen«!« 



PRäSSUKK 




Presflur» oh&rabvr 

Wftll of B«r7lliiiB BroaM 

(Berylliu» Copp«r) of d s 25/1000 

Bua oithor p^ or 7ft ema 

(whloh is nor« advantageous sines 

on« measurss snail px^ssursc). 



Fs, persalloy, Uta »otal 
(«sssntialljr nicksl alloy with hi|^b 
initral psrneabilltgr}« 



Full rai^s for Instanos 5 « fig vltli an aeeuraoj of 2% AC in th« 
coil V s iQOO Hsra. Errors givsn through meohazü.eal hystisresis 
losssa. DlMnslons ars of ths ordvr D s 15 on L « ^^ am so th«7 «Mm 
bs inoorporatod into the aoddls in the wind tonnsl. Spaoe S is 
•▼aouatsd to a prsssurs at least about on« hundrsd tiass saallsr thas 
th« pressure oo® is to iseasure« The chaabor walls on rapid eTsotsatioa 
Kust therefore ba able to withstand shocks of 1 stA« 

To a preesisre difference of 5 bsi Hg corresponds a displaoenant of 
ten »Icrons, ( a 100 divisions on the scale),, One scale division 
oorresponds to 10*° 5 msk Hg, 

Ultrasound waves cf about A'-^ lmmto4Bi«(V ^ 330 ooo Hi to 
80 000 Ha)» Tiare worked upon in order to fill the whole cross section 
with wave«; the refraction (Schlieren) smrvey of »diioh would have 
allowed to determine the distribution in the teoperaiure field, 
(l>et«»rBdnation of the leoal were length of the superposed waves of 
saall aaplitude vrith the "Schlieren" method). 

Project on thy "Supersohall" Wind Tuanel> 

"Super8oh«ll"p Mach nujiber M > 4, to "übersehall" of Haoh 
nuaber ^ A. Neberschall flow is relatively easily attainable. 



567 



Jb« moat lnUr«BUBg pi«o« ef «jpUaal •quipiwnt is a m« 
tJat«rf«swt*r nd« ly C«ri 2»l«a, fhi« «qulpnant has ney«r 
to^tt««d OB a wind tttfflial aa it taraa only bain« fittad up «fean 
J«a*«l «aa oapturad. fho apparato« had baan diaaanUad, bur lad 
la tfea grooad and la now la a workti^ condition» 

Th« lntarfarom®t«r la of th« «Äkch-Zahndar« typa (4 pUta 
Sjt4irfa«»at^) Ibe fiaXd of view i» 9 to 10 «. 5*xa »iaa of 
tb« o^aaal »hicfa fits around tha wind tuBnol is aa shown on the 
plaa« 

A plftA of tha ioatruaant la attaobad. For adjuatsiant thara 
*ra tso iB8tn»anta •iadUjr to thaodoUta« ^ich ©nabla ona to gat 
an aoÄOtljr boriaontal ba» at li^ht through tha int«rferoaetar. 
(tea of tbas (I) 1« fittad in tha pUoa af tha arc lÄmp a«! filtar, 
ecndansap and watar call raawwd, Tha othar inatnaant (F) t« 
fittad on a »iiaU opUeal baaoh naar pCUta III (»oe pl*n) and tha 
Tiawiag oOBdaaaa? ranovaä. K2 contaiiö a oroaa-wlre whioh can be 
▼iaaad by tb« talaaoopa F - Plata IV ia adjuatad so that tba erosa 
wir« ©f E eoinoidaa with aroes wir« F. Pia U IV i« th»n at 43° 
to tba horlmontal. The othar airrora are than adjuatad sa that all 
four ara psrallal. Plataa I ♦ III ara aasiitrana parent mirrors tha 
back aurfaces of which are mad« non-raf lectin«. The final adjustaenta 
aaat be aada with th« arc i&wp and ssonochroaatlc light. TYm saro 
Batting is »ad« by uaing white light and aoring the plat« III parallel 
i» tba boriaental baaa. 4fter thaaa adjustaents hava been a^de only 
oaa airrer (plats IV) is >a@Ted ^M the only aoveiaent paraittad is an 
iikolinatlon about either the vertlisal or borliontal axis, tha whole 
inatruKiata rect on four faet which -are fittad with a syataa of springa 
i^£h damp out any Tibrationfl, 

There ara two optioal grouKl plataa which fcra the windows of tha 
tuaial giving a field af view of 15«0 ca diaaetar, {QimB9 plates have 
total dias)at«r of 24 oa a?%d thiäknass 25 aa). These plataa are the 
flnAat quality optical glasa available in Germany and their surfaeaa 
are groiisid to lass than i af a wavelength of light. T« «oap«»naate for 
tha anall «rrar dua to the nsihto^» being not parallel the two pi« tea 
eaa be turnad about tha horiaontal axis of the inte»rferometer. There 
ara also two ccapanaatiag plataa which fora '«he wlndowo of a compen* 
«ating ohaaber through which paases tha lower horizontal li^ht be«m* 
Th» light aystaa ia a Hg arc laap of 100 watts, a high prassura Kg arc 
laap of nearly 1000 watts and also a filaaent lamp can be osad when tha 
adjueäaent« are baiqg aad^» Thra« filtara ara provided giving light 
of 5JM A, 5469 - 5490 A and 4359 A wavelength resoecUvely. The 
coi^enaer (parabolic) has a focal distance of 16 ca. finally a'wa!>er 
oell to absorb heat ray«. 

pop observing the fringes there is a t« 1-3 3 cope nnd projector on a 

carriage and tha usuäI photographic aquipaent. Platen of 13 x 13 cm 

or a itJ mm fila can be used. Tha fring«t can be recorded on a moving 

'IIa cai»iera taxing 100 pictures per aecondg 

568 



U3i:^- t.h<^ ICO wait H^ arc, platur«» can be tak«n with an 
• xpoD^or« of 1/500 Bee. Tho lOJO watt H^-arc gives pictures with 
1/5000 sao. •xpcsiir«. 

Froa the int«rfer»noe patterna it ia posalbl« : dat«naln« 
dtff«rtjiicee in praasur« arnJ th«r«fora of danaity In th«» air of Üi« 
wind-tunnel, Tha great «d-^-aiitagas of this wsthoi aro that maaaur-a- 
»ants are poaslblo without any apparatus b«lr^' in the air a tree«, it 
i» «xtireaoly rapid and a continuoua record can be obtained with a 
hi^h speed caraara of nodals whioh are »oTir^ with high velocity. 
Speol&I »aehinea have been dealgaad and con^Lructad for interpreting 
the diagrÄiM quickly aad for caloulating the roaultSo One of these 
Hjaohines is at Kochel but the othara were at D&nnstaJt and tJh'^y have 
been destroyed. A other machine was in cona traction ü^ain and was 
nearly completed» A« far as la known this is still at Dara8t*dt, 
(Prof« Rau, Mechanic was naarad Hof f aan) . 

There ia on the wind txinnel an earlier model of tt.9 interfer- 
oaeter«, fliis earlier model ia of the sana high opticid quality a^ 
the later model but the adjueta»nt» for changing the diotaace betw^-jn 
the fringe» ia much »ore complicated. On the later aodol it ia only 
neooasary to turn one knob to Bake this adjustaant whili« on tba 
earlier »©del It is noceaaary to aanlpiaate fiwe knob«, Thie 
» iapl if 1 cation of adjuetaentfl recolta fro« the fact that i« the latw 
i«xlel the length of the horlaontal path ia twioe that of the 
▼ertioal path conaequently the center of plate IV ia on the eirviui- 
ferenoe of a circle with 1+^ center at the center of the Model« There 
la a plan of thie earlier model attached. The later modal fit» under 
the tunnel while the earlier on» f 1 tt©d over the top of the tunnel. 
The wind tunnel wiiidowa for the earlier model are larger tiian the 
later ones having a diaawter of A20 an. There are four coaiplete 
windo«» and two set» of half plates o These plates cost more *lian 
the remainder of the interferoiaeter. 

It is clftjmed that tho ancurai^y is appro xiioately C.5t at Mach 
No. 2y 1^ at Mach Ho, 3 and Mach Ko». 4 and 5. 



569 



fhrn followizsg is a list of other optieal equlp»«nt at 
Koohel» 



3i^}|lie^,|a apy>ayi^tiia. 







i-. WiNOOWS 



•Sißr« ara 2 £ehli'«reii ®quip»»nt» at abov®, on© of «hieb Is U9«d 
in th« tuimal. On« slrror of ©ach peir of eirror» in the taumal 
0ph@rical end tha o'Jier has hyperbolic correctioe which ia «ftdo 
by hand« 'Sb.» second eqisipssnt ha« two parabolio airrors of 
f ® 5m* 1!h& disiae*:®r of all fotir olrrora la 50 ob. 

There 1» a third Sohllor»n «quioaeat which ua«fi two apherieal 
mirrors of f b 350 o» and diamat«r v 33 ot. 

In adMition thar« ia'an oqulpaont with <;wo laoawe of f w 250 

SB aod dian^t@r 25 cm» 

?be tifiual aocaaaor^ apparatua tuah as filtert a to« «if« 
availabl®« 



570 



2* MSate3Rid,japffftyoiH'^i^9 ftftiwff»^^ 



H6MT S0ÜR£E 




TH^'RMO - ELBMEMT 

This apparatus is ua»d for j»A9vtrixitg vorj «nail quaatitia« 
of eatar Tapor in tha air of tha tunnel. Monoehronatia iafrsTayv 
ar« paasad through tha tunnel axid fall on a tharmo-aXaaaat which i» 
oaanaetadi to a galTanomtar ao that tha abaarption 9t tha r«äiatiatt 
in parfaotly dry air oan ba eoaparad with that in air oontaiaiaf a 
aaail quantity of «atar. 

A) ara two priana of flint glaas, quarta or rook-aalt. Ihagr 
eaa ha rota tad on tbalr aoun tings by »eaas of tha knob 0« 

B) ar« four spbarioal airrora of f • 300 am and raotangttlar 
ahapa with approxiraataly 5 e» sides. 

It is claiaad that an aocuraoy of 1% at huaiditia« of 0.5 ga 
in a oubio aetsr of air, and I -> 2$ at lower huaiditiaa. 

It was proposad to ins Uli an alternatlT« detector to tha 
thamo^elsBent consisting of an absorption call and it waa Ut bt 
■ade ao that a oontinuous record of tha hunidity could ba obtainad« 
Ihi« latter was designed but not constructed, 

3o Hiare is a eonplata range of smaller optioal apparatus whioh sa^ 
naoasaaary for tha Masyraatats which are carriad out and for raaa^eh 
pur pas aa» 



571 





PUBS I 

lnt»sf9Jpommt»r pett^rne vlth nodsls ki sUll mip, 

U) 60^ cono, diaatt«r oT b«a« 7.0 «■• 
(te) 42^ Mm«, diaset«? of bas« 5.0 <»• 

ths direction of the fringac is oho9«n to suit tb« 
particular m^ del shape or a particular part of th« 
nodel which is of interests 



572 




w 




C-) 



PLi« II 

(a) 42^^ ooQ« in aa «ir «tr««B, Maeh muiber 3.10, horizontal 
frlag««* 

(b) 42^ eon« 1b an air »traaM, Uach number 3.10, vortical 
friftf*»* 

Za (a) tfa0 pattaros on aach side of tha ooiw ar» nat tha eaa» 
baoaua^ th« praaaiare dii tribution la synDoUried and the fringes 
aXvay» warm la the saaa direoUon. 



573 




^Ä^<«y / 



^^/f 



AiS 



m*s 



X 



"c-Zr^ 



T> arc ^^•* /T, 



I^ftSLIlL 



lartorprdtfttlon of Pl«t9 II to d«ao2istr«t0 th« ohang« 
of pr«»#«r« b«^»09Q th« shoek «»▼• and th« «urfao« of 
th« aodel along tha line anrkdd "Sehnitt"» Kaeh muabor 
3.10. 

p s pr«90ur« ddtandasd fr«a pattara 
q « isAnom«trle pracmr« of air etrdss 
I- m ©oordinat« aloQf »Solmitt« 



574 



I 





»\- .• »^ A««» ««»-««, .™AA.V 



"" <r «*»'*"»»«!•«■' 




frfint ff 'f 2 *¥ 



,-►- ^«^/>v'<//<» 



£MftJL 

I9 It Ml 4 «Imv 1^ pr»MuM <Sicia>ibution along 



576 




m^ u 



Thi» plat« flhovs thm pattern obtftioad with Maoh Nr. 
1.S6 without 9Ltxy Bod«! in tb« «Ir stroAB. 

A model giTiag • thr«« dlMntlot»! pieture of tb« 
prcfsrir« distribution was oonntruotad ax»d it •oables 
oonractiona to b« sad« to tha nosslas of tfaa air-t\innol. 



577 




,^ uk'-i^SCQ^B \M% 



578 




ElÄt«i VXXI 




üÄ^'M^: 






* *Ö^'^^" ^^^^'-^d^M^^^^^ 







;!!fi^l 



580 




.^' ]i 


-Tf 


^ ' 


U 




< ii» 


»; 


ft 11^ 


vm 


^ 


't 


i^:t|, 


-4^7 


fl 


hi 


1 
I 




% 


}|j 



581 



r^ ffr*^iytion erf Mlrrw» tar »putUriny. 

Xlrr«rf &r« pr^psrcd by #putt«ring Al cb öl«ipi glase aM tSwa 
89tttt«riii« A protsetlv« ooftUng of äid2 02^ ^t^i «irror ttos proi«o«d, 

M^«nidl7 t« A half ««t« X«&gth i# obUlawli ndforaitj 1» 
OMitr«ll«A fey ob»«nplng tnUrUrmnom color« • «YAporfttioa 10 ItoUmspUA 
nh«a IdM pro|»«r ooler appoare« 

tk« ole&aiK« i» aic»t laportaat. Tho gl*«« if flr«t. "oxidi»«!" In 
air 1^ 0«bj«etiBg it to a TsaU oail disoluurga, tiM osoaa prod«ead by 
«hifih ia auppoaad to b® banefloial. Tiaa glaaa ia mX% boabardad bf ieis 
la iraoiam a« aa to v^matm and fiiaiab tiia olaaaiog. Al ia tbon «Taaaratad 
oa, tba haat baijig ««ppUad by a twujgatan filai»nt, 3i02 i« fioally 
aputtarad on in aiailar fashion« Tba avaporationa ara oarriad out in 
high Taawan at taaparatura» aatiaatad aa UOO^C (Al) and 25OOOC (SiO^)« 

iX ridora and Si02 ridari ara plaead diraotly on tha tungstaa 
filaaaat« fha SiOa aalta but tha droplets adhara. About 10 »eo^ ia tha 
avaraga tiaa for evaporation« 

Tha finiahad mirror «ay ba poliihad and is Tory durabla. Mot avary 
airror aada is auecaaeful, Qood sdrrora up to about 6" diaaatar hava 
baan aada« 



58^ 



*• X-gwr mihnd for th« D« tT»iiMitlon of G>« D>MiUM In Rapidly 



?*lttt«» oonaUncy to_wlthin ♦ 0.1% «aa achi«T«d by luiing a gan9ratx>r 
•valu«lT«ly for tha work and regulating ita voltaga by naana of a 
•tandard ^VttcHa»>tuba regulator (siaaana). 

Tha sehaaatio diagraa of tha apparatua ia givan balow» 

Qutrschnitt durch die Me&strtcke 






\ Vv'^ 



Strahl 
tuhui 



hnaatmu- 
kammtr 



'■^^^^ 'M,f„i 



^KI^0fnfWtFt 



auitrt Sta''lwaiKl 
äfi Windkanali 

Th« tMo^fotiäÄl radiation from a H tar gat at 7.5 to 10 kV was uaadj 
tub« currant 10 to 20 Ka. An Ionisation chanbtr was usad. Tha 
calibration was carrl««1 out by aaan» of the calibration r,uba in 
which known presjures of dry «tr could be aaintainado Iha procision 
ia aatinaiad at better than ■* 1$ at ataospherie pressure, but it 
decraaaao wi Lh the pressure.** Calibration immediately before use is 
adviaabla« 

«aft»ure»anta on «ctual a-jdals }ii»v#) wot bo'in made; but the method 
has boan usad to cherk the flow from iiozzleo In the wind tunnel» 
Flow around prlsass Is n w brtin^j i'ludlel, an'1 work on wl g profiles 
is plarinad, 1\i*i meLh<d will ou more diflijult to apply U> projectiles 
and tha lilca. On each v^nrk, the t>eaa is staticnary and the raudel 
is loirad. 

The ionization chamf^-j^r »mU vacuum tube amplifier for the small 
cun-entfl (ennivjilent r^fliytance 10)%hrs8) #ere dev»,'lopad in 
laraa-.a-'t ./ -hu and .- *»'U \^.'-i their report »WA nrchlv Nr. AI). 



5d4 



Th« »sthcd imj §!▼«, for th« first tli», tfe*-s tifsmp-^r» tnre of 
tb« bouadary layer for a Eodal In tha wind tiinnal. Iho 
static pr^ssiur« is neaeurad as uacual through a hcla in tha 
»odal, and üi» danpity at tha sama point i» ob«-ala®d by 
swasvariftg X-ray abaorption« 

A typical raault for flow around prisma at Mach numbwrs 1,6 to 
2,9 la Bhown in tha following diagran» 





POSITSOM OF MEASUREMENT 



^' ok 



SHOCK WAYl 



Maaaurantata «era nada at Tarloua point parallal to the axla 
of tha Mxial along a Una orosalng tha ahoek wava aa ahci'rQ, 
Thara la a hraak in tha praaaura eurra at this polht. The 
dacraasa in prttsura bayond B was m t axpactad; it m&j m> that 
Bona BoJLacular prooaaa (rotation, vibra .Icn ?) prooaada u>o 
a lowly to absorb tha enargy of iha shock wava without haTin^ tha 
praaaura rlsa abora its final Yalaa. 



585 



Tow Ugbt 8<nm»«s are in tsJ«^ ae rolJUwtg 

(1) A 5 aaper« a?« 

(2) A high vol tag« Spark i*ör®® 

(3) A iOO waU »«rcizry 34|i^ (with filtw) 

(4) A 1000 » s 6 ». « 

Hi«»« light sourc«s B»y b@ u««d «lth«r for th« Schll«r«tt 
photograph» ©? fcsr th« liit«rf«roBat«r, <j»p«nding upon th« 
plotur® deelr«d. Light äouro« 3 i« th« on« ordinarily used wit^ 
th« interf«ros»8t«r, 

Th« vtm^sä. «xposur« tia«a ar«} 

Light So«ure« tint (««c) 

(1) V50 {13 X IS cm. pictM») 

(1) 1/200 (24 X 26 OB. plctur«) 

(2) 10-5 t© lOr^ 

(3) I/IQOO 

(4) V2S0 

Spark illiadsiatio^ fm ^« S«hU«r«a S9th«d «Mt.Jbaiflg «ork»d 
upon f«r thm purpose af hifh iatansity, «xecUaat tiälog aaS «Idtii 
of the Impuls« of light, fer inataae« i»pul»e» of »eu&dl» ««r« 
gezMratad up straaa «tT the voarking cross »eotioo la erd#r to 
detsraiae ti» tasperator« la thia er@«» »«otlea» (SkTes m4« Tijilbl« 
witli aehUerea). 

2 - 3 METERS ^ 




5RARK GAP 



WORKING CROSS SECTION 



586 



u 



:. --mr^rrviTi 



diftKmit WMiMf IM sis' «tarMUB Ic ft»f Xn« rafl41jr «t l«ir 

BOT» «ith a iF^loolt^ € # s U # i»l»(^^ of j(M{ « • irt;to9ltgr «f 
0«ind> «li til* KmIi «qiU C^m« til» Vtttle 4/ai n» «»A i«tlo M» 
b« «ktaiatti AwB. tv« «iemiarvo» ph»t«craphi» MpAnitad fegr * Scw«a 
tim inUv^mXf th« lui e«ald «Xm tof Mftsurtd by «m aiarophoMf 
plaMd A kngga dictuai» Apart la tkm ctroMi« Tl» plwt«grApli0 wmk 
b« abwit 2j9^ «««»nd «aqpesvr««« 



ÜhA ■•«r«» Af »»«»ä oaanst b« plAe«d Ia the divorg «at p@rti«si 
of tbo.fieMX» bMav»9 it dicturbs th» tlmi etf ihm gas« SisqMrsosla 
▼ibratlon anat b» vm^A in ordar to rodueo ttis diotaneo batwooa 
•ueoosalTo aata fironte to a roaaomblo %«liio,' Tliia aotbod ba« aot 
b»on oueoaoofttl boeauoo too aucb rafloetlon of tiaa oouad ooewrrad at 
the throat af tho nosslo, thus doeroasiiag thm intonaltjr 
prohlblti'valy« 

tho following 0oureo9 har9 boon tri®d$ plaso-oloetrlo qaarts 
orTstals; ooureas dopaodiag oa aagootc «trlctloni and tha HartdMim 
goDorator» «hieh oonolttc of a saalX nozal« and a roaonating 
cavity« Tho laat la tha aoat povorful« 

It ia hopod to iaiproTo tho nothod by gar^rating a aingla pulaa 
(or a short soquanoo of oueh) with a spark gap and bj aoaaurlng Ita 
▼alooity with two suitably plaeod microphonoa. Iho diffievlty bore 
will Ha ia obtaining a fuffioiantly precia« aaaataronont of tho 
•xtroBwly small tiae iatonral inrolTod. It haa boon ^rovod by issiag 
an air raid siran that sound of oufficiont Intansity to b« pickod up 
by a niarophono oan bo sent paat tho throat of a nostl« {S99 Report 
MäP 11 ArchiT Nr. 66/128) 



587 



ßi nkiu»! mt^ 



tte «od«l U auci^adca mt th» o«nt«r of grarlly «n « wir» v)d.ok 

•t j » «ft ii < « AtMl p»iat«r Md th« aoiraMots «f tl>i» poloUr «r« 

^ thr««iiig It« »uaoir on to « oonUnuous f«^ rvooz^i^g 



LiOHT BEAM 



STCCL W««WI -16 MM. OIA. 



«LASS 
WINDOWS 
OF TyNNEI. 




POINTER -THIN STECL 



A(R STREAM 



LENS ' F-2ICM. 
FILM : 6 CM M/IOTH 



R£COR0SN€ CAMERA 



A time 0eal« la autoaatloalXy recorded by a trmcm of th« 
50 07«le «aioa vol tag«. 

Frea tha oaolUograac tha following data can ba obtaiaadi 
(IJ Plteklng »oaant, (2) noreal forca, (3) contar of proeaura, 
U) daaplQg. 

Thaaa «ira obtainad aa a funotion of tha angla which the 
■odal Buücaa with tha air atraas« 

Um graat advantaga of thla oathod ie thi^t tha adjurtaent and 
aligflBaot of tha apparatus are sinpla and quick and praliminarj 
raaults an atablllty of a aodel can ba obtainad in a nattar of 10 
>lnat«0 «baraaa with othar mathoda it may take 9 to 10 hours« 
Ulla la tha only aathod of obtaining tha daoiping. 

Purthar datftlla of tha Intarpratatlon of tha oscillograaa and 
tha caloixlAtlon of tha raaulta aay ba found in a raport by 
Dr. Waganar, datad 16/9/U, Archiv Nr. 15Qg. 



588 



3. Pr9.1#et A. Koohsl. 



Sopersonlo wind tunnel of 100 c« x 100 en working ««ctiono 
Exit 0908S «•otion reaaio» conat«nt «nd «ntr&nce crons section 
gets Bn&Uor and gmaller as th« Uacb number incrHafl«»« It w&e 

led power 57 000 kW. Maximum 
000 kW actual power in th« 
jet and 24 000 kff for th» eoapreesora. 



Intanded to get to M ■ lOo Ins tailed 
power neoassary at M « 1.5 naaaly 16 



3 Filtar« with aach 15® tons of eillc« gel good for one hour's 
operation^ that is 780 000 kC air. Drying f^om i;: gruns r^r kg to 
0*5 gran« of fi20 per kg of air. The filter» ( dry« ra) work 
intaraittantly, one b^ing dried by the clean, dry und warn exhaust 
air from the conprasaors, while the other is In operation. 

Through the absorption of the H20 the heat of evapora'.icn la 
libaaratad and the air may be heated by 25*^C. In the line, because 
of unevan temperature of tiie inco»ing air, a cooling ays tern to 
r*^gala -e the tompMrature la introduced (heating o 300'*C ^ar h:.ac 
Intended for the achisreBent of larfiO ifjuch nimheva) , 

Ai'tor the working cross section a ooolor vru3 to be i:-3t-a]Jöd 
for the oase that the nir was preheated. The compreaacra have to 
hava relatively rool air ir.take. After that cor.:as "Ku^olachiener" 
3 ro dlaroetar. if these va)v»^e äl^out 50 of theo« «re used. Had to 
be vacuun tight a, gainst i ata. Then thro '.tie V5i.l.ve {b\r erfly vnlva) 
so that the comj ressora aro not overloaded by comf.reuai';^ air from 
\oo high an ini ti.il jTressure, 

Projected are 7 el^^os of con;,>resbl( r, . 

le t ataf;e« i. axial blowers in parallel, ea.^h 100 OöO t^ nt-r hour 

(18 rows of blades), coit;f>r©3?ion ra ^c 1 i ?,8, kA 000 kli^ » 30 000 

FS« Driven by two Zwilllr)g8freiB t.rnhi rurt^lnen (i'lteii whe.^ls). 

Must be possible to regulate the power of tiin drive in iar.^e ran6;©8, 

Detwaen 4% and lOOjt it mast be pc>a»lble oC rr^^'ulitlon. 2 Needle 

▼alvaa on aach Peltxjn wheel. About 3 000 rpir 4- }.'^%, An aayncnror.ous 
so tor oouid rot do that, 

Afi«r the first compression the air is cooled again. Goes ei her 
to tha tunnel, or to the outside nir, or t.o the dry>^r, or to t^^e 
aecond stage). 

To If » 2,0 the first st^tie in sufficient, (Kochel wa3 chosen 
baoauaa of waterpower) 

2nd 9%At^ . 2 axial corapressore far before, driven hy c ne li' '.X)0 kW 

PaltoD turblnag 

(Ifcida by Brown Boveri Cie., not finished. TurblM^'n null's ty Skoda) 

Th» ■•oond stage har t^ve aama connectivtuj an M.o iMrtt «I'agao 



589 



"M .UM» 1 «xIaI hla««r of •»etljr the baum dlMHSloiis as Ufcr«« 
ihol9 eoiBpr«8«ioa D hb % te 760 » Eg). 

0» gtagff «sntrifisgal oeeproaser becausa air le mm dans«. (4 

r^gääijÄtio 1 I 3o 150,000 »3 p^j. hoisp» 

lih. 6tb <it 7tai atagM all eaatr^.f^al oompraaaorsa 
1 Faltan «baals« f^tal «f 4.500 WK. lach la ooapraaaion raUo 
4 a S. ThaoraUoal total la 2,400 for tha total oomprasslon ratio. 
^¥actic5aUy 550 

aitSi S s 1® am® oatxSs a total peway of 200 fcf onl^, Oao naada 
lam «hole ax^nsi^ra inatall&tion for tare raaaooa. 

ta «C9«»r tha «haXa ranga la 1 and 

not to hmw m tr«aa»dous loatallmtian (If oa« naadad anlj 

ona Maab »ffibar ana eauXd 120a a larga oachina of snail powar)« 

^ indapaiidaßt «orlcing asctiona are iostallad« 

Ml w worMog saetioii 1 1«4- i^ x 1«4 ■ 

1^ s workii^ eaotioQ 2 1 a x 1 k 

M3 9 working saotlon 3 0«X s k 0.^4 a 

V4 a worklog aaotion 4 O.as n x 0»25 a 

Ui m oan uaa all atagaa 
■2 r <*<^ uaa all atagaa 

Ul and H2 enst ba rua saparataJ^» 

% ean ba roa a^r tka firat ta« st«g^ ^^ 
Hj at tha aama tiaa «var tha l&et ttv^ «tagaa» 

Mai^ othftr oenNjatiana yteaibXa« 

tl^<aa baHünga 



s 



11 Fowar plant 

2) WLad tuanalc, wiarkiAg aaeÜoM 
(3) Drywi«. 



radial oanpraaaora hart 4300 t« fi400 ry». 

big lAaltaa «liaals ha^ 300 rpm mvsä tha a aall en— 423 rpn« 

total iiMtallatioBy vatar powar ataUaa, vlnd taanala aoi tpawar 
lic^s« ata* 25 000 000 - Ui 

^e* 1943 projaet atartad« Tiai far eaaatrmati*!! 4 7«*r- 



590 



&ctaD8loQ8 to th« i)r«8«at »up^rAoiile wind tunable» 

At prM«nt -viftouiui eyliodtr •? 750 b^ 
» " sph^r« : 1000 »3 

Also 6 rotesy piston pifiiip.(EotAtioafl eoaprseser) 

Witli this «cgr^fsttt o»s Aohi#¥»s a dnrstioa of th« j«t of botwooa 
24 sooowSs «nd 38 soconds betwoon H ? 1 «nd M « 4*4 

It was intandod to add thrs« oontrlfvgal blowors «itii «hi^ tlio 
duration of tb« jot would havo boon as followso 



DORÄTiON 
OF JET 



• ■ TIMf IN SeCOMOS / 



/ 



ASYMPTOTE 




T 



M 



Diagraa for ojlizyior f spbaro 

prosont 4 3 oootifugal blowors. (850 kV aaeh) 
prossat installation 

(oontiouous oporatiOD would have been possiblo for If 3»9)» 



591 



teriod« neo«P««ry for ova • :a tlon of ovl Inder ♦ npbere run n^ 
follOTWg 

TtM£ \N 
MINUTES 



5 

4 - 

3 



PRESENT INSTALLATION 




INTENDED EXTENSION 



M 



rtdditlc^vil ar.var. ua^a rf ^'u» antri fi^jal blower? l3 oil fr«e air, 

(Th« valv« aiid ^crx.-Ais ar« net availabl«). 

For T'l^ :hmr deta;^!? of the 'ix'^wvicn ;jrc\ioc', poe Dr. Kber's report. 



592 



4. ttber «uparconio wind tum «Is in G«rn«ny> 
^) Ijn AAOlum (now in Sonthofen in the AU^au) 

(a) 20 CIO X 20 c« up to M r 1 (lH.«B«l8b«rg«r) 
J«t of about 5 second« dxrration. 

(b) 10 c» X 10 c« for mteraittant opera tdcn. 

10 eaconds operation up to M x 3. Thi« working^ «ection 
wa» not« y»t in operation. 

2) fitting«» 

(a) wind tuimal ^0 <m x 20 os Intaralttent oparation for 
transsonl.' r«gion, duration not known. 

(b) 13 oa X 15 o* (suparsonic) 

(o) 30 c« X 30 ciB or AG '-^u x ^».O c« intanalttant projeotodo 

3) ^aunschwaiffVolkerurodq « 

(a) 40 cm X AC CR supersonic wind tunxMl with intanaltt^nt 
operation. No balances. Only preasure dis trib.itian, 

(b) 20 cffl X 20 cm sti;)eryonic, ccntiiavLOUs operation. 
No bilancee. 

(o) Tttnnel with 1 m jÖ circular section for tests in the 
cüir^resslble eubsorilc region until Mel. Continuous 
cper&tioii. 

('^) Tunnel wi th 1 » x 1 bi cross seclicn for suoersonio tests 
up to M « 2, ContlnuoiLS ^«rfiL.j. a, 

40 X 40 0» tunnel in oone'mction. 
5) DVL L FM 

40 X 40 cm tunjr»l planned. 



593 



5« Reports of the WVA 

(1) Ther« exist on transparent paper ( veil uin type) about 168 
original report» frc« 1939 until now, A complete list of th« 
reports is available at Koohol. Microfilin aL-o yxiet» which cov Ji^ 
all of these reports, 

C-'^) About eight folders of »"FYofesaoren Berichte" are in the 
library. These cower partially the theoretical work which whs farsied 
out t» the Prafeseora at Darustadt and other önivercitlee. (They are 
mostly ooncemed with the Interpretation and apdication of wind- 
tunnel tests, (Peenemunde Ost)» 

(3) About 80 reports of the ZWB • Zentrale fur wissenschaft- 
liches Beriehtwesen der Luftfahrtforachung. 

Reports generally are of three types i 

(a) Report» for Ü";« benefit of other investigators or 
construction agencies who had subcontracts froia Peeneratönde. 

(b) ZxtonßivQ reports ©n individual svibjects. 

(c) Reviews for didactic purposes. 



594 



4* ^_ 



■rw^wrrv^ i^mnJtarm'i ; 



. »N i ttWfl l^^^y»^ #l»a»»g 1^ i«! rapMvimU «InA tun«! iastelUtUa« 
ItMftfit'i ir^*^ • ««rwv «rtr tto riipffiimattl «MMitewtiMM 

JiftM^ f dMtribM tlM larg« «nd •fweUUy d»9igiicd SMrarii« 

Sk« FfS9^«fwta«M «f th« etlwr 0«nMm mipcrfloale «lad tamfl 
laatalUtloni «•• 41«9«M«d In tb» tedUoa 8« ^^xO« S«otioB B 
eottteins mIsuIaUvbs atevt a poMiblo rmXmii^ of forf onaoM «T 
th* pfmmt wind toBwla 1^ ciOaTgii^^ Ü» poa^ 8«oti(»i of tiw 

Xn partleiOart 

&*otion4 8tAt»a that th« praMat auparaonie «IxmI taaaala }mm hmm 
eonstmatad aspaolaUy with the rngwrd to tha aa tabllahii« aa wp^ 
to-data iaetallaUoa of high parforaaztca oapaoity« It shoold ta 
ahlo to naat aXl r*quiroasnta of tha saparaonio araa, all prablaaa 
of hi«h-«pee(&-])raja«tila0 and airaraf ta with tha top of aeearafl^ 
attaiaablo withia the ehortast tlM. 

▲ rataroftpaat on the developaent af the iaatttuta shoaa la what a 
manar it dawlopad fron a mere wind toteol laotallatlon to a eoi^ltta 
raoaaroh plant inoludiac different laboratoria«, eonstrootlon afflaaa, 
work aod wahioa «hope. 

4 9xaa»aatr of tha spaolal detail« of tha «bola installoLtion 
anphaaiaao tha faot af ita perfomanoa eapaoity. 

Saatioa B partioularo af the praaaot oparatii« wind tunnela and 
tha ■dditioaAl aqnlpnaat« aa ^aanusfraaervoire^ tha vaouini puap 
ayataa and Ite power wspplj, tha air drying installation aa 
auppaoltioa for axaot neaanreMnta in snparoonie flow. An addad 
•urfwj eonsider« the effeatiwa work don» at tha aoaaura ahanbera la 
aoBparlson with other laboratories azistix« In Qaraai^. 

Saeüon ff treats the parforasnoe oapacity of tha neasura aqaipaant 
■aat of It being espaaially designed for the cuparaonio wind tumal 
im9» Ih« three oonponont balanea, the Sohliarempparatxis, tha 



sn 



tAtm tnmm Uit «od thit Mthods et MMturlncth« pr^Mov« 
«SsMWtion oa Md«!» of proJ^eUlM and Biseilct f lyii« mt 
aiv«e««ii« ^lo«i^ M «oil «e apMUl d«Ti«M as •Itötrio 
C9«r%t&i|g prM«ura diatriteUoa do»aa, baUaoaa to \» inatallad 
«ItidB tiM aodal» thaMalvve, anä laat tmt not loaat a high 
^Mltii« •VWle «ttfit • tbay ar« all aubjaeta of aspUnaUoa. 



spaaka.ef th« othar sr^raoni^ wind tiumala inatallationa 

in Qfvmaay» Tkara ara particulara as sisos, shapas and tha outfit« 
mxA ttelir pM^iMUtlaa ara raTaalad as «®11 as thair parfamanaas 



It rmfultß that tha W7A Inatallatlia showa itsalf euparlor to all 
•tk«r Garaaa pXanta with raapaot of hlghast valoolty at graataat 
mgtMm Motloa of tha straaa attainad on the om band «nd Be&aoring 
•qaipaant and iaaartad nathods on tha othar. 



finallj diaeuaaas th« possibility to iaprova tha 

parAmaae« of thm wind tnnnals at Eochal by enlarging tha aaehioa 
laatallation, Acoot^ng to calculations a continuous oparating al. 
Oa Quyabar abcv* 3,9 at tha ®ntira cross section UO x 40 oa) would 
b« attal2Mble aa «all as double tha tioa for a single t^un in 
iatiVBittant operation at lowar Ifa nunbara. 



..^ gain m£ tias while oarrying out loi^ aeries of ■aasuraaaut 
woiUbd feM» prattjr eonsiderabla as a consequence of tha aho3*tar 
^mei^m jnmpj^^g period due to the enlarged aachihe seta* 

■yi Polnta of View of tha Sffiolaney of tha Supersonic find 



tLtb tbo daTalopnant •£ air tadM^ques in Oeraany la tha 
last 10 t0 15 yaara it bad bean ohiaf ly proven that the reaaareh 
stationa» a«g. wind tuanal« although they show very good basia work 
•ould not kaop «p with tha paea dewinded by the Qoif^rnaent or 
iaduatry« The technical davalopnents had therefore to be oondaatad 
on a aoltlple aoale without tha naeassary support of research and at 
tlaa« aat-bocka could not be aYoidad, 

Iban Dr« Haraonn (tha originator and Director of the WVa) was 
•ntruatod in 1937 with tha construction of a supersonic wind tunnal 
inatallation at Peaoosniada for tha Hseraswaffenamt, he decided to 
alroiSBV^nt tbasa alatakaa aa much ar possible. His object was to 
baild't^ an aerodynaalc-ballistlc research station which would b« 
in tlia pwFitiPft to supply tha oocaaaary »ercc^ynaaJe rasaareh 
uMfatHS for tha mimerouj darslopnanta in the sphere of fast flying 
rockat projaotllaa, rocket aircraft Ar»d other fast rocket projactllaa 
«hieh a«f» alraady bail« «nticipatad at that tiaa. In conatrueUng 
the mmaraenie wind tunnal ha placed first '»nd forsnost tha prinolpla 
af obtaiflii« tha highaat paaaibla afCieiency for tha Ins Ulla tion» 
in ardar to aa^^lata th» maMrvaadatalopaaots with tha graataat nuabar 
af MTla« taata# 



After ©esplÄtion of the InatAllation« In 1939 it prorvd to 
b« «ntlr«ly a «atch for the fait paca in tha developaeut of 
•upersonio proi«<it0. Alaost all Um developneats of thi« kind in 
GerBaay fro» 1939 to the end of the war In 19^5 wwre worked out 
in this IfiStAllation. The solution of theee problem« was poesible 
owing to the fact that in the oonstruetion of the •upersonie wind 
tuQtiel inet&llation and the Beasurin«^ apparatus, not only w^re the 
points of riew of eeieatific deaan.la taken into oonaideratlon^ but 
an uiirea trie ted technical a^t^vspg cf every tea ting» iaea«urli^( ajid 
operational device of angr great value wa« Installed, Ihie eoabled 
the selentiats to pursue their experiaents with the asceesarjr 
conoentratlonf denp research and rapiditj vithout the IneeoveBlenee 
of iaprovised expariaental apparatus or other difficulties« 

Boreover tha station was soon equipped with a series of 
physical» optical, tharao-dynattic, aiid. electric laboratories, 
which Is not the case at other wind tunnels in Qmrtmnj, fb&j are 
occupied oy Speoiallsts of different faculties whose duty it is to 
develop up-to-Kiate methods of measuring and laeasuring apparat«, 
which are necessary for the solution of difficult test inrobleas in 
the supersonio wind tunnel. A apeoittl designing office and 
efficient workshop saw to it that the ideas smi 3i:4;^oa tions of Ui© 
scientists on neasuring techniques were Irmodiatoly piit Into 
technical for«, aai in the shortest tins protiuced in a nachanically 
unrestricted Banner. For this purpose a range of specialists 
trained for the work and doing work for the supersonic wind tiinnsl 
for a long tine, were attached to the dsslj^nliig office a«! workshop, 

Iho characterisUcs of the efficiency of the supersonic wi»i 
uuniiel .niiÄllation of the ?fVA ♦ can be aumaed up as follows t 

(1) Grenteat air speed (Mach No. 4. A) which to our knowledge ha» 
ever been r-iar-hed in Germany or even in Europe at the s&ae tin» 
as Uie g;raa'^3^ Tlow :^e-tlon (.,0 cm x AO en) 

(2) area tost versatility for preparing PclenUfie and technioaUy 
good woasxA-ing mot node and devices for the solatlon of 
difficult experiasntal problems. 

(3) Research probleas placed by the Ckwarnnvent or Iniustry could be 
carried out in the quickest possible time. 

In the following sections a deUlled deacrl • : n of the experiatjnr^il 
apparatus and msasurlng devices is given, whioh a.-« M«3ne3s«.<iry for the 
efficiency of th« Institute, and a comparison with other supersonle 
wind tunnols which are to be found in Germany, 

A an exsMple of the effieieaey of the suptirsonic wind tunnel 
ins talis Uon of the WVA and the recognition it received, the rell@«i:>^ 
•jcanple will do i "^ 

In Um spri^ of 190 the developaent of the ro eke t-projeo tile 
•fasserfall'» «as eomenoed by the RIM at great expense • Tal« was 
« flying devise to b* f ir«<l fro» the ground at an enengr bomber, 
ooBtrolled on all three axis with a tpaad of 1200 •/••9. iftar 



»»7 



exha ;stiv« teetiag by th« ropressntatlTss cf th« ELM, th@ Res^ftrch 
Council (Forschung fuhruog) tiXtä tho H@«r«cwflLffftii it was «stablishad 
t<hAt in no other st^>»r«oriie wind tunnel (Qottl]\;«n, iLftohsn, Bruoswiok, 
Volksnrodlo) could th» extensive and n@v kinds of asrodynaaic 
experlaente denandttä be cftrriod oul wit^ tb« necessary Tersttbillty, 
d^ep research and rapidity. All the aerodynaaiic deTelopaant of theaa 
first supersonic rocket aircraft were under takeh only by the W7A. After 
about 15 nonths work the deTeiopiB«nt «as oonclxided and all the set 
probiews solved. 

B. Kffioieacy of the Supersonic WlaJ Tunnel of the WVA . 

(i) üfcoasuring Sections and Vacuum Sohera a 

the execution of all the experinental testa at high speeds 
resulted in the so-called neasuring distance. At the present tias 
^hare 1^ Ifci operation at Kochel a aeasuring distance with a jet seotiOB 
of ^0 CB X AO c». With this speeds with Mach mmbers of 0»5 te d^,Ji oaa 
be obtained. In the supersonic region there are 7 different Laral 
noxxles with which the following Mach nunbers can be attained i 1.22, 
1.5Ö, 1.86, 2.50, 2.90, 3,2J^, and /V.i^O. All the noaale« have beea 
calcula^ved according to tho ftrandtl-Buacm&nn process for potential 
current and corrected by cubsequent constdsration of the boundary layer 
aiii .i '^ tho help of the Schlieren process for unrestricted parallel 
currents, bpeed and pressure distributors lie at the front of all th« 
ivjzzlea. In the coopresaible subsonic region the speeds with Uach Ho«» 
0,5 lo 0«85 w 0.90 can be obtained. With the vaexiua sphere of 750»^ ^t 
present in operation at Kochel the trial tiae in the supersonic area i» 
about 15 seconds. In the subsonic region it is longer, A second vacmm 
sphere of 1000 »3 capacity was likewise to be erected at Kochel. It was 
tran.'sferrod fron Peenenundeo Its completion was delayed, because the 
butt joint« necessary for rivet.in;j the sheet aetal of the sphere could 
not be prooMredJn West Geraany on account of the air raids. They are with 
a fina in Braekwede near Hanover. With their arrival (weight about 10 to) 
the second TaomiD sphere could be put into operation in about two montha« 
WltJi this eeccnd vacuo» sphere the testing time would be increased fro« 
15 to 35 second» approximately. This is of special value for dlffioult 
aeaJuring, e.g. pressure distribution saasureaenta at the highest IBaob 
nuaberß, 

A second raeaatirlr^ section with a flow section of i^O ca x AO «i wae 
in operation at Peenemande . This haa been brought to Kochel, and iti 
coini>letion f ould coincide with tho completion of Uib second vaeuu« 
sphere (about 2 month»), Thl» neaauring »action is equipped Ilka 
ihe first for ?ill siqpersonic »peed». After coarlstion of both 
»saauring strips urjri both vaoimn ephares, either one of the maaauring 
section could b© uued with both vaouiM spheres to Abtain the increaaad 
teat ti»fc as aenUcnod abova, or both moasuring strips could be operated 
with aaparste spheres for short test tines o 

A 'iiird n»ea»uring section has a flow section of 1Ö ca t» IS oi. 
It can be continuoualy operated with tlio existing machine inaUllatlan». 
It was alraady In operation at Peonemunde up to a Mach rruaber of 3o3« 



598 



fkti mnmp9iA±ng oon^tiltn and baildii«« härm alrM^y bMft yroduMid, 
flmr M«34 to 0ttt iate op«r«tloa in alMBt 3 aonthaf «• «n «lr-4r7liir 
«pp«9AtMi »tiU ha» t* to tollt. !a this Maanrli« Motion aU toft« 
•iMilA to aoaäuotad «hieb r«qulr» loi^r tlae te «btain tto ^p#6ifl« 
eanditlMa af atablli^ (••«• toat tr«iuif<»rawr t«eta, praaAV» 

4 iPMerth ■•amirifig aaetioa for atatioaarjr opantimi f «r^ 
attaato»at to ^ aasa Mahlaa iMtallatioa waa litoviaa alraa«^ la 
aparatiaa im jPtanaHuada« It waa daats^rfti durii^ tto atriaf* Hoaairar» 
la a ato gtt fitoa vltli aa^rlaaaa galaad la tto BaaBttna» it toa toaa 
tredtoiftodl «aA eouH to built la tto VTA «ortotop. It «ill tova 
eaaaavasiaato af 15 «i sc is aa aad ia iataadad aa a latoratarx aaaanrias 
afiatiM tar tto «ZBMiiaatioa of apaaial prablaaa, oat for tha ao^platioa 
of tos*iaa ^mt$vanmtttB^ Its aoaatroatioB aas to tato plaaa ia a 
ai»aaial3^ aaall taat raoa, Tto oonduita of tha taanua aptora tod alraa^ 
toaa laid 'titor«« It la uaafial fear varlaua tiypoa of problato» WrtiaaX 
as «all aa horlaaatal« Also f os* axaapla, important aaaauraaaato af tha 
Jat aad af tto dlffuaor &r« obtalxwd ia crdar to work ont vitJb tha baaia 
taeta tto f«r& 9t tto aaasuring atrip. For tha taata of higtor Maah 
auabara it ia apaaially vaouua proof ad. 

(2) Tty mMm iMtj^^-UoffPft 



Tto ^nknum naaaasai^ for tha goosrction of air apaad la tha 
TaouuB sptora ia produaad logr 6 yacuua poapa with a drlTii^ capacity of 
dOO Idlo To abtaia diffarant high vaouuBis tha .puipa oaa to eois&aetad aa 
daairad «ittor parallal or tohinl ono anothar j Tha «tola aaohiaa 
Installatiaa ia additiaa ta valva oootrol is prorridad «1th autoaatio 
raaeta eontrol, safatjr and «arcing da-vioaa, which goaraataa graat msBm 
ia sarviaa «ton aarrying out tasts and safaty in opsratioa. la actual 
faot duriag 6 ysara oparatloa of tha aansitiva and ooaplax naehiaes aa 
sarlous daaaga has toaa Inourrado A^ a furthar 600 IsV alaotrie capacity 
is aaeaasary for tto air drying apparatus to to daaoribad latar« it la 
Iqportaat ttot tha total aapaaity of UOO Idf is obtainabla at all tinas 
with osrtaiaty« In Kaetol this oapaeitgr could to drawn upon at will, as 
tto WfX tos built its own tranafonMr station of 100 000 to 600 Tolta 
for this purpoaa duraet frea tto Walohansaa Powar Station and ia 
mippliad with its oablaa* 

Aatually tto las tails tion ih Koohal always had at ita disposal tha 
naoassary slaotria aapacity» 

Ottor wind tunnels «era considerably retarded in their opera tloaa 
by tto current toing out off» For exaaple» different wind tunnels ia 
SruaswislSy VoltoMreda only received the necessary capacity for a fa« 
tours duriag the nlt^ht. Such llaltatlons are naturally fery raatrletlTa 
for a planned test operation. 



S99 



O) Alf ISryJiy I natalUUoB, 

AodWdioj to «rttMiT« tec t« in 1935/6 at th« ftupcraonlo wlhd 
tasMl «hi«^ Sr« Hereann cooatruet^d £t iftolMQ it «as fvttnd thi^t 
>Uff«Btpiot9d HMUBur«B»nt0 at suparaoni« spaads can only ba «arriad 
©ut by usiag diy air. Tha drying fcuat ba oarrla* out aara artanalvaly 
f«r Incraaaiiic Maoh nunbara, fha WVA hava at thair dlapoaal aa ads* 
dryissg apparatua of 600 kW oapaoity^'whloh was davelopad apaeially for 
tha purpoea of attaining a high dagraa of air drynaas for high Kaoh 
nuBbara durirg unint^rruptad taat oparatloaa. It ia tha only ona 
in G^raany« lb» supareoedo vind tunnal at Brunaviek-Volkassroda with 
flow aaotion of 25 «a x 25 oa and i^O «i x 40 ea posaaaaas ao air dfyiag 
apparatua «hataoa'var. Tha anall suparaonie tunnala at Gottiagaa 
(11 ea z 13 oa) and at Aaohan (10 ea z 10 aa) can dry tha air vith a 
aiflgla atoga drying apparat\ss up to 2g/)9, whila tha Ko«hi^ iastallatteft 
with a-ataga drying can achiva O^ag/kg, a falua which la daaandad by 
high HaA miabara« Th« drying inatallations in oparatAon at tha Wfk 
Bupply both larga B^aauring sections at the a ana tiaa« Tbay alao 
snpply the 4th Daaararing section« A special air dryii^ apparatua ia 
naeasaary and is oonstruction for tha third Beaauring eaction with ite 
contimious operation. The bull Inge and the eaaantial aaohaiiical and 
electrical parte are already available. It oan be coapletad in three 
months» 

(4) Houre of Qperationg 

In Peenaaimde aa well as Kochel the maaauring saotiona were «orkad 
in two ahifta in all about 18 to 20 hoiira, A survey of the efficienay 
of the installation gives the actual operational houra of the wind 
tunnel. Tliay are given as pure "productive" wind tiinnel hours of tha 
two->aMft working tima after daJuction of all tin» taken for tha 
setting up of models and measuring apparatus, for alterations and the 
preparation of t&e sieaauring sections of tlie operational derieea. With 
tha existenco of one aaaaurlng section the "pure productive wind txmiiel 
hours* anounted at Koohel to an average of 200 hours per month, oaxiaua 
250 hoar» after the transfer in the winter 1944/45. it this time 
difficult working conditions such aa the extreme winter cold, the lack 
of bsating, blaok-out, air raid warnings, and difficulty of providing for 
those in attendance at night have to be takon into considerationo iy 
©antrast, oefore the reiaoval abtut 500 «productive wind tunnel hours" were 
achieved a month at Poenemunda in the years 1941 to '1943 usir^g 3 measuring 
aaotioaa« 

Biara can ba no doubt that the ju-personlc wind tumial installation 
of tha WVA with it« operationAl aasuranc« and ti:© nuaber of operational 
hours ia far abova the o^^r supersonic wind tun»» Is in Garuiai;y. 
According to precise figures of their inatallal.ona and mathoUs of wor.clng 
only A fraction of thasa figures could be achieved ther«o 



«00 



»ade d\»ring the blowing In or<J»r to follow inUrwsting phonoiMtM (•.g, 
conpresalon thrusta)« Th» Schlieren apparatuA ean «Jjio b« uced at 
dosir«d in both lar^t maaJjring eectiona of -40 ö» x 40 ca In tha m^jm 
taat chanber. it ie therefore cons true t«id as a large o«ntilev#r 
carrier, so that in the most simple manner It can be raiaed up from 
oae tunnal with the orana of tha t«at chamber and flxad in the othar. 
For the ms€fc8uping section of 18 o« x 18 eta in contlnuotui operation a 
Sohlieran apparatus of 30 c» is provided, the optical part« for 
which are already ayailable at Kochel, 

For the fourth smell oaaBurin^ section a corresponding Sehlieraa 
apparatus la likewise in hand, 

Sehlieren app&rata are likewise used in all other superaonio 
wind-tiiaBala in G^rTcaay. The extraordinary optical aensitlvity In 
large field« of view in the saw© w*iy aa the geed tenehJcal construct ion, 
which «alcas possible an exact, rapid and corrrenient werk, was constantly 
reoognl»ad withdit reserve by the representatives of ^iie other super- 
sonle wind tunnels in Ger«aqy in the personal exchangee of exper ianoas. 

o) The Int^rferopetar. 

In addition to the Schlieren apparatus pin Interferoaetar has 
been in u::e since 19-43 with a field of view of 9 as x 10 cm (iiirror 
dianster 20 oa). A simple apparatus has only oeen in axis tanca at 
Brunawick-Volkenrode. With the help of thla it Is possible to propoao 
quant f^tive ftV^luaMcn« of the field of density of tfce two dinaasioad 
flow. At Ä7A for the first tlste an exact proeaas for tha evaluation 
of rota^lonally ayrsretrical fields of fi^r was developed and brought 
into use with the interferometer by avoiding approximata iteration 
methods. Owing to the resKDval fron Peenanrunde to Xochel only tha 
practical use of this process was delated. A second interferoaiatar 
still siore sirople to operate and of the aaias sise hae been at tS»i7 
disposal since 19M »o that In tha future It rould ba possible t« woric 
two BBa0is>in(j sections with an interforoaeter at tha saraa tiaoe 

(2) Sr)a<;ial ?teaauring Devices. 

In addition to the general aeaauring inslrtnont«, whioh boloi^ 
ta tha wind« tuimal itself, there is also la axis tone« a ras^e of 
apaaial eeafurlng devioas, which are either connaotad with ^aodals 
taotad frook timm to tlaa, or are only uaad in spaoial caaaa. Thasa ar« 
far ths Boat part davalopad fa the laboratoriaa and daaigning dopt, of 
tha WV4 and ooostruotad and oonpletad in the «orkshope of tha Wfk* To 
thasa dalongi 

a) Prasaura distribuUon aaaauregienta. 

Tha earrying out of prasaura distribution meaauraaantB on laodala 
of all kinds (Uxii«« of projaotilas, wlnga« rocket projaetllao» and 
roekat aircraft) ia of varying iaportaoca, as only la this manaar oan 
tht dataila of tha ooursa of flow on models ba aaoertaiaad, and uaad 
for a aMtioal «alevJlatiOB of tha naoaaaary fundaaaatala in daalga« 



Ml 






fet «Mtttttial jMftSurli^ ftpl»ratu0 tw th« dstvfsloAtion of 
tlift ÖPB^» 3llf% waä terqu» o]^ airerftf t aod«!» is tb« thi«o ooaponant 
telane#« Botlft ^o ^^ke^* nocpisriag.aoctlos« of 40 «■' x 40 os flism 
sactkaa p6^sm99 a tlv*« eompoiteQt latlaiioo «itl^ a» «laotrioal diatano« 
iraiiaii^Qir* Htd balaiwa rapra^aata tha azparlanea of long yaara af 
dtervoXofHant^ i^ieh Bar. Hamann bagan on aioHar baXanoaa iä thä 
srapdir9o»ija «Ini timnaX at Aaehaii 1935/36* It la to ba atraasad that 
all tha fRTts et tha balanea ar« aituatad Isk a praa aura- proof ofaMibar 
fiȊ cosBsaatafi OBtsida obIj bsr a eabla to tha alaetario indioatiog 
iaBtc»M^» Ite aaniltiva raglona can ba chaaga bj a eiapla oorraat 
ravwraal «Kf tha alaetrieal parta» All lairera connaetioaa and aoeketa 
ara tismä wiMk flat sprls^ and steal bands, with which a strong 
■solisnieal %@rfo7WUiea witli graat sansiti^ity and aoeiis^cy is eras tad* 
lb» «s^gla of attaclr can ba adjustad. electrically ^roe outsldap during 
tisa tlam tisa snparaonia air-anrrant la being blown through without 
opaaiiv tfea MNUiiarii^ chaabar^ which results in a eonsidarable 
Mwalamtiöii «f tiia taatlng 0|ia?atioii« The balanoa has ps'ovad itaalf 
to te Um bast in long jrsars of rough azpariaantal operations. 1b 
•aaanttal SaproiV)Si«nt for conrenienca in handling would ba tha 
Isstaredyetlcm of m, linaal Inäicator recording apparatua which la la 
pr@pa7atloiB0 

Of tha othor supersonic wind-timoals in Oeraäny only the s all 
■eaanrii^ saotlona of Gottingen and Aachen have at their disposal thraa* 
ar«ponant balancaa, while tha large measuring sect ions in Bruiiswick- 
Volkaarbda hawa no threa'-coaponent balance« 

Itenr tset» raquire tha obseryatlon of models moving in the air 
enrr^Bt «f tba observation of the fields -of current, by »»ans of opftieal 
«nprataSf 00 that the sicdals oan be adjusted. For this purpose tha 
ma0WPisi$ chaabar 1» provided viih glass windows which afford a oespletaly 
fr0^ rUm ia tlia hariaontsl direction* I» this aanner it is possible t« 
calw flam visibl« on its coursa through the Laval ziosslas to tha modal 
«itb ihm telp «f tba aohlieraa apparatus or tha interfaroastei", ft» 
MdiMVil app«rataa has a flald of viav of $0 ea diaeetar, so that tha 
flow fit tli# tip and tha stars oaa ba obsarvad at tha saae tiaa «van 
«itb Hi^ l«rg*i9t Bodale (iOoa)* Cinainatographia axpoeuras can als« 
ba aada with tiaa Ian@»fi, if tha oaoasion arisas» flw ashliarAB 
«oparftto« «ra« at^li^ by Saiaa (1937/38) a^eording to mkH awn 
optlMl «ftäetOfitloB»; find was fit that tiaa tha abat ssasiUva instptuMBt 
üiAt tei«« bad a^Cir «oasts^uatfid« On this taehaieal ast-up oorraspondiag 
to Üso ps^^giplm of «ffloion^ tba groat valua of tha whel® •uparsonis 
i90i«IUt&0A lioi« fbo SohXioroB fipparfitao io altuAtod longthifriea ia 
ttw rao«#ariflg «iMabar fio «oil ao at tha top of «a tloe^iofilly 
adjttotoliSo aadorofirrlfic^f io ordor to briag ovrf point of tha aoMUfiag 
^lio&bo? iJito tbo ooator of tho fiold of rUis» Adjuatatat 4ifin ailJio ba 



^ 



4 m^M^MM to»a wecSowl out bgr tb« «^ iildUh ptMitib ili fMMw« 

UO,««l «i^feiwftjift ^lAt» «1^ th« boatiä «aft fiUkft^ of tN A4 «c^ 
w««^u<^te( tili« fa^a^a« fb« wmciaNbit took ^alj U «n^ *«ft ky 



tttttM itmf. olofM^ yrMoun» sMunnritift >wm of ^nvMHiMi#»'1U4 
Ma«ltt1>ilV» £o^ twos dtvolopfd V tho ffU «i1* ISm holp of IVof,' 
iMtttP ^ ^bo Bi«k SohoellBotitato» Ora^iW titb m« opparatw 
laqportAat IvforaAUoa ho« teoa gaiaod ooiMofBlqg tho otmotiiro aal 

lar««lcM^«f tte oapcrooai« f^ow. 



flio. Mofwli« of stAbiUtgr in air toohalqiiBs aaft balliaUo« of 
^ f Ij^iiw bodioo bat grvat oigalfloaaoo. Ono oan «ay witboixt 
«ai|B|«)r«öoa tbt toobaioal raalioatloii^ of ooatrollod fal|b-apoo4 flTli« 
yr#|oa1|JUo or airenf t dvpoads la a difr»»ant aoaaer oa tbo vary 
IMTOOlöo ^Itftoaladlf o of aerodyzkaalo «lability» !«•• tbo ooiitor of air 
foMoo« for Urn soot oa^ot dstarflanatloiio poooibla of tba oantor of 
air f«root fos^ dlfforoat vbapee of bodloa at all <volooliio« and angloa 
of attofljk «Patrol aotboda of aoaoarli« and aoooarlmt doviooa haro booa 
dovoUpod and taotod «vor a long parlod by^ tbo WVA« ftkt^ «ro 
oU Bpl M Wtf tod «ad o6ntroll0d raolprooally* la odditioa to tbt uoaal 
aorodjmaalQ dotoritiaotlon of tte ooator of air foreo \>j tbrao-ooopoatnt 
ataauriag on flaotd aodols tbo foXLovlajf ha^ b«on ep«elaXl^ 
dOTBlOpod b7 tb» W?At 

Stobilltgr Bftft«T2r«aoBts on nddoXo osclOlalii« frocly in larfo 
oaplitudo with alaultamoi» rogistrotion of tbo fadli^ pat oaz^o of 
tho ootfiilatioa for tbo rosolutloa of tho contor of air forooo, aoaont 
and «^ dai^ing» «tobilitjr neaourQavnt oa aodsli, »bich ar« aorablo 
around • fiatd rotation point with -wmry «nail «aplltud« Inoido of 
«bieb bgr displaooablo «oi^bta tho arbitrary BAobanical aoaast« can ba 
giYoa« 

stability moaauraaantt on aodol», whicb «ro aovabl« around a 
graater nuabar of arbitrarily changaabla turning polnta with Tery aitall 
aroplituda in whicb •'wsty turning point la at the aane time tha cantar 
of gravity. 

In tha othar auparaonio wind tunnala in Qaraany siailar 
• tabilitgr taata bava not boan earriad out with auob accuracy» 



603 



^) 



mm «& th^ mßt^j,^ «r« Ukj ^sälmm^ whisk al*« built iale tht Mdtls 



«ai ss^nts irm «tAU^marf iaatrwtRts. with th« iRtUatflt 
^^a©ajlÄ Upp, I <m aiaas^r, 3^m «ffi loa«) •xtraeHiitiHPili' 
.S4l«at« tastr^'s^sat® irm tlw p©in% ®f tI«« «sd ä«iig& are ^«d« V» 
'3ä^ feftl^at® til« «©-mll«i ipla h&i^m^ ©f tlw ffi, ^liiah mk99 it 
^miMm t© «Aaüiir« i^aaata ^leag ^«t l®Rgit\iain«l ud0 of th« bodias 
^ mm ma@w%®f ^ 1 oeg« fh« r«aolutlo2i of thos« roll aoMat« ia 
-m^mms^ nitii %lrer*f t «p p©Qk«t proJ«otiloB, at thoy appoar with 
nasimatriQal eaaatructloa or ä\2rii« flight with a «Ida viad and mat 
hm biOaaoad oat» 

SI» dooignli^» eoaa%ru@tlQa asd taatiae of this baXanoa toak 
ali^t a 3raax>. It iraa inatuXlcd vitb s^ooaa dviriog tba dovalopaaat 
or ^a M and "«ass^rfaU»« 

Aiaooior bal®r.^s for »saawlng traaovaraa soasnta «hieb ia llka- 
«iao altnatad oatlr^lj la tba aodaland Indioatas tba aonaatc ^luaa 
eoteidb «laotslcaUf baa boaa ooaplatad and is ready for m9» It 
likasisa aesiFaa for stability asaauraaanta as thosa aaaad undar a)« 

ffaa othor «ind taimala in Geraany te thalr knonrladgo possssa no 
b&lasieoa built ia tbalr a^dtils. 

•I ^^■fffiilHtr' ^P of tbg Inflyanoa of tba aadiftust flew of rookat tmlt^ . 

SoBM» hi^ spoed Aircraft or projacUlaa are j«t propellad« ftia 
ififliiaaoa aif Üils can be rcrj aonBiderabl« on asrodynaaioa, •«p«ci«llj 
m» Urn baondary lay«»r, tha drag and stability. At tba WVA ezparlMatal 
■aäiada aara aarkad out, which af fordad a rasolution cf this infloaaaa 
maä ooald ba appllad at any tine to fraah probleas. For this puryoaa 
a battavf hi^ praaaura cbambar and a corroa ponding high praasura 
aan gr aaaar ia at thair dlaposal. Corresponding thaoratioal taata 
aapport tha aetoal expariiaantal reaulu. 

f ) Hlsdb Tanaion radio XnsUll&tioo, 

For apaaial tasta a high tension radio installation is afailabla« 
ffltJi tba aid ef this rapid photograiMo axposura of non-stationary 
procaasaa (a«g« burbls paths) wars conduoted. 

With this apparatus axplosiv« wavae oan b« produced, tritb tba 
b#lp of which fiaid of flow oan ba soannad and closaly daterainad. 
&titis to ilia aova to Kocht 1 this apparatus has not yat baan put lata 
oparatlofw Opoa ccnstructlon ©f a suitabla rooa it oould bb put lata 



00 otijar auparsonlo wind tuanal in Qarmany has at its disposal auob 
* bi^h U^ioti radio iostallatioa« 



604 



fi. 



»ttm^rf tht Ifficttagy of tfe» Othtr gmwrgonia tHiiA iMt^lf 



A f wwr 0^ th« other fuporeonio «iod txinool« is oxtstaneo in ~ 
0«r!uin|f (tvoo th« following piettaroi 

A buantl l8 oitiiAtod in Oottit^on witii flow «ootion Xlen x IJ ca 
for eontimioua eperstion up to Mooh ntaibor 1*15« Until i9'45 th^ro was 
sup^rsonie tunnoX of XOesi x lOoa^ up to Mooli Ife« 3 oittioiod in 
AKohon. A ^'Oo» X 20o8 turmol «•• uood onljr in th« «tsbsoni«? f^gi^n« 
In 194 V4^ thA inftAlIotlon« wero novod to Sontbof^n/Allgsu &ik1 ftt ih« 
eart of 1944 ^fer9 not r««id|r for oporotion« Th« «upersonie winA tn»i«l 
»t Gettlngsn ns woll hb th© on© nt Aa.*h«n J;av# a »inglö-at«g« ölr 
drylo^; apporatus at thejlr diapodaX^ ao that an incroaa« of tb# Maoli 
nunbor la hardly posaiblo« Both tunnala yo»90e9 good throo eosponont 
balaneaa, Th« «nallnoo« of ib& tunnela natüralljr onljr parslto tk^ 
taating of corraepondlngly small aodela (naaely ipproji« 8*1D cia lo^ 
at AfiolMn azKi 10-13 en long at Gottingen), so that fttndaaantally only^ 
tbraa conpoaent BMaauroBont« can bo donduotad« Tfio oxoc^itlon of far- 
roaehing toatc, o.g, datailod proaauro dia trlb«jtion aeasuraaeiito^ 
tompara&uro and haat tranafar raaaauraaMnts In thalr diatribution of 
tha aodal*t aurfacaa, atAbllitj- leeastiraiaents on oscillAtLi^ nod^Li or 
built-in bfldaooaa« neaaurananta on aeparafco atabilisl^g aurfaea«, 
asmaiaatlon of tha hinge aionanta (Sobamlamoiunta) of air rudders^ 
asaauraisanta» of rotating projactilaa aro alnoot iapoaaibla on aoeoimt 
of tha amallnaaa of tha modfla. 

At lr«U)8viok-f oUoanroda there ara two superaonio vind tanDOla« Iho 
older ono has bean is oporation oinaa 1938/39« It eoapriooa m ^t tr^ ^tt 
inatallation of approxias teljr 800 kW and « neaanrli« aootlon af' 40 o« 
X AO Oft« flow a action for eontinaoua operation oith a ^vmema etesbor 
•f 1000 n3y and thua eorrotponda ta tba largo «atfvrli^ aaetlon of ttm 
Wtkm Baaidea thia it baa a aaasarii^ aaation of 25 a« x 25 em «Itli 
oontiBuoua operation« 



doth «oaauring aaotiona oan roach Itoioh Ho, 3, althm^ tliai« «ra n» 
notsXoo for ascaot parallel flow, ahioh are the hriala of aoi^otrletad 
aaMuraaents of aodela. Aa there la no air dryi?« instaHaUoa «o 
unroatriotod noaaloa oan ba produced« Iteithar ^«mal pooooioia tteaai» 
ooapoaottt balanooo ao that drag» lift and tnraii^ aoaonta namot ba 
■aaaurod« Both aeaauring aaotiona aare uaad for a long Uae for 
oarryii^ ont aodel teata for tha oonatruction of lar^r apparaVia« 

Tha nooor largo auperaonic wind-tunnel at Irunawtck-VoUeenroda 
haa been in operation atnco tha end of 1943« It oonalato of a U.aaar 
•pparatua of 9000 kW capaoit/, wltli tho help of «hleh altliar oi auhaavla 
wind tunnel of 100 ca diaaator up vo the apeed of oouad can ba 
operated or a auperaonic tunnol with flow taction 90 aa « 90 oa up %o 
Maob No« 1.5« Firut line aeaa^iremanta have taaan oonduotad up to «wa 
in the atibaoaio tunnol« There wore no exact auporoonlo nioiil«» In 
tha superaonio wind tunnel for generating en unroatrloM «Ir fX«« «Mi- 
no ttoot oonpaaaBt balance tm onrr/ out foroa Mnnur««Niti« Um t^pi» 
•f bXowar ponittod no inoroaaa of tha Naoh nuabor nbon« 1%S% •% tta^% 
both tunaala of the never Inatallation are only onltnUi» for toooai^ la 



iOS 



tbtt rsgioA of th® 9p9&A et eounfi« 

S« iBcy^MiM tlwi tfntti»nqr «f th» Sroraoala Wind Twwl »f thif 

fhe euparsonlo «lad tanMla of th« «VA d«serited in S«etibii@ i^ 
B «ni C oould te eonsid^smbl^ iaojr«ft««d in effielttncy bgr «xtiiadiii^ tilil 
•ads ting aaebixM inctaHatioi». ITith this it is possibXs t« trmas^tr« 
t^ «sdLsting eoatinuo«» last opsrvtions for high Haeh nuBbsra iaf» a 
stfttioooary opMratioii« fhis sxtsnaion has alrssäy bssn todhnieAXl/ 
plüUMd. Ths seeond nsehin« house nsosssar^ for tMs ooolt'aot te 
•Fset«d doriJ« th» last Bonths on aeooont of ths building dlüf|«AAiM* 
Da» exlansion provids« for 3 radial eonprssaors, th« largest «f «Mth 
has a mwtion aapaei^ of 150, 000 B3/h and a siapply eapaeit^ «f 5 kg/«^ 
lbs total aleotrie powsr eapaoit^ aaounts to 21 lor« 

fh« two largest ooopreesors with eleetrie engines and pe>»sr ßjm 
already situated at E-chel, the sakllest oaimot he used and if fi?«cen!fc2gr 
at Qettingea« Conpressers and engines have already been ae^ulred« fbm 
coast f«r construction and laeohanioal apparata would ai»unt ,te about 
400,000 RM« The construction of the Baohine house eeuld he ecttpleted 
in three sontbe« 

With the extended aaehioe installation the evaewtlc»« tioc et 
both ohaal»rSy i.e. the intervals betiveea two tests, ceeld be 
considerable reduoed, while the duration ef eaoh sepMrate teet eeoUi 
be oonsiderabOy increased, e«ge with a Maeh nuaber 9t M the e^«tttiea 
can he reduoed fron 5.7 to lo2 aimites and the dinratioa ef the test 
ioereased froa 38 seeonds te 68 seeends« With snail Msoh'^^ltt» the gaiatf 
are less, with higher Kaeh Nee. the gains are greater. Abb«» Maeh 1h. 3*9 
the Measuring section of 40 mi x 40 sa flew section ifl carried eut with 
a lastii^a stationary operation« This represents aa iasrease in 
effieieaajr for the WVA of considerable iitportanee* 



606 



SKOSäLJX 
oBinsm. RfiKRv m wooasi 

WIW TQMSSL raUt 
•hapM ttf bqAl«0 with subeonie tjiA •npnvcni« m nA»« 

4. Rook«te fin stabUlMd vdth«Ut «Inf«, 

B. Hfii^ barno afld fln «labllij^d rookett, 

C, Inflsionoe of thd jet on thA aorodjmiinio« of tbm BXMi)«0^ 
D« 3pin 0tabills«d rocktet«. 



a) launchad f>om Xaunohar« 

b) lauxioh*d fron gojM. 



^» ^CSlttUjS. («rlthout rocket propuLiio») 

A. Tis atabllisad 

a) I>«Y«lopeient0 P»«n9nund«r Pf«ilg««oho»a«. 

b) Purtbar davalopaanta of "Pfailfaaehoaae" 

(Tha pro j «etiles of tha grocqp II aa bava tha abbrariatlon 

PPQ - Fa«n(»iouQdar Pfailgeaebotaa). 

a« 8piB eiabilisad convaatiohal projaetlla«. 

a) Coovantlonal projaotilaa* 

b) On<1«realibar projactili« (aub-callbar) 

Au Rhalntoohtar 

B. ▲ 10 

C,. Ta«n«lis 

D, RoobdruokpuTipa 

S. ibatjraet of raport o& Oia 3^^ oa rocket aaaiatad ehall. 

F. Raport on po«»lbillby of oollng hct geaae fro« rookot Jata. 

J. Racant work ocP t^i« WVA 

H« Photo-ftlec trlo pi*oxlal\.y fu»a davoiopment at Koohel. 



607 



I. Eo<?k»t aroD^liiwi »i^^^ff , 



A) Mfei»,nvfcnif ^rM»«,.^h ^9<\,%rff itft»ujm4 ^ ^w^ »^rti^^ . 









•f »Mn^st reals t>... «wl M« , to 2.S* In «4ditio* tb9 d«n«« nivt 
hm "pw gff ■ ■ II « tioA 1 ly » at««r«<l thTongh built la control«. Ah hhb fijr«i 4 
UaM t» Abimt 400 MtAr« height «ni furnlBbwi th» first «TlileDee that aisillM 
«mmU ^ «erMlTWJiioAlly etaMlised t^ «oUd fins« Preiriouslf »««»katfl «ert 
i<wiiTm11y eoMPsaultiog all orer the plMe. 



osußER a 



— ^ 




~A" 



70 CW. 



d 
« 



Y_ 



>^3 



Quroe« • 1500 kig, Xhiratieii oa 45 teo« Prop^llantar LO t Bthanel ^ RjO* 
A« «M lateoded to be a table vubsonioellf an^ aiipersonloally. \ln p#efeeaional 
Jjffdmm the prejudice that fia aUbilisatlea supersoaicallr la oot peeaible). 

but all the reaiilt« on A-, hare new beea 



total e^ight 750 k«, TerUeal 



lie xvyerti are a^llable oa A3, but all the 

evporseded, (Ch&racUrlBtloi P • 1500 k«, 

a#oeleration if ). The contjrol derice la the A3 «ea not quite auffleieat and 

the A« wv therefore atarted vlth better "Leitverk" « Baiiifeld eif the fine, 

i Mf r 09 m ä "Steuemasahlne" * control-steer log manifold and cotpeuiatiom ef the 

epia «hlah has ite origin la the ieperfectioas of the c ns tract ioa aad the 

higher order (quadrupolÄ) tonques due to lateral wiod. 



608 



Tlsanmt^ ««ight, body are about th« sanft as for A^ (p«rhap0 
D « «0 «■ iMUA<5 of 70 oa). la ^.li© suawr of 1938 t&« flrat Md*!« ««r« 
lMUi«h«d without gyro-«I«otrlc-bydr«ullc a tearing (narlgatinif) aa«klna, Ib 
0«t«to*r 1939 tho first nodal« with the robot piloU wer« launab«d. (20 to 
30 taaU la tha ^ar 1939 * 1941). The oKxiala «era raeo-varad «1th douUa 
paraahuiM. Vartlo«! eallio^j 7 kn, ranga 1"^ ka. All of iha flight path« 
vera «ta1il# an^ raao)»d aaxlsua 6pee<i of 300 sa/aao. in the traiuiaani« regloa* 



609 



A^ WAS to be th« first g\Jid«d »iaell« wit* sp^ed« greater thftn that of 
«ouod« 



fas U»t9d itt flight fop th« first Urn In Jun» 19^2 In praa^no« 
of B*loh«Blai«t0r Sp^r, FjtFlo«ion of co«bu«tlo* chanb^r ooourr«d «t 
«iH^ral net»» h«ight. October 3, 1945, "Uj« first •ucc«B»ful flight 
«a« w4« tjy »n A4 »vtr a r»n^ &f 250 km^ !^^•ry thing worksA w»ll 
intfl-udlag ooabuation, control«, »tftbility «to, 

1) The wind tönnal had as ita raain probte» th« construction «sd 
t««Ua« ©f »olid aUbilialnß fin» «nd at th« Uli of tha fin» »aall 
««retS^^MMie r«d(l«re« 

TTtfl d*3tÄncw of th« pr«3flur« o«nt«r, which for atabl« flight 1» 
r ;•. *^.-.. oftritftv of {;.-Ävity, i« 0,3 o«lib«r» froa the o«nt«r of gravitgr* 



PRlssü^s cf/vrr« 




C£NTCR OF ^ 

GRAVITY O 

00 



O 



M^M.ff 



|0**<(ANfLf Of ATTACK 



610 




Mäu 



«Mil woitev« m*^ 1 <wfiBot b« «Ma la tb« vlnd tiuftii*£ %««Mi^ ^to |i^ 



-~^ 



/ 



^ 



Shockwiiv«« 



Kmut la • 1 Um proeaur« o«iit»rc oo«» dao^crvu^Igr iMtr Um OQU lü MJto 
*«or« tlMtt nothing would happ«» a^ «tai s 1 vitb tte A. ciäUar IMliUli vaw 
djroppad free plana« fro« fiOOO Mtara halght attS obairfad li^ thai» ÜnUBilUaii 
tte^ovigli i(a • 1 at about 1000 aatära altitnda. kj^ flow «p ta tta. » 5 mt B iMlvt 
«hi«li aaliMldod cloaaly with 'BramuichluB'' • propallant out»eff^ 



611 



i«B4« Morodynaaie problaa of atft)4i4.s«Uon of thm g»$.ä%ä oitiU^' 

(•ttUU^) tati^ « CO » OP has to to ▼•ry «Mil 9i)i«r«lM*t^ |V«|(i«tfU 
ta» ^IM t«oA«M i* tlf «tnti^t and cannot b» Miaily 0tMr«4» ^ ttMrli^ 
tnp««» aaoMoary b«lx^| proportlfmal te th« dUUn<M^ x GO « OF» VMittiS^ 1* 
•«a^ ttM ruddara oan ba aMll and tba popar to torn tha rwMars aaall so that 
tmh w^ßk% cmm ba aa^vad. ThaA *a ara in tha ordar of 0,5 «aXlbttpa, Tha 
t»a a i Bita« CP and CQ aa fanetion af Ha (cr Uw, or dlataMa^ trataallai) ImA 
%• Iw iat«r«ln«A vwry axaotly. Oaoatetrioal ehaogaa had to ba Intraduaad In 
orda» tm aakaÄ aa constant aa posaibla aa a function of a aod Ma« 1^ ohaagt 
oiA «itk a aad Ma «as narkadly iaprorad aa work progresaad fro« tha Ac to tha 
Ju ta tha "laaaarfall**. For "laaaarfall" thay suoeeadad to r^Am^ A ta within 
tta lialta of 0,2 oalibar in tha rang» froa aubaonlo to auperaania mTfrnt^u aod 
ai^laa af attack bataoon 2® assd 8 . "Iha CP for snallar a^sXte than 29 oanaot 
-vasy «all ba naaaurad), 

(la tha A. ataaring is entiral^ «ceoiq>liabad by aaaaa of tha gMrahita 
l^ta mdaara in tha j«t, which oaaao oparatlon at "firannaohlwt*- f forapallaAt 
eat aft, Tha rudder« :. ^'^^ fins ara Intaodad only for apln ii»>lliaation 
m *Drallata«araqg") 



612 



(p.) Determination of drag aad lift of if Ay 



Th« drag and lift oo»ffiel«nt» look &g f©llow8j 



tCv< 



07 

% ' 

0.4 
0.1 ■ 

0.1 \ 

o,| 

I . 



/^N 



'r- 



y 



i_ _ ... . _i 



-4- 




4 bw^ 



t% 



5 



c p 



T^-- 



0.Ü 



1. — -. I. 



i \^ 



1.. . 



— k--. -. .. . A _ 
4 U Vu 



613 



• .r -5 ^...*y «i«r!«ntilai for *M9 r&n^ whll® Cj^ la ««««otifld for th« 
c.^'vat'iro -:" ihc' iiiJrUi -ar^tur« of the orbit, (S«» tk« dia^r««)« Tb« 
äT»«€-»4,r tfc9 eirrrfttur-» r©q.;1r«d, the gr«ftt«? aTi«t b« Um "lift* (««tli« ^ th« 
right -föimwaüsS) on u.« ml.^rtil«. ?hör«fore in th« c&a« of l7M«#rfall9 wher« 
lASg® •«avat^iT"» ax6 r®«-|uiret*., tha lift mwi b« genftrated throogh aetVftl wiogs. 



Axis of Müsiie 



-;^ 




■>^,/"/^ .'->^ 



.4IMit 16 flod«lB with coiuilderahl» ^nuriations «er« triad« Aetuallj tha am 
df Um f^at nodale waa aotuallT- tu«£l for tha V : A^, 

(Ifaxixy» stagnation praasura at the baglnning of tha dlra mu 4 ata)* 



614 



Kj« »Ql«its«hl«. Cj^ / Cj) 



fh« rmtlo of CI#/ CD (lift-drag r«tio) follows froa thi mbaf «arvMi 
aaA is «ppliod for the ealeulatioQ of the patJs* 

(3^ Spia control with «ir rudd«r«. 



It «a« datariDlned Id the wind tunnel which rolling Monent« (itorqiaM) 
origiBAte in the asyvnetriea of construction and in the latAral wind«» 
las true tions were giren the cons taction engineer« he« large tmnmavm^imm 
of the line up of the fins could be toXarated. A "Daet Masohine" « ftutoaatie 
dvirlatien «easuring aachlne was built which autoaatiealljr accepted ar 
r«je«t«d the bodies for the A#. Subsequently rudders had to te iNdlt «bleb 
oould eeMpeneate positiwe noailnts with the saall torques whiok th« mt§mtii^ 
Afiohine was able to Ban&ge, 



Cm 






^ 


I 






•*- 


-— -^ 





Oaly 
body 



'8 of the type I oould be managed, both for the e of the aaia 
the rudders. " 



U= c„ 



2 



C had to be plotted as 



Is the pitching nonent) 
function of a for all significant Mach nunbere. 



o nao to oe plotted as a runction of a for all significant Mach nunbex 
(only in the Wasserfall ware tolerated and componaatod for the first tii 



de 



negative dgj where c_ is the aoaent coefficient of the rudder anl t 

the angle of rotations (nobody has as yet nanaged to control negatiwe 

da 
The »oaenta of the rudders could be relatively ea-^iily measured in the 
aupoMonie region by halving the model and limiting the air streaa by « plate 
(3^>e sketch) which made it po sible to lead out with rods which trax«aitted 
the turning moments of ^ho jrudiera to measuring dials. 



615 



^ AIXt smsAM 




MOUMTING 



P«5P «titai«iiie flow the halving of th« model and backir^ by a flat plate 
doM not work. Models of the bisected type ehown ware of couptie t»ed 
onlj f«r preesure aeasureaents and not for drag, lift and noaenta« 



'4^ Preeeure distribution over the A/^ 



Tbl» pressure had to be raaasured in order to furnish the besie data 
fer the stress analysis to be used in the choice of the static structxrre of 



▲kout 120 fine drill holes were used on the nodel. 
saaH hoe»e to 120 manoaeters. 



All oonne'-ted with 



Sinee pressures for 9 velocities, slxieen angles of attack from 
-SO t© ♦ 8^ »»»re neasured four to five times each, a siiatotal of about 
120 000 data on the pressure distribution was obtained, (For result« see 
spaclal reports and also "Geschosse ohne Trail" 19^*3, Heft 1059/43 of 
th« Deatache Luftfahrtakademie. ) Watch the very interesting pressure 
dlatrlbitlon over the sharp edge E on the r'odder, which changes 




616 



radlMtliy fro« the subsonic (r«lativ»ly large pr©a»ur« or«» X) to th» 
•ap«r«*Blc flow (atKJut equal pressure over S and F), The CP was shiftod 
forward with locreasing lUoh nuaber in agreement with the diagraB on page)« 



M - 0.6 







f .0 



a) Integrated pressure die trlbuticr., (or ncrtsal forÄe? on the axis) #n fin 

stabilized projectile. 

b) Saa» distribution on mlselle without flan, which clearly deBonstratea that 
the finless missile is unstable. 



617 



Pr^usva-e diatribation on th« rudder. 



See report 152 on ruddars and ^k^. 171 on Waas©rfall. 

(5^ Ski ntasBpera tore of th® A^, (Mo. 4, 5, U ©pecial report«), 



At first in 1938 the temparatures wgre determined theoretically, 
fitli the wind tunnel in 'Operation after 1939 «xact »eaaxirement» w«re started 
(•«peeially froa Spring 194.0 when th© air dryers were installed). Report 
57 eontalriß the experln-.ental data on wind turir.el tests of skin tempera turea. 
Coa© shaped bodies of various angles were introduced, as well as spheres, 
disca and so on. Heat transfer» were determined in dependence of ^. 
(See Als® Vol rv. of the Handbuch der Experimentalphysik, Buaemann, p. 443). 
(I*) infogrnl energy- radiation telance was laade for the A^), 



Q 



T. 



iSk-^ 



CM 



G Problera: To determine th© heat 

Q which is transferred fron the 
gae to the body per cn^ second. 
Secondly: What is the temperature 
of the skin? 

AQ 2 ^Gren^ischicht s boiondary layer 

*B1 ■ Blech temperatur « skin temperature. 

If a ■ heat transfer per secord and cm*^ at a given point P at a 
distance frosi the leading edge and X is the heat conductivity, then Nosselt's 
moBber 

Nu' = t (Ma, R) - °< d 



a3 a function of ^.u -h number Ma and Reynold's number was plotted. 

After the ab<;v^; curved wer« established the skin tenperatures were 
caicala-ed f t tn^a wncie oroit. (Only one point P on the skin waß 
calcu-Äied, unorü ir-e Ujm)jorature was estimated to be Uie highest). 

The same procedure was 
applied to different types 
of orbits and different types 
of bodies. 




618 



(i) tfOtwu 



tlu eodiMtioiB e]Mitb<»r (tkis p«r«ljr far eo»v«)aiftaie^ ^f^ iboilftM^iia:^«^ 
Stability ttp t© M « 3» 6 w»a i?«juir»d. In «aditieis toAOlns ( i*f«lr'4i»# ia 
«ton tb« «pia fr*qu«nay «od tl» fr^««o<ay of pi to h aotlo« or fwtf-'^Kjffi^ $r^ 
«tiwl) mat b« »liidnÄt«!. solution» Tim «r» int^ftttpmlljf «llf^i;«» M 
%• Hiko th» ßpia f r*ou9Kqy t«» tta*» ««it «f 4li» t:raq«MiQ7 of id«> «(HIJUäU©* 
about tä<i two »hort (»yMBiitrle»!) tarn» «f 1*» 'ini#»#id «f liMtrlSiJH tb* 
9r»bl«Bi «me not i^allj brought to « «Uoooasfol 0bR<Au«ioä« 

•) Puppe hftn. ' 

1« fororunmr U> P«nBer«chr«ck. Original oaillb«r «»• 5 •»; wtjt 
lT)crtmf»«Ki lut^r. Tti« wind ttmn«i workad «BsentA&Hy on th« fltt MOlSfiiH 
( s i*iitw«rk) for the atabiUa.^ Lion of U» mletiU which had tm iAfffm^kS^ 
r&nt« o" 200 B and «po»d of i^50 Vfl«c. (Used by th« InfaDtzrf-aaS. |*CA#i0di 
froo aisooth tubes). The d«v»lopaent of PuppehwB waa mtUwjpiU^' tmf- Wy^n^^^' 
spead which «duld have been reached If tba aiaail« had h^mn ilx^ ftim ^ plM^täU 
TMa derelopiMnt was not flnlehad, Baal® dlffiettlty ia tlMt ,tltft ^imßiittmmt 
«xtaad b«7ood tha body as It la possible with r«o}f%ß »hiob ftpf' fB^lf jMriiffWt» 
la spita «f tba faet that a doaan shapaä wara triad xi^m VM Hmsä Ät* 
rcaainad «adar aquilibrlua angle« of attaok of. about Ä®% 
Motlta «an bo altbart 




«I * CONST 




Interferenrn .f ;i.e b; ury^an- L,.y»»r with Ate fi>iB la disturbing eepaaially 
whe'-. theru U a :.ii-''..# .".-i;!« oj' a' rank ajs tiu» «ketoh ßhowa. 



619 



^Uo 



~-^ S'ltUtN V*AVk 



.66 



OETACMtD 
BOUNDARY lAYBR 




PanMreckreck which 1» the flniahed produßt based on the Puppcte*n wmM 
fl»«a fS?o« a taib«, whil« the »Ifcilar Pan»«rfan»t «a« flr^d from a «U^t«. 
(^« fin» of th« Psn««rfau9t w©r« folded into an OahrtUa), sX«*t« «m 
b«Iä Igr the operator. 



Pans^rfauBt 



§^"3- 



) 



620 



B* Wtag bom anc^ arrow (fin) stAbilJLi«^ ror/^t«. 

a) iAMerfAll. 

7irst wluij born ■isslle to fly stably with eubsonlc, trone sonic «.«i 
»ufwreonic «p^dd« up to If ^^^2, 5. (Was «ctiially iatarKltd forKA « 3*) Four 
wings WBT» n«c««8Ary In order to «llcw n»no#Tering of the WftAaerfHli in all 
•.lirdCtloi» and positlOB». it flrat wieg« and fine wwr« L5^ out oX p.'^dsw 
b«cmusw it w«B thought that in this w»y tfc« iwaersion of th« xn;d'eri la th« 
trailing YoTt9X Strwet eould b« avoided, Thia proved to be wrong for large 
Ätiglae of attAck for which the arrangenent of wing« and fine identical In 
ap0ui^ flkcrulder angle and total surface area was shown to be ««re adrantageoue . 
SubeonlcAlIy 15"Ängle of attack wae necessary while pupersonleally B^ was 
req-uired« The aain difference between A/ and «e««erfall ia fcr 
ffaaserfall aA » CO - CP (a«rc point at the nosftle (HecV)) was achieved which 
as a fUDction of Ma 1« alrr-o^t gonstap t fron to 2, b,/^ ^-^^ 0,3 ;.. Mittelwert, 
th* fir^l shaped for the Wasserfall was based on the exferienoea gained with 
24 Models which were tested in the wind tunnel.. 

Cd and C|^ were measured as a function of Maoh's number for both position« 
where the vliags lie in and noraal to the plane of tangent to orbit and axle 
of ■issue aikd the eaa« where the «logs eubtend angles of ^5*^ to this plane, 
Sarprlalimly Cd and C|, for both positions were alaost the same, 

Ihe lift «oefficient for the WaseerfslI la about 5>0;f, larger than that 
of tfae A/, fha On'« »'* also about in tha same pronortion. Conseqtiently 
the drag-lift ratio is about the sane for the A^ ana th» ^aspsrf«!!» The 
latter therafor» is no better t ^lldor than the A ,^, but bec&u .s e of itja higher 

2l i£j»«9fv^i:ii^ie ^B sh^rpor ffviagg' 

A, wi'S i f 



= 10, ) 



it 
Ci> defir^ in radians. 



o 



L = Lift 



5 . P« 



*r« pj, » ^Vx and S «W Tik//, with these data about 30 rudders were tried and 
leoXated. 



wher« 
oa 



$n 




c^ '^«n»dd»r angi«. 



Plotted wa« 0L agairifiL i| 
1« cyder u^ g«t «in Id«* of 
th« «otlons of th« mddtr 
eoDtrol on th» aagl« of 
attack «C of th» üIb»!!«» 
(for toptrim fp«« pasitiona of the mLsaiU). All <mrv»« ar« pl«tt«d ^th 
th* IteGA tquiber aa « p«ra»et«r. With incP«a«icg Mach ms^i^r (H 9 0,6 
j^ 2.t} tha aaglÄ « for glvsn-^ drcp« toy «bout 60|. CoÄtrallabUlty of 
tk« sldsll« with Incra&sing flach nvabr thdr«for« d«cr«A8ai. ffith^i s I'^t 
tk* ir«qiar*d i»xl«uÄ c of 15°for STabfioaic tp««! and 8*^for •upara«nlc flp«<»d can 
$mt b« aehioTed. v/ "^ 

P«r th« «rosaed poaition «f th« win^ and fin« /!\ tb« «urr«» fl ( "n ) 

bdsOM siieh a» to all©« in scwo caeee two valu«» of « for a glT^a 7 wiUch reeans 
that thar« ia alao a point d3_ . of inaUblllty through which tha »laella 

•ay M thrown fro« th« first a t© tha eacood a. Problaa wna to ahapa tha 
fina a£d wir-ga ao that the point of inatabillty womld fall outaide of tha 
ailitAry raquirad ranga of angle». 

■.<iror'y;yimlcaUy th® vertIcÄl paths arjd the Icngast pa tha waya aiMlyaad, 
:*v>t/: ^^ß ultima*93y galdmi in ^wc dlrectiona. U, 2) 




Plow through tha 
critical raglon ♦^-o 
euparsonic apaad without 
any d iff t etil ty. 



!UKraiy€p f pta. f or tho ruddaret 

m) with 25<^axciar«ion of tha ruddar an axoursion of th« body aust 
raault of 15^ at subacaio apaad and S^ at suparaonlo ap^^ad« 

^) tctal ri-rwxX intagratad forca had to ba lasa than ona aaixic 
ton (otherwiaa oona traction would hava baan too haavy)« 

Y) A ^° deflection of tha four ruddara la "awaatloa" configuration 
■uat eoapanaata for all spina originating in th« aaywoatry of 
eonstmction and lataral wind, final abapaa adopud wara R|^2' 



622 



I 



«21, <y«i<i«r a)> «»Hwi^ •» ^^ MiMMitar «r iii« ini4<ii^ #Mliia9# 



L 



I« 



^, 






%>.^^^ 



'KJ/> 



its oa tfe® nadd«rf «<»« w«g#n«r'« report B©, I6f, 



^^^ 



Fl0t«anr i4«A} U p«<Suo« tb« hing« aoMnt« «0 far at pedalbl«« fUf% «M 
«ri94 t« only fix tb« «uadliary rudd«? while the Mia rudder f •JLlvwiid tvmlj^ 
It tomed out that eacenraion« of tha aaxiliary ruddar inflva^aad tiM Bain 
rttddasr laaa and laae as tb» forlrard «pead iocraaaad, 0« that Ulla tjoa of 
vvMmt is not proaiaiof . Tha raquiraaant of stability ia th# smbaaiila regio» 
nates the rudder toe stable i» the supersoale range, 

Seoend attempt «as to haire aiuiiliar^r rudder and aal& rud4«r eevipled 
( 'Ht/vi^ ® oonst«)., (Ulis «as in the first den^lopswat stage). 



(ofrS52?T ■ °« f-V « . s. 



dc. 



•l3al 1 



In order to oojaveftiently eoapare 



Oae sust try to aroid nagatlT« 

the different rudder» the nuaarldal Taluae of S and D are taken as those of 
the projectile rather tb&n ae those of the riddare (as it is dooe in the 
aerodynaaicf of airplanes). 



1:^ final solution »eeaed to be Indicated tif a perforated rudder ef the 

fullowin^ typo (about thf^ asame ela© as K\2 ®"d on® oallber Xottg)« 



623 




>t4>c 



m« pfswr» pMk at (1) is protuaably counter baUncad (In It« 
«rf«et •» tiM torqu« around tha axl«) by a nav praaaura paak at (2). 

akint«m|>«r«tur® of Waaaarfall la 180Oc while tha bouralary Uyar gata t» 

Rockat froB pla^® tx> plana and 500 a/aac. D /-v-/ 21 a» L « 10 D. 
SIbHajt te Waaaarfall, exoapt for two wlnga Inatead of four. Waa analysad 
onl^ thaoratically bafor« it actually flew. Has not actually U8«d. 

c) Forerum.arö of A.,, nnd At,. 

a) GJictar k, (Fin projectile A^ x Tloaaan^aachoB A,). 

DaTelop»ent, «tar tad 1940. The program wae to taka the body of A. ae 
it wae axid to attach win^ja for the purpoaa of Inrraaaing the ranga frÄ» 
2*70 k» to A^O ka». Tole.1 wai^jht of propellanta arxi of th« warhead were to 
roBain the aai» aa for A/. Ti» following baaio designs wura inTaatigatad 



■-<_ 



f 

L. 






(model V,2^) 



./ 



AXIS OF ROTATION J 
OF THt RUDDER 



\:.: 7 



Krou t.h« anaiyaia cf the famlllfts of orbits tli» fdlowlrig result« 
Were obtAlnad. 

l.f oi>o la(i.i(-hee> Ihd mlislie (orbit 1 In ekeV^hj VHrtir-nlly »ip t^j 
"Br-amiäohhiH" ■ i>r >,hi1 laiil cut-off ar«i traii=if orma «li ol r '.^ aviii«!,!»« 
oh^^ifllcaJ Biinri^y M.ti orLentl«! anör^y, tha ralealJa fllrtfl ^-o a. \mbk (ah. 
.i / kjii ) at whl'^h 'Jo .it'll«!!.; of :iv« air Ifl t«>o Hmft'l 1 to auj^jxji-l ^il''ii4 
rtift iiil.-iflll« Miftrof i;-e fa J Is rapidly aixl the orbit, oHfillu'ee wlhout 
«•hL<iv . ii<i a iMTji^e ragt). Ail r't.h«r Inltlnl fii^^l-ih'y at, bP'^i :.-'';'i ; u'i ■' 
•il.-io A.^-^Jumed unit »J»e rePulLin^ orbits an«lvii»d. I' «as foiuhl luat to 
reach 1 o^' a t a i ! 1 n^- of ^f) km mfxe moat a Ivant^^jjoua arni r.hd<jro tlr u 1 , y ,, 
rari^a ol /►'.() - '»(AJ Jta. ,'lih original ca loula Moru- wer» all uia.to wI.Uj h 
lift/-drag rallu (^x-^A for :^:bäoi\lc flu« arni ^-^ 4 for- iiuperjiorjlr **lnw). 
n In aketoh «cü»rtiaa t.lcally lJlu«fra».«a tli«^ b«t«t > n". tlorw. nils virbi 
C4*li-Ulti '-«1..1 with ilft-flrttji ratloi. u>-(uari> •l<'i ! f'T'i.il n.^'' In .h« *!';1 'IK! « 



u» 



re 
<r)A t, 
V.J n 
rtSU -iwl 

t\-hl r 
f wurt 
1. 



(a., i.t.c..M -re ' «i til« fli-st dr*.'.1(^ri for ■514»*;-^' .ql <« -, ] r t. \] ^n.:t.ou^ 
ao»l til« M r. t w:-h'. luni'l t«BT.a "n rtiich aaot-.>rui, *l.l !•- <«i ■^ arfti J i Wnr Ihe 
rir«t <it<J«<'' to t'ly tfir-iif^b t.hft crltl.-al verlor:', 'y .-e^M. 1 ^\'.h tlr^p). 



f 't 



/ 



1. 



X • Brwiu.B^'hluBa r prupellaut. cut-off 



625 



Viirioiäa shAp«e of Lhe «Inge «rttr» ae follows! 



'4 




A 



4 



^^l^c) 



[■ ■- .. »rw.^-. w-.ri nS 'lt. f.. U1^ !» //♦ whlf^h la *tbou'. i.h« aouble 



'i2c *'**'■ ^K'« "^^^ a^'oiit lOf Ol- /,(> »cm nd ii i.ioriul rang«. Vip,. w«H ;iie 
i ;nodrt) US TMf i?« i 1 t t, irsit; rtiLio i» c.'jnni'ruoA but, w..- h-i 1 '.r. .-,■. uiie Ui© 



■ '-L;s i art»*-. ■. 

Lu nil if t; « 

of V, 

b«bt 

center of j-rjöPuie mr.Vöd l>Hck rar-r« than one f) fYum Mie oib.-^'a; 1 .- 'low fo Lhe 

suweraoalc flow. in or-lar *o ailow the dUfrln^. mörhAt.5 Mm (x^ . -^ ; ;.rol lhe 

i«irt/ö i.r.v«r arm a.»< l-r';a« a! Su| .n r^'f.! r Hjv«;1t, 1 », v»>i.-. 1 .. tn; ,!tK:i 'o jlho« (lie 

GF all- tly In fr nl wf Cr, f(r sd.suv.ir :;,.•.- i. 



r 




l'h« tatftl «iriK siü-laon f-iufl Uä fliifl w >fl 8.1fl I) /;;. (For Lhe Vj^^^j wo Lud 



t« th© lift;. 



Tül« nodel 1« «] 1 r niri.i tvid ami .ittnn« t fj« ufl^d «liice !f 1a i^hHi-ac arl s*»«1 by 
injor llft^dr*^ r«f,lo atrf^' i/ir^ö rnaio« of f h« CP wl -.h Marh m>ml>«r, ^'r/C^j la 
-<:Ql^ lower UiAn toi (.he V, ^q. (Mot.K.n ..f CP frum nmÄÜ • *; Ur^^« M't. ta 2% 
t,ruaL«r thatr! for tii® ^i;,;!. 



626 







h -Ä4fe. 



A V 



i2o 



vas t&>en as th« basis t» start ffoe« tl^ pr«lblMi «atf ^ 



l»«"v«» tb» Uft-drag ratio r as it was but to «wld th* »oY««rart «rf UM CF. 
P9r this (aftsr 1^ jaare of work) tbs «xperlMMC gatbetr^d i« tht ^«««Ü^dpait&t 

of fVa.'«S6rfall «are aval labia, ^a CP had to ba'W as fixsd a loMltioB^jMl 
possilila and CÜ - CP had to be lass than a eartaia aaouat gl"r«B }Kf tSm f©ll«wti^ 

raqi-dremantt 

^'*\ax * ^^^ (mddar angla) ^».>. a it 8^ in tha stiparsordL« ri^lMi* 

Iftlka in Waasarfall the fixing of th« G? was aoa««pllshad faj tf«p*ieU «Wp« 
of tha ving. Iq ganaral tha highaat praosor»«; ar« distribai«d $l» f^fJiam 
(shadad araas)s 



627 



stiaaoNic 



tupensdNic 




Tk^rmtv IT th« folloviog ehai^o ia wide 





on» ••»• that th* CP (marked by x) is n«TlQg forwvJ' only-^fm* tlM inntl^lli« 
fl*» «hieh Makttd for lees dep«ndenca of the lcc4ition of OP Ott lU 
iewrtlMleee CP (aubaonie) - CP (eupereonlc)'^ 0.6 D which U ft UttU 
t0« Wii ft ir. Uft-dra« r«tlo «ae 6 end L reepectiyely anbflonioftlljr Mil 

rtiuee 






8«p«rsoaieall7 (io change ee eonpered «1th Vx2g)» ^^^ Intaated t« r«d 
Um Oy^ C to 0.2 D, )mt the rudder maehlzM coiud handle 0.6 D MBtloa« 
Abo«l 14 lnt«r»edlate shapes were tried, 

— «-ÜL™? (r • Flügel, L r Ultwerk, R • Ihider, A - Aggregat ) 

shetsld have been the final fora. For thle It «aa 

CF (siiteonic) - CP (suparsonlc) s 0,4- — ►0,6 reapectlTelj for 
a a lS^->0O^ Sinoe the wing« U this model are eaaXler than In the fxa^ 
tha lift-dreg rmtlon deoraaead hgr 10^ about and was 4,8 for M a 0,t4 and 
3»7 f «r H » 1,69» OQ • CP ia not yet knows beoauea tha bonatrtictloB englaear« 
had not furnishad the data. For A9 an laetabilll^ 1« « of « • 5^ would hara 
bean tolerated. 

Far the ruddara the «as» typae ware ueed ae in laaaerfall exaepi 

fer eartaln oha»g@3 in dlasnaion to oonfora with tha different aistt of the 

A9. 



plna wlngfl welded on, 
region H « 1. 



in order to determine how tha winge pasa throogh 



X 



CosparieoB value» ©f oj) 



A9 , ^ Ojj aOjB0 

) eubeonlo 
A4 ►Cü ^ 0^14) M - 0,6 



A9 l^-CD s 0,39) 

A^ ^,.p . Q rj) 



eupereonle 
M - 1,86 



628 



Additional r«aArkt 



«Ith Urg* span of th« wlnge it It diffittult to keep tbo CP roUUi^lj 
S^tJtmd wiih cliai^lQg 1. One therefor« is f canoed to adopt eaell epaiui «jid 
■aorlfle« aoae of tbe "glidabilitjr« of tlio- aia#ilo« 

0« lafluenoe of the jet on the Jet on tte aorodjoaaloe of the «lasilao« 

(ll Salwoaio region. 

Cxperiaante vere tried oaljr on aodela of A^ and A^ « 



FEED PRESSURE FOR JET JS 
6 ATÜ - 6 ATM. 0Aü6E. 




U. 



Nose 



"lAbyriaih Diohtung" : Male leak for the «xoees air escaping from the 
feed tobe 7 «as uaed In order to have the nodel freely Bovable around a 
verüeal aada. 

The preaaure distribution over the eurfaoe was deterained vith the help 
of eaall holes and attaohed pressnre gauge« along six aeridians» A typioal 
pressure distribution along a meridian is as foUoesa 



At. 



Nose 




With Jrt 



WffU tu» ml^fikt posiUv» pr«08ur9 «t Urn tall (indletUon «f tJM» MU^tUM 
wtiXid tw th« idMa flov)« 

Ik» AM«« ar« «atrmifi^d throisgh the Jot with r«rtmltlllf gyatiWP tsador 
jiw a itf» (suotloB) at th« tail «nd of tha ip^raad botfjr« ai»» teHi lito 
paaltii« praaaitra at tho nosa and tha negativa pt^^awt at tha ^»iX- aoalrllM^t 
paalU^^ljr to O»^» th« Jat aliich anhsneaa th« anatioa orW tlM tidi «Mitribat»« 

(2) ffwip^ffton^ ms>^^^t 



Without Jft 




^ ^^ U 



630 



M-v5 




— "^HO^K WAV! 



. _^IIOCK WhU 



J#t 4NI U growl t))i«k«: T*t viU) tu« r^^vlt t^t higher pr«s9tiM U teilt 
1I9 •?» tlMi 4iaA,X ««eUoB. Af tha ««glri of di^^rgstto«! of th» J«t liier««0«t 
vl% 4««NM«&ag «xtwrnsX prMSur«» th« hoondsrsr lAr^r grows &nS tb« pr««mir« 

OS th» Iftll iaes"«»»««^ remxltirsg la « decanMi»« of Cjj of th« whol* b^y. 



Ac 







0.2 



Ü.I . ^ 



\ 



\ 



:\, 



A4 -MODEL INFUeKCE 

OF JET ON Co. 

(AH6LES OF ATTACK OF LESS THAH SO*) 



M 



-^ 



631 



cCn5' 



Th« «HmlI p«t2uB of thm A^ wer« not actually analyzod for th* influeno« of 
.?.•» jat oa Cß of tha whol« »iaalla. Lift oo«ffleltnt vlth tha Jat wsra not 
fltftarttin^d« 



Invaatifatlona of atablUtj with jat. 



=..: f^ o«nt«r of prwiaura aaa dlaplaoad ^ Ou5 I^ toamrda tta» tall «ban tl)# 
Jat «as «tartad« ?*»• «13811« contaquantly baooaaa wov «tabU (A«)* Um 
ia«ra««« «f atabillty ««a chaokad through ohaarratlon of tha aa^Lllattooa of 
thia aadal without jet and with j«t. 




OCCILAltON OF THE MODEL 

WITHOUT JET 
-WITH JET 



TIME 



F«r a» i«t asly M « 1«^ «^a» uaad. No ctht>r oasaa wara iarastlgatad 1b th« 
vlod tSBiial« 



D» SpiM atablXi3#d rocket*. 



<«) Latinehad fron launchara. 



Ta Oia«« baloog th« following rockt ta, DOV projaatila (Da - Dojr»b«Pg«r)| 
15 «i "«nrfgraaata», 21 c« -Wurfuranata»». 



632 



la OerMiny all of theat rocke ta %i««l «olid propollant» for theiT 
por^pulWJLon« (Duration /-^^ 1 to 2 a^Qonda). 



im 



lli4 tamiel Investigations of lift» drag and pitching BOMants irar« 
, D • 15 ca and L a 6 D, 



ru 



w 



Lr 



D 




JIT 



'S r- i^.'olvi«id v.». :' • <,t :..f- ifiW in r rdor to achiera greater frag mentation 

a:<d d*.;?:rv. ". rlon f '■'-,"•'.•. .-■>*.■' Vr.» H«r:h 's r.;urf«ice. 



vh«r« 



I^efloitatica of -oen' I ir:;t. of stability (?i^ 

0p s peripheral Telocity 

Oq 2 tba forward speed «f > the 00 

p s density of air 

*• do«. -^ 

la the »»««rodynaml 5eh»r Stabil itfitabeiwert" 



e33 



^ 9. dlataiiee CG - CF 

Ig m- «oBant of inertia around a short axis of »yanatry, 

I A 9. BMMMnt of intartls nro\ind loz^ axis aystaatry. 

9 « ealiber 

m s. anab©r of revolutiona of projaetlla per aimita, 

Froa ««parlance in external ballistie« it vaa found that if 

(T I t.3 

til«a tiM projaotlle (without fins and trioga) fliea atably. 

If ff^^ 1,3 tiiao the projeetila tuablee or becomes totally uaistabl«. 
StAbüiltf v^ to M 0,S is uaually relatively easily attainable, ttaroti^^h 
fl 1 tiM stability la oft^n lost. Aotuaily stability throu^^'h M s 1 aoold 
nttt^te aehieTod vith the designs used »o far. 

15 •■ Vurfsraoate. 



Vsn launched out of a anooth tube. D s 15 en L r 6,5 2^« tlM 
Bosnl]^ of all of tbe »ork la the wind tmaitel «aa te deterain« Q^, 0^ and 

^a» fanction of II froot 0,6 to 1,86 in order to daterslne froa tto« required 
ia*qa«litj^<^ 1,3 the oaeesaery spin for stabillxabion, iriiere by thif spin 
vad te be generated by proper inclination of the Jet exhaust noaslea (which 

arranged on a ring). 



21 m lifffgranat« U 1/5, 7. 

L ■ 5,7 D, Rocket wa» in developaent wa» tested in the rang« 0,56 ^ 
IK.l«db« Mcielß were 1 s 6 to the full ecale projectile, la wind tunnel 
teat Cx^ Lj>, «»ere det<ir' 1 n(?d and again from the requirement Ö^> 1,3 the 
nee^asary «pir» for stable fil.y;^t was calculated. Rasentially the ratio 
^t/^q * peripheral velocity/forward welocity wuat be determined and then 
generated thro-.i^Ji the Inclination of the Jet» which are arraogod on a ring. 

The derelopBent cf tbft ror<Ata was in the hands of Va PHIf 11 s 
Ito#r««waffena»t - iTdf w«. i«{? 



634 



i^'f 






•omiisiiUyaMa. 



^•"«tfv',^" va» 



gMte^'ttiAillNtV 



■»iiMiTiliii 



•iMl^ 



OttM«i* to^ iioric vMt d«o«^ Oft thM« 








WARH€AO 



SOLfO PtoPCiUVr CHiWJM 



'af t«^ tlM miAlü<tma'tfie^pißaUn 4# ^f :^tftßim« Ot«ii«r)»«oa |« l*« 



635 




üMiMMi f«it«« Of th« 2i mtumn 

U ftWt 60 km «Itheut jiA^iti««*! 

9ro|M4Mott, This H^^ tlMi% «M 
pr«iir«Uiri4 flUbl«». (ftr Min 
•teblUMd r«9k»M tlw OP (# lA 

<#tBi|ilÜt (AllM«h thf» i w tablli t7 «iaht in MmIpU i» l«M%ft» jgl^A 
mmMm Uv^ »pin, ^« fioluUi»i»li iiiiitS ^%tm ZfS^SS iSJSR^ 




CG iPiK iTAVi uz to 
CP 

CG %PiH fTAtiUZED 



M 



ACH NUMBER 



P)raM%&MÜL ii^portance of the deteralruitloa of (T^ 

Shls te«on«ft olear froa an investigation of thr«o diff«r«pt ««liWr 
Ui^tk «f th« ]> s 15 c« 8h«llt. Ueaaured L • 4,122 D; 5,916 D| 6»i^54 D. 
Um j» <gr — popdiag Qo«f fielen ts of stability for the saati« relooit^f ««r« 
(■ • 2,5). 

«r* 5,35; 1,68; 1,15. 

fte 2a8t «teU tb»mf€>r9 la instaU«. For M s 1*56 
wer« 



ö*^ . 4,32; 1,24; 0,94. 
Iknwfsv« ««itB If tiM proittoUU im atebl« at the mitX» ^locii^, tm« 



636 



77«llMlpi«f«X«O«0Cho««« Mit A-intrUb (f : p • H)« 

trtlbring 3 firr', -r "'1 nl«»*»v» ot ring. 

Tills parojcatil« U tivA fron a gun of ^0 en IvtMv^iMtm^at »od 52 mg 
^^M3tm^mT of tb« shsll, *hlch 19 0pin stabilised» (Th« gitn ««• <«11»<I 
"4«r t ^k i^ r » GMtAV** mmi «as tissd in t>i« bo«bsrd«sAt of S#tMiSt^p#i« 
0«2) «M sXso osJLlsd "Dora") 

i«l«ht sf tks prejsetlls «as not gl¥«a %» tiM» wind tumi»! iit*««ilfsisrs, 

trmt ths *86h««r« Gttstsv* v^rs fir«d both tiM rsgnlsr e«IilN7 pii^J««tdl# 
of to !■ diaBst«r sod tbs slsador projsetils of 52 es dl«Mt«r« ife» a0r«sl 
porojsstils ««s L s 376 0» Xong, «hlls tiM slund^r projsetll* is 264 «s loi^« 

Anproxiaatsly ths r«ng«s of ths projstftilos ««r« 

'^ 60 kii for ths nora&l esllbsr U t<>tis) 

40 kB " " b«avy normal " (f s 7 tons) 

7 tai « ■ a Under - (W 1,5 t«») 

Wsight «f nerasl proJ^cUl« 7,0 tons for sio^ porpos««, with a raqf» «f 
«bomt 40 In? For th« 52 ea caliber shell, «lib 4 tons ««Iglit, tlM ra«o «M 
about SO ka?? Ihs 7 tons «hall had 690 m/9«e, auzsls «»locitj« 

Th« saas gna oarrlaga ««a ai^ypoaad to ba ouiflttad with tao baad«^ on» dO 
OS aad ona 52 ca. 

Ihe lattar «as lAtaaded for nasals «oXocltj 1270 m/mti» (fba «xtm V««eta»« 
prop^tlslon ««s only iotandad, bat not aatoaUy axaeutad). 

(Tba Dara «laa «t last «aar Hlllare leben naar Magdeburg) • 

fha aad apln eagla had not been fixed bj Krupp, ihe «ind r^inoel 
Inifeatiga^oiiB therefor« eoncamad thaaaalTea «1th a range of Vp/tlp« 

Fer6*^l»3 and 0^ r 840 m/sec. it miSt ba 

<f r HT-V ^' -r Ov,r,l/U,. r f>*^ 22«. 

Thia angle mos In genecÄl bntw^on s^" ar>d 7*^ because the OG fro« projeetile 
ta prejeartile does not cbAnge aiueb. 



with ü^, = 1100 a/seccT • 6° 13' 
U^ , U60 i^/sec^ m 5<* 57« 



The spin stahiliaed under caliber projectile had the follow lag aai apia 

aaglas» 



637 



\ • «40 iM^»^» |. 6** 43» (Op wftr» 1» tto 

% ^ 1100 WW^o. 4 » 6» 22t p^yipltry of üis 

»4^ iiU^OV*««. I • 5® 54» proj*eUUO 

ill ^s ^v f p km m ^»^m%)* 

tä0jt m^ Wf^fiOtifii^ i$g9 tn^ to th« projeeUl9 whilo tJto 

^ — ' Wim «lite «««i* mmH£Um^ 



iMiii |9 «««sid^vAbljr gr*ftt«¥ ^stm t^ «i^fiO^ iwlooltjr i*>of tho Bora«! 



yyy^Aj^Ayyjr^yyy'yyy'yyj'yyyyyyyyyy^^^^yyyyyyyy^y^y^^y^yyy^yyyyy^y^ 




RODS WHICH FLy OFF 




F77777' ^^/ -^^'^ //^ r //AV/ // -' /)'7'/ >/ ///////////// > ///// ////// v- ' ^ -^ ^' v/// ; 



CH&d French also lui«! ar. <ut<t9r caliber projo«;tll« i^icli »«0 iHMrOjiA 

1^ 1^ maliXt^ slloj ale«v«)* 






«• D«Tal«pilMita ftt Koch«l, 



D»r»XopMnt »tart« Ia the fall of 19:19. 

The flTB "StahlMfk* Hoeiaing" in ?oIklltif#ii at tho Smt hmd m 
"L&ngg.eseboB" of |> « 20 D. tbey had tha - Intention to stablXlM this 
proJaetU» bj «•«biA ny flexible fine which «ere held ia the folded 
Position Hgr a «!••▼» «hieh «»« Jettieoaed at the Bastle. (Photegrubs 
exiat) «M all rl^t «p to 1 3 1,5, tout at ki«her M's the fia aheeta ba^a 

to flutter and braak off. 

(The »HanggeachoB« was de^loped for 
penetration of reinforoed conoreta) 



As «nroUgesehoS" (sallber of gun and ebell the saae) the projootila «as oiO^ 
tested as a aodel which seirved as a prototype for the under folibar 
projectile)» 

On the axaot oharaeteristlcs interrogate Dr. Polt» «s Prüf 1. 

Examples Oun oalibar J2 ca. Projectile D^^20 oa 
■uasle v»leoity'^-'500 a/seo. 
Penetratioa 10 a reinforoed concrete» 
and 40 a earth« 





Gas chanbar 
filled with conbustiaa 
gaaaa, kicks off the 
sleoTS S. 



639 



iirt^ ^^ImUI. UXt tht »uisl«. Th9 guldii« ring alt« f«U «ff. Ih« 



%• fttateMBtia iAm m* to rtiplÄC« €&• f Uxlbl« n» by wOid fl«. 

J^ 5^«!^ *^ >*** **» fleidbit flu« ♦fl^ld b« Md« lMi«y täaa 

»» i^U«.1^^#«ia fiivi «£«h* dittwter D. war« M •uffleltat t« •tAblUM 

%tt»^9tf«tf «BT« IntrcMhiMd by Kurav^g«' ih« followli« BkstehMlUv tritt» 
N= Normal Force 



Uo 




PßCWrCTIlX WITH riNS UN5TÄ8Lr 




IN THE GÜN 



TwrfSSPirecL 



i^) 




VcRsCHicsetriTWErRK 



IN rUGHT 



Z» mM%3} th» jriM »er» AttAohad to a «lidloc 0lMv» which »as tliroini 
lM4lar»»is tM ihm ptmaMva^ dlotrlbutloti got a larger l»v*r agalMt CG 
"' — «taWJLlaii^: ÖJ# projactila. 



Ifam »«xt idaa «»• not to use »OTabla fins but to wald then ia plac« (3) 
aaA to «i» propulalott prop T<, 

(n 



uzry^ 






TT— " 



ZCNTRIERPING 



t ^ ^fWlMajtf»», i» neoaaaary baöauaa the fins «uat ba of light coostructioa 
1« aÜjUi^.^Bt to dlaplaaa tha CQ baekaarda« 

1h» jaMI^.«rrii^a»at «»a firad trm D^^ - 7,5 =a an Dproj»<rtlla - -^»3 c». 
A»M «tr»^ tHa fürst taats «hleh dattonstrmtad that th-* r>rlncipla of salld fins ia 
4X!^*i0X^ (K«Dt» X3 IflB *hich is 30^ «ora than tha f»jll caliber ;ro1e«tlla 

«f ilMr ^uBS ««»•)• 

9m oazt davelopanant waa as fo)J»aaf 
fA) iWlWloaaan. PPQA* (19a«pring) 

k Basic raquirananta» CG as f^ for»ard as possiMa* 

/I CP as f ar back as poaslbl». 

ArrangSsMxit 3) had too Booh aaas la T (lAdch aas 
X«i9( of tba tptaX waight) and »h;ich had ta ba 
accalewitad usalassly. It aas tharafora triad to 
push agaiost th* fina diractly although as «a ha^a 
said, it Xaokad at first si^ht, that tha fins voilU 
ba too waak to take up tha throat. Tha a trass asaljsis 
of a just strong enough eons true tioo of tha fins and tha 
Bhall easily showed that with sufficiently aroi« fins 
one oould just aanags to kaap tha CG far enought la front 

Xm pmmp stai^lUty. The statlo safety factor on tha fins was about 20S(. Iha 

s^^Uliy »as )a«9 iust suff iclaat. 

Sx:fmDlft^ ProjaeUls for tha 28 on Eisaobahi^aschttt X5 a Rail»ayg«&« 

Projectile D • 18 or L « 

W a «»ight 250 kg in flignt, iParhead 10% of W »hlqh 1» alway« abo»fc tha 
sane for large project! ien, iPai^ht of auxlliaxy propulsion gadget» 
m 45 Hi (J>i»k, Sleeve ofcoj. ( Iheae new developaents »ere lass for 
p»a»tr»t&Dg power, but mors for Inoreasad range« Tha LanggeachoB la 



{ \ 






•tr^Mod tk» »o«t on iKpact whll® th« prw»ntly (lUoa»»«d aroittUlM mn 
strMScd th« Host on tiring), ^^ 

» 

lf«anMl Froj«otiIfl ti s 28 o«. 
«Mgbt i» f Ugbt r 250 kg. 

9««« « 60 k» for th* caawntlaan?. »i^i» •t»blll»«d projacUU. 
mammim velocity « 1120 V«*e. 

Bug» s 90 iBi f or th« ris ttAbiUswl «hell 

«ml« wXo«il7 • 1150 ^/s*o. 



«M MM pondsr eharg« «as «s«d for both WMljr 180 » 190 kg, 
R^tevaytalw (Digl«kol»Palf«r7 ig&lt»d In vwrlous pUoM). 

A ^-*^ o,a Ä. 

tb» tl»«s»tie*ny calculated rang« me verr «aotly rmok^ im Fr««tl«o« 
fli» ds^viatiofi tmm onlj bet«««a 0,5 ka and 1 k». 

jUl thM« doif«lopmnta were IntMMlad for asoeth gua biurr#la. ]!» aatMl 
shttotlng had to ba dona with rlflad barrala «hloh faait InawaSy added to 
th® dlff loultiaa «ince tha pDropolBloa dlao and ring bed. to be Terr exaeily 
«Qrked is erdor to alloa thaa to rotate freely arewidl the {^eJeetJJU aaA on 
the eorfaee of tha fine. Abotit 10^ of the spin «as »eiFfrtheleea tranaaitted 
t® ^9 iiroJeeUl« vhile 90fi of th« spin gemrated by lihe rlflii« w taken 
by the fropulaion diae« 

eantering ring also used^r 




DISK SOLfDty AXlACWt 
son IRON 



jft^fmlsion diee rotating against the attaobad diaa^ 
C 9 oen taring oylinder attached to projeotile« f m 
Pnlvenmtter which burnt off and liberated ihe die« 
fro» the projeotile« The bornii« off was aohlewd bgr 
a powder charge sandiriehed between F and dise« 



642 



(Um liM «f irail«rfAÜlMiP |)roj«eUI«i U rmrr ßiUf ■^«• 5«ry«Ki9) 



( 5) UNUfcsehflS «it Tr«JJbrini r?Q/k (?«11 «T 194:^)» 

Zft ä«^Iopa9nt 5) eotn^nUoQUl barrqOrS vit)Mktit rU li«t «tM ^ti^ 
In Uk9m U) tlM tfaritft.lM tf >• AinP^tf tti tft» t«S^UrtJSitirta4^ «tit 

U t* «pplrtlM thtnurt la a Mr« flrirurd pMiti»iu ItelP» mI W idk. 
optiatia point or roglon of th« «pplioAtioa of tho thzitst from Ütat^ #i)MM1^t 
of rt,i iii ki i w otrooooo and noot odranto^oito locot^oa of tho C^ 



6r 



o_ |: 

1 






«) 




PRESSURE 




2) 



TENSION 



SOFT IRON COM6 WHICH PROVIO|$ ORiNOtNa 



643 



li»%iM tfeat wltk th« applicaUoa of the thru«^ Im «ebM« 2) tm mtotUmm 
•ta«0« la lomrmd. Both pr«8?tnr« and t*ill»ioii wpi» g*n«iMrftcd« 

Iä «••• 4) tÄ« gain was jr_y «Mrod^iiMdL«. 

Im «M« 5) th« gain is both a»rO<S|Piw«ia mad l«^,toUl «üight bM««iM «Mil« 
9 ^m m B imim to te tak«a oare of; 



S tt^i p »ow»d to aboiA. V3« This ■»()• j^fi^HO^ « ro4iiotlM of tht 
v««#% l»lmr that of tho mafml projoelHt^ilVc« 230 1« to 1X5 kg «hMI 
aroOTdttoi I» th» 

üatorkallbor • llator«a»»o « ootfehoB» 



Thiß v»A flrod trom th» railway g>m K5 with a uttmU waloolty «f UltO %^ooc. 
and aohioiwd a range of 

151 ka (with 250 k« powdar ohargo). 

Ito flaal wolooltj U^ (Zlelj[ la about 800 m/we, 

GonhnatloB pros«\ir« 4QOO ata. Inataad of the uaiially adalsaabla 3000 atao 

01apoi«ioii «as naxiaua 300 a latorally. 

Lao^tudixial dispers ion 



d 



— V- 
300 



5-10 km i ?? 



LoBgitndinal dispersion camot be discussed jrwt beoaiis« it depends on the 
pjoclsion of the rli^i, the powder charge etc. The devolopaeat was not far 
oncrogh adiranoed to got gool statistical data on longitodlaal diapagraioBo 

Um roquirettonta were rod^Mod to 135 ka range for taotioal roftflona^ hoaauoo 
ona vanned to use the pz*oj sc tiles» About ti^ of tbo aos firojootllaa 
arrlwad at the target. Battenr at Ahrwollot* in der Slfsl audaaatUah voa 
Hjiitkm Hurgota in th« scutum part c^ Bolgiua« The tf^aolopasat wtm aot 
adaanoad oaoi^ to draw &vj final oonoXaaioBS, 

rtm fltti wer« often daaagod b^r the oxploaloB« Tllcht beoaaa «cratla* 



644 




^SOFT IRON 




Bv»a this 4®^>«lopMnt «as not 
fir«di iwr« good. 



Ther«foiii & »tar ahap«d 
propulf ion disc va« ua«d^ 
vhil« t^ fin spas ws IX D* 



In tin ehftBb«r C «t tl» 
b#flnniBC is under pr»»^^ar# 
which keep« th« 8t«rliktt iimm 
bf faction «b th* pr»j««til«« 
Th* disc i« thus aocslsc«t#d 
with the projtctlls. 
Gas leaks slcwXj iato C, 
which after exit fron the «uxale 
kicks the diac off. 



-—RIB FOR STRtNQTHENIKO THE PROPULSION OlSK. 

yot full proof »ioc« oi44y BOffi of the shots 



WnrsohlelB des Rohres « W9sr and tear of the barrel. 

Ki2 siallar to the Paria gun cf the last world enr. 

^ISt ^ ^ railway gun of 21 cm caliber and a range of 120 - 124 ioi and 2 a 
110 JUfi» (Paris gun «aa stationary ^n) . Powder charge ^%^ 3^0 k^» Vonber 
of Tonaim • ICX) before the gun became useless (Spin e tab! Used projectile). 
Barrel eif the K12 "*« 3i a long, 1500 at». - Total weight ef gn» 300 tons.- 
Veight ef J[5<-««^ 200 tons and 20 neters longs äharge 250 kg; «eight ef 
prDJeetn« UO kg - enooth tube • range of 130 to 135 k« end possible auber 
of shots about 500* These data represent oautioos estimates. » Gesaner 
thinki that 150 km and 1000 shou should be pesvlble after streanlinii^ the 
g«n6 

Ths f ellewing calibers «ere intended for the K5 

1) fWgelSOka, Wp^^^^^^ .110kg 

2) svige 100 k» 1 8 200 - 210 kg 

3) nu«e 60 k» W « 350 - 400 kg 

T9t tk» "Langer OustaT* the following projectile« «ere intended« 



645 



M\ Hfii^ 150 ka V s XOOO % 
^lafBoc« ^k* W • 2000 It« 



"nriAlwvrat« that it anU^airömft gtm of 10,5 m ecUbtr «lib 
A j«*JMtll* of 7,5 k4 flight woight. fuss!« T«locity of 1070 ■/••«. «m 
o^toiaod «itb « efaMiriMr proosuro of p. m 2700 - 2600 «ta« ani povdor oharso 
«f 4 to 4,5 kg. 



R^£^Mu>£B;it^S44^ dor gl&tt®;^ Roh?o «or "oroelirockond" kleis « tho ««or and 
t^ai? ©f th« harrol waa friRht«ningly saaai). Act^llj tho borrol oeoflod to 
ahrxnk »iighUy. Ordinary anti-aircraft gun i« good for 4000 rovnl«« ?«• 
ä&« r^f^ rounda tho sacx)th tuba vould havo boon good for oi» dooo qot koo«« 
Diaparsic/n was about lV<^ latarallT* a?3d longittsdloolly« Rolotivo ooliberoi 
caliber of gun 10,5 ca, calibor of projactil© « 4,5 «■ *»4 % /%• #0 OB« 

troiffMksroeboi&Iiohkoit « Probobilitsr of hitting tho targot Ixeroo«^ with 
tto iavos«« thü^ power of tho tiao of flight. 

Ceimwtla^g^ow Xiihlo&kan^ is the export is this Uao). 

fi9|it^dOt ftf 4^ ^. 500 0r«M «Mi^liOod «nd i^>aet fuzo. 
iMqpil^S «]l»^(tltt'«d«tld hov« hod tho porforsanco of tho 12,8 em. Flak gm* 
MMl^SfAJ^ *t«]d2iMd proJoetiJto oopUd bairo bean W « 26 k»f 0. /x^/ lOOO 
i|fM(»^ füidbr oMtm 14 H* fim ot flight to 10 OOO a. ^Troblom «oo to 
mW* tho iwnal 1,6 os proJ^^tUo bjr o iiiidorcaliber projeotilo firo4 fro* 
,»' Vli > ff' <n C^«^ w «a^ ^tor U5 oa gun of oqoal a U^ V2 of tho proJoetUo 

«Sgi-af nii^t to iüea of tho 8^ w iMraal jro^lootUo «ao 32 ooa. «htf of tho 
wBilM.niiiiUnii» $,$ ^ projootllo tfbot froa tha 12,$ oa goa it «oa 8 aoo» (^ovdor 
fMi» ^Mot fool* Uaoo ao groat ia tha ooeosd oaao). (lotiaata aftha ratio 
Hf jwiclii «t ttio toa gatfo porhapa 1,5 to I)^ : (li^o is t»xt ▼•xt «Mo^taih to 
tfe(i wrat looftofil)« 

Jg9ttMämrit^it PM thoraf ore 44 iiaoo hottar. 

flhajNMia atHspatMrMtioi of tho projootod g\m voro 

fiMraq^ to that of tho U,$ ca gm 
•aa ^mrri^ aqtiaX to ^lat of tho 10,5 oa goa 
loight oqn»l t2&at of tho ooraal 6,8 ea projootilo. 
4} Uttsala Yoloeitgr -^w 1500 ^/soo^ as coaparod vith th» nustlo valoeltjr 
of 850 n/^0c, tcr tho noraol opia staHliso«! 6,6 oa proiaotlla« 



646 



Pn^iAmXla^, tM iMtrorMMnt i& iia«b«r of hits «otild protebl^ ba«« h^m. 

fkm viAä^-^Aa^erntt sh^lX had nc piros»ttX«loR diso Int tnilj propoliloa riB«/. 
Ite 4*i«1«Maiat «u f ^ jio«»s» t« f# t& tli» f^rool ai^ 1^ ms tüak it 

fO« i^«#tll» for «l««trlo oaaaoiu 




•ithar Mit«»«» «r «wy» MMv^taPt 
#te. About 800 V«««« Boftu« Ttloeitjr 



A proJoouXs mo6mX «a« doAlgaod 
tot th* eltotrio gum« 

(7) r«Mda«K (^»dl*«) ttf fU /itabillsod «bolls. 

Tb» Id«« l8 to fir« «IsultaiMOtfoly a«ngr saall projoetil«» Äron a gun. 
Tbo MBA« «hi^ on« ha0 with a larg« pr«j«otll« «as to b« «ubdlTldod ilato ns^f 
port« •• «• to prodttoe a «hot gins eff«et. All arrow atabllisod Fr«tJ««tll«« 
v«ni «laultAoacmaly •J«ct«d throitgh the intaz*iMdiar7 of a propaMpm 41«« 
(«0« photograph) . • 

rurthar drf«lopa«Qta of fin atablli»«d proJacUl««, 

PaBioroboohraorfor ■ antltonk gilna and odeollo«, 
Tvr lAStoiioo RAW 1000 (Shoil • mifOta^D^tA 10,5/7,5) 

( Tbo r«al oidTontag« of fin atobllaiod und«rea]B>or shoHs is that cne caa thro« 
doublo ««I4M «qtaallT- far as th» nomal ptrojeotil«, oqoal «oight furtbor than 
tbo Boraal i^ojacUl« and saallar (1/2) th« ««Ight throo tiaea as far}* 

PAW 1000 la an anti-tank aisslla with hollo« oharg«. High Busala valeeity and 
targat rang« of 1000 a to 2000 a. It is an und«rcallb«r shall of 7« 5 «a to 
bo fiyod fro« a 10,5 ca tdb«. *«ro to b« usod fro« tank to tank or oannon to 
tank« la tho ordinary |pin tha prossuros of 3000 ata. «ould hair« b««B too high, 
tbo ]*roj«otlla could not have tak«n up th« str«8S«s. Ibar^for« a light aet&l 
tab« «as aaod w^.th a powder oherg«, which is nor« r«strictod bttralag and h«a 
no very high peak of thrui;^t (a«e akotch). To obtain constant throst aa a 



647 



£l?^Ji!L?S'4^ • "^^^^ propeiXant cartrld«« Ma Uitrodue*d Int« th« 
SSuNÄSStia«^ wilnarx powd«r oharg« of no9-r*atrl<st#d bonUi« 



9OU0 JCT MOTOft CKARSC 





QMfHARY CHAASC- 



TIM£ 



tlM «nriridg« hiid a Ural aossle (••s ak»t«|i)« 

{tum teXlo« ebcrgtt dev»lop««nt waa la th« hands of j»y«fu aeJMtfdixu t^rmrir 
la ilaalMBburg aAd Gatow) , 



PROJECT ANTITANK GUN 
















WARHEAD (HOLLOW CHARGE 




HttUll« Viltoltjr Uq i 1000 Vb«o« was intended« 

Tbm «teiKitor pr««au!r« ie 2000 ata. 

Tl|^ fttkÜMä «t tha «iiKl tuansl wa« to d«9ign th« talland of tha prajaotlla» 

Tv» •cht—a vera IntAndad cm« with proptilsion dice and on« vith tha pcroptilalon 

Ala««« «Uly. 



(,^^ 



PiJI mr^ärmmio data. 

!Mffl4Wlti«»l 1) Frt)nt piirt of th» shell was prMarlbffd and ootd4 not bt 
altarvd. 

2) KaUo of D /.»pr^j^^i^ . 1,40 
tö0 «los« Xo unitj to be confortabl«. 
la ordtr tc g«t goo4 arrov stability 
th« ratio ahould b« at leaat l,s;« 

3) OG aaa Trwrj far back baoaixs« of the 
inoorporatLoti of the hollow oharge, 

4) I^z^Ui of projectile «a« limited 
beeatLBe it w&a mowoct^d with a oartrldi^e 
arvj bn^ to he fired fro« a tank turret. 




rREtSSTAfclLITAT 



This eartrldg« tjpe arraagevent was snore dUfflouXt than V» prerloualj 
sketched jet aotor propuleioo arrangenant beoauae of the higher "^recsiiraa 
and streasee which the arrow projectile had tp take tip« 

mth the diff loulUes men tinned abowe It waa alaoat iopoisible te salr« 
tke probXam* 

8 dlffereaee aodela of turn projectile 10,5 W Hl-Gr, 
wav« iiivt»«tigated In the wii^ tuBRel. 

Hot* X for inatanoe had 8 axis parallel fins. 
jSm^ ttm iMrt «nough ia bring the CF far enough bAck. 
Kith 1^36 aaeaaaary Ta^uireaeata of eonatruction it 
wan oat MsaibXw to puah th» OG forward farther than 



40* 



ABSOLUTE SlABtiJTY SMOUlOftt O 



AaWtkaor «odel w*a an f<ftll«wa (iioat sueoesaful model;. 




< V 




•gaganUlxifig apgea teilte rioaaen«' 



649 



Wi^ ■ • a«#6 «a» ««ta O 



>, «nd M . 2^92 



•Ä • 3» 



9uM«i«i is «^ KP« <ii« RitiiftUy iiMUtMO rins bf tUr tka» M<«lia flitft 
(It •^•m ^faftt.tlw gTMitar stftbiatr hM it* orcein IaIw «rUtor 
rMl«««iM of tfe* IsiaUaW flu» . «j^ »ot in th* hlgli«ir -v»W »f «I©k/««C 

la na4411;i<mi t* ilk« iisf««tii^«loii^f «tablUty» th« r««i«tÄBe« «m atoWrmliMtf« 
llM MtMUr llteUÄtd f In» ai coapar^d »ith the paraOl»! flm «av« aa InoMJia« 
of M^itttAxie« M shoWB is th« UM«. 



TBbI« for 



r«lAtlT« t« ^iMmtt 



/"/us 




^^\w * 






FiiJ»^\^^ 


i.a6 


2,^ 


8 flaB 


0^39 


0^30 


a fin« 


OfU 


0.34 


Tail di«o 






-f- IJ fin« 


-0.^ 


B»U 



TAILOISK (diameter *D" IS OP BQOY) 



Th« tail diso gav« coaplote stability, tb« rfi«i»t«]io« b «« i y «i f «i^ 

lB«f9«»«d. 

^busaI« ^'^P?^ ^^°* -^^^^ Vfl«o. to 860 ■/»•«• öhlöh ««« aoffiaiMift is 
T9Mk t«rs«i« froB 1000 to 200O m, 

Iilf£fri9gS«lMib» »A« tri«d by Walohs«r In Getting««» 



ft) C«irr»iitloaAi proj#etll««. 



«Lni 



4 v<»x7 gTMt tMnb«r of nod« I« «dr« iar««U0«t«d 1» tb« 



6S0 




Example: 28 cm caliber «Sprang^Tranat«" for tbö K5o This was the flr«t 
exaiBple for whlcii the iafluence of the spin on th« aorodyimmic charactariati« 
values was detormixiöd. 

Spiral groov«3 on the projectiles were used which exactly fitted tii« 
rifling. Also the apiral grooves were used to bring the model in tha 
wind tunnel to rotation. 

With the ribe about 10,000 rpa 
ware obtained. With 
•»Schnelläufer" Motor developed 
at Gottingen 6000, 12000 and 
16000 rpo were obtaioad« In this case the shells were soooth. 

The theoretically necessary angular velocity for stabiliaation was 
not actually reaeheä for the aodels in the wind tunnel. 

So systei&atle series of Beasureaents were loade^ but a noticeable Incraaa« 
of Cp waa obserrable at 

Vrlptory / " f or.«d = °'<»- 

The path of the porojectile which was calculated on the basis of tbii 
experimental data gave ranges which coincided with the theorertioal pradictiona« 

Other wind t«imels predicted results for ranges which were 15jt to 20^ 
lasa than those obtained from actual firing. It was found that the 
difference in Gn oA^a from the difference of the viaeous drag (Eeibunga* 
widerstand) on aiffarent sized models. 

B) Spiq a^biligad underc&liber projectilea> 

Examples J Projectiles for the 8,8 cm gun with caliber of 7,2 and 7,0 cm fo* 
the projectiles. 

(Boehumar Verein, Eheinmetall Boraig and Firma Stock were involved). 

r CP s Cd na« daterrained and with presoribed U . ^ / Ü - i ^^ 

periphery ' - awaala 

was possible to gi'V» tha mantifaoturera the neoess&iT' informatioii of how to aiuiaf* 

tha location of the €Q which would guarantee stability. 



Additiona.1 remarli^ 

Influence af tha flat nose of the fuse on the C... of 5 cm anti-airoraf t 
sb^U 1/4,7. " 

Analysed were the shell with the normal flat fuse (for data see table). 



651 



Point 



Gt-. 



•.& 






Flat top of fuze in 
calibers 



X 


0,223 


2 


0,219 


3 


0,224 


4 


0,260 


inal noii^e 


0,270 





0,O8>4 

0,18 

0,28 

0,39 



652 




Air 



ToRaue 




B®^ stÄia^rat f s 45** sad iwistabl© «t 



iSdbj^3a»^'>^ forced ®(?tl©a ®f a spinning top which i& 

.aiäjj''®öt^,.'^ «.tos^B» as show» iÄ to diagras. 1|j« diagraa hs^i Rot at 
^&&t tia® ^^3. $xp»rlm9ntäll7 d®t$s^ii39»d| bat scasa r>»aaombXd assoauptiom wert 
ps^* t Sä® ^o^ d«8erib«4 d^castljr a^ «siooa** i^tatlon in t&m sdzis« that a 
givfea a«#ldiftn pt th« body ml^mT« fac©« th» aad« of rotat3.oa)o 

fi?m fbßB^ irnmätlgsitloms it beoaa« appai^ent ho« laportaat th» t>pi» 1^«; 

iti9 taabUög action coBes from three af facta«, 

iadal spi» is naeaf eary in order tp «M^iut^in tlia'ii^^ lika aoUoa whiah 

gtianustaMi tha aaaa all;» for tl^t aaimtthaX w»llMtt ^f f oroa, (Äsi« «sneut 

of faroiil «Oji^i^ata» i» a iataral Mftiog f«wN«)# ift* öojar aeawrfc >f foroa orlf- 

ifiata« la -^ rptatioDiia atfljFvat^iriaa atid i^ tt^ affaat of 1^ latar»! wiaft» 

(»10 plt0j»lz2is aoaant i« in «qMJUliäriuBi »itb tha ^ma^Uu^fiX aoipAto 



653 



3» A^4l>^o|wa }^W^ 

At 6n« tint it WA9 tihiough Hb&t In order to «void the iafluane© 
of the »liji str#wi on -W» flm, the rnddara shoidd b^ put in front. 

At rorst tkB RhöiJttoohter had 6 fins atid aix wing«, later I 
f las and 4 wings. Hinge »oaients were meae-ared and it w-ae fouRd that 
for iloa» igees of the rudders unstable aomenta were obtained while for 
other «xos stable aoments resulted. It is not clear whether or not 
the idea of putting the rud-i^jrs in front ie of any value. However, 
one ia«y »täte t|iat witli the ruddera in front the CP would move too 
fejp fonsard if ons did not mj« larger ^Ings t© corapensata for this 
fonraBä di8plÄfi®aent. The Bhelntoohter consequently has mach lai'ger 
.wings tiaan the Haiserfall (perhaps two to three tiiaes). 

If© «x|?erl«Äntal work done at Kochel or any other place« 

STas intended t© be a 100 ton thrust mother rocket and an A/ or Ao 25 
ton täirtot Äa^ghter rooket, Wa« planned for perhaps 3000 km ?? range* 
»oae anal^is was aiade but not Berioualy, 



^« yiiftia^ tumbling of projectiles. 




Ifui^n the tumbling oconr» . 
SinJb il ^1 to 10 fig. fherefore 
the mideroaliber projectiles were 
giT»s inclined fins to produce the 
necessary large u) > jQ right away* 



Ifer. Sabnalldr (who got killed in an airplane accident) ealctilated the 
tBa&bling «ffeet theoretically which was checked in wind tunnel testa 
on a neddX amspended on a universal joint and which could be made to 
spin at difftrant angular speeds 



654 



When the projectile pass^a axe successive «xplQSions wpr« initiated. 
Actually 1300 ib/ö«c, was raacbed, 2000 Vsäo« wa« Inteooed, BiaMöter 
of the tub« was 15 c» and the pirojeotilag weighed about 60 kg. B«sl 
oscillations of the g«8 colusm oceurr«d and the whole project was a flop 
because gas dTnamically the various phase« were not thought tiirotigh« 
Also it was »o little aanoeverable that the K5 wa» vastly superle«» (which 
made easily 150 kn with 80 kg projectiles}« 



655 



D« Hoöhdimekpfiaip* (HDP), Hlmmals loiter). 



Oo»»d«rc bei Roohling (Völklingen «m der Saar) wa» the invantor 
and th« iÄ*€»aoter of the scheme of staggered explosions and they 
eon^rinoed Eijtler. 



WCPUttjyi PQY 




-CHAISES 



%lb igrMl in tb^ neighbonz^od of SwiAtwjmjillb« midroy oa i^A« islaail 
WoUin i» th« Baltie. 
Tta^ was 120 a loag* 




656 



Al>atrA4t> iC »»port m&M» 3» <üt lnwyfc^t aja»X»tftd aiaiA^^ 

This IS a report of measm^^menta on »odels ef the 38 ca rocket 
assisted «hell which was b«iiig developed by Krupps. Henuann s&yp 
that thÄ 2ß cm »bell was us«d during th# last yaar of th« war t© 
boabard England» The 3Ö cm was nev^r Uflnd and tt»y have not a very- 
high opihlon of it at Kochel beeausa tba dlvparaion was high« It was 
intended to ignite the rocket propeULaijt 15 sac. after launch from the 
gun« 

These pr«5*8<*tii.»B are the onm which were found at Krupp 's range 
at Meppen apaä w^Bt sent to Kngland. Only the propellant of the 38 cm 
wae found but complete examples of the 23 ca w^rra sent to Eng land and 
sl^uld be »mailable at P*i).S. 

Bis following details are glTen In the report: 

flodel taawd was on the scale 1 t 6.-44 (see H.A.P. Archiv 66/93 for 
•xperlfteatal i«thod). The two types of 38 j?n shell are as in the table^ö 

tyPt I'gQgth 9^ive Eadlus i;^?^ yip rro.iectlie Base. 

(oalibros) (calibres) 
For» A» 4.5-^ 3 pointed with plata 

For« B. 4.36 10 blunt without plate 

Th» center of pressure lies l&i-ly far forward with both types 
and aigratae towards the base as the Mack aunber increases^ with Tor» A 
this aigraticn i« mora pronounced than with For» B« 

The results of the tests on the models indicated that there ie no 
essential difference between the two Foriss froa the aerodynaalc point of 
view» 'i reference is given to a report by Xrupp, A.K, No. 12518 geh. of 
F. Krvjjpp DiT A.K. 2,4#4.3. 

'JEhe »«laddrahlwinkel" proposed by Krupp i»s 5^59' and at this angle only 
Fora B was stable. (Eacperlenoe has shown titat for stability in flight 
coefficient aaast be not less than 1.3. As the aerodynamic data are so 
siailar for the t^«)for»a the reason for the difference between their 
stability coefficients must be principally in the different equalwxial 
aoaent» of inertia, the aoiaent for For» A being twice as larga as for 
For» B. 



657 



this lis & th«or©tioAl caleulatioa ®f th© cooling syöte« üttoetaary 
to re<^e© the tdi^«r&t«r« 0f the gsk&i^ in a jet fro» 2.000^0 to AOO^Co 
Tlie sp«oial appllcAUon was. in ©©maaction with statio t©öta of M and 
Was serf ail ♦ 

ItiQ data f<3r ^assÄrf&ll ate as followfla 

Ooubiis tlo.n chanibsrs pressure 15 at»oaph«f#& 

8 » tQinpsratur« 3000 % 

mi9(iii^ ot jet at exit of V^nt^i 1900 V»*«» 

^f jet " « « 230ÖÖ K 




;|i^&Ä^ Ät e^t of 'V^utyri 



atmoapheree 



(IK ealo i Utjpe) 



^1 g^vjet is ?ipproxieat©ly as follow« (by völta*©^ 

S^iMlif i« Jie«i (• Op ) 0^ Ic43l/ic« 

1^89 4i»e£^ge rcte $00 Jü^ /«•ö* 

Rate' of fii^l, ienstsaptieÄ 4^ Xg HHO-s/««« 

la K« >Tii»iy««« 

litli th» fipeelAl Äi^öillJig »yetf« fiseä at Peeneawnde it w«» oalaulAted ^#t 
Oo^ »^/«»o of w«tff'iro«itä be neeaed to oool the geees frea 2o000oi: to J^of 
th* liWiBS «ff iöl«ncy >>lng aqj